Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

COVID-19 (56)

Nausea (56)

Vomiting (40)

Diarrhea (34)

Fever (30)

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinE (1)


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 56
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    Female-male differences in COVID vaccine adverse events have precedence in seasonal flu shots: a potential link to sex-associated baseline gene expression patterns

    Authors: AJ Venkatakrishnan; Praveen Kumar-M; Eli Silvert; Enrique Garcia-Rivera; Mariola Szenk; Rohit Suratekar; Patrick Lenehan; Emily Lindemer; John C OHoro; Amy W Williams; Andrew D Badley; Abinash Virk; Melanie D Swift; Gregory J Gores; Venky Soundararajan

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.01.21254798 Date: 2021-04-07 Source: medRxiv

    Nearly 150 million doses of FDA-authorized COVID vaccines have been administered in the United States. Sex-based differences of adverse events remain poorly understood, mandating the need for real-world investigation from Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and broader epidemiological data sets. Based on an augmented curation of EHR clinical notes of 31,064 COVID-vaccinated individuals (19,321 females and 11,743 males) in the Mayo Clinic, we find that nausea MESHD and vomiting MESHD were documented significantly more frequently in females than males after both vaccine doses ( nausea MESHD: RRDose 1 = 1.67, pDose 1 <0.001, RRDose 2 = 2.2, pDose 1 < 0.001; vomiting MESHD: RRDose 1 = 1.58, pDose 1 < 0.001, RRDose 2 = 1.88, pDose 1 = 3.4x10-2). Conversely, fever MESHD, fatigue MESHD, and lymphadenopathy MESHD were more common in males after the first dose vaccination (fever RR = 0.62; p = 8.65x10-3; fatigue RR = 0.86, p = 2.89x10-2; lymphadenopathy MESHD RR = 0.61, p = 3.45x10-3). Analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database further confirms that nausea MESHD comprises a larger fraction of total reports among females than males (RR: 1.58; p<0.001), while fever MESHD comprises a larger fraction of total reports among males than females (RR: 0.84; p<0.001). Importantly, increased reporting of nausea MESHD and fever MESHD among females and males, respectively, is also observed for prior influenza vaccines in the VAERS database, establishing that these differences are not unique to the recently developed COVID-19 MESHD vaccines. Investigating the mechanistic basis underlying these clinical findings, an analysis of bulk RNA-sequencing data from 12,158 human blood samples (8626 female, 3532 male) reveals 85 genes that are not only significantly different in their gene expression between females and males at baseline, but also have established literature-based associations to COVID-19 MESHD as well as the vaccine-related adverse events of clinical consequence. The NLRP3 HGNC inflammasome and the NR3C1 glucocorticoid receptor emerge as particularly promising baseline links to sex-associated vaccine adverse events, warranting targeted investigation of these signaling pathways and associated cell types. From a public health standpoint, our clinical findings shall aid in educating patients on the sex-associated risks they should expect for COVID-19 MESHD vaccines and also promote better clinical management of vaccine-associated adverse events.

    Symptoms of COVID-19 MESHD in a population-based cohort study

    Authors: Sana M Khan; Leslie V Farland; Erika Austhof; Melanie L Bell; Collin J Catalfamo; Zhao Chen; Felina Cordova-Marks; Kacey C Ernst; Pamela Garcia-Filion; Kelly M Heslin; Joshua Hoskinson; Megan L Jehn; Emily C.S. Joseph; Connor P Kelley; Yann Klimentidis; Stephanie Carrol; Lindsay N Kohler; Kristen Pogreba-Brown; Elizabeth T Jacobs

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.20.21254040 Date: 2021-03-22 Source: medRxiv

    Accurate diagnosis of potential SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD by symptoms is one strategy for continuing global surveillance, particularly in low-resource communities. We conducted a prospective, population-based cohort study, the Arizona CoVHORT, among Arizona residents to elucidate the symptom profile of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD participants(16.2%) compared to laboratory-confirmed negative(22.4%) and untested general population participants(61.4%). Among the 1514 study participants, those who were COVID-19 MESHD positive were more likely to be Hispanic(33.5%) and more likely to report obesity MESHD > 30 kg/m2(34.7%) compared to COVID-19 MESHD negative participants(19.2%; 31.0%) and untested CoVHORT participants(13.8%; 23.8%). Of the 245 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD cases, 15.0% reported having had no symptoms. Of those that did report symptoms, the most commonly-reported first symptoms were sore throat(19.0%), headache MESHD(15.5%), cough MESHD(12.7%), runny nose/cold-like symptoms(12.1%), and fatigue MESHD(12.0%). In adjusted logistic regression models, COVID-19 MESHD positive participants were more likely than negative participants to experience loss of taste and smell(OR:35.7; 95% CI 18.4-69.5); bone or nerve pain MESHD(OR:17.9; 95% CI 6.7-47.4), vomiting MESHD(OR:10.8; 95% CI 3.1-37.5), nausea MESHD(OR:10.5; 95% CI 5.5-19.9), and headache MESHD(OR:8.4; 95% CI 5.6-12.8). When comparing confirmed COVID-19 MESHD cases with confirmed negative or untested participants, the pattern of symptoms that discriminates SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD from those arising from other potential circulating pathogens may differ from general reports of symptoms among cases alone.

    COVID Symptoms, Symptom Clusters, and Predictors for Becoming a Long-Hauler:Looking for Clarity in the Haze of the Pandemic

    Authors: Yong Huang; Melissa D Pinto; Jessica L Borelli; Milad Asgari Mehrabadi; Heather Abrihim; Nikil Dutt; Natalie Lambert; Erika L Nurmi; Rana Chakraborty; Amir M Rahmani; Charles Downs

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.03.21252086 Date: 2021-03-05 Source: medRxiv

    Emerging data suggest that the effects of infection with SARS-CoV-2 are far reaching extending beyond those with severe acute disease MESHD. Specifically, the presence of persistent symptoms after apparent resolution from COVID-19 MESHD have frequently been reported throughout the pandemic by individuals labeled as long-haulers. The purpose of this study was to assess for symptoms at days 0-10 and 61+ among subjects with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. The UCCORDS dataset was used to identify 1407 records that met inclusion criteria. Symptoms attributable to COVID-19 MESHD were extracted from the electronic health record, Symptoms reported over the previous year prior to COVID-19 MESHD were excluded, using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) followed by graph lasso to assess relationships between symptoms. A model was developed predictive for becoming a long-hauler based on symptoms. 27% reported persistent symptoms after 60 days. Women were more likely to become long- haulers, and all age groups were represented with those aged 50 +/- 20 years comprising 72% of cases. Presenting symptoms included palpitations, chronic rhinitis MESHD, dysgeusia MESHD, chills, insomnia MESHD, hyperhidrosis MESHD, anxiety MESHD, sore throat, and headache MESHD among others. We identified 5 symptom clusters at day 61+: chest pain-cough MESHD, dyspnea-cough MESHD, anxiety-tachycardia MESHD, abdominal pain-nausea MESHD, and low back pain-joint pain MESHD. Long-haulers represent a very significant public health concern, and there are no guidelines to address their diagnosis and management. Additional studies are urgently needed that focus on the physical, mental, and emotional impact of long-term COVID-19 MESHD survivors who become long-haulers.

    Acute Pancreatitis MESHD as Clinical Presentation of COVID-19 MESHD in a Patient With HIV Infection MESHD – a Case Report.

    Authors: Justyna D. Kowalska; Carlo Bieńkowski; Beata Wojtycha-Kwaśnica; Paweł Uliczny; Andrzej Horban

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-03-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:Acute pancreatitis MESHD may be caused by many factors such as: viral infections, drugs, alcohol, autoimmune response. SARS-CoV-2 virus requires an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) transmembrane protein in order to enter the cell. As ACE2 HGNC receptors are over 100 times more common in gastrointestinal ( GI MESHD) tract than in respiratory tract and many SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients present GI symptoms MESHD. Case presentation:A 26-year-old, HIV-positive man on effective combined  antiretroviral therapy  with normal CD4+ lymphocyte count level was consulted at the Emergency Department (ER) with mild COVID-19 MESHD symptoms, and referred for home isolation. Two weeks later and three weeks from first symptoms, he returned to ER with a three-day history of nausea MESHD and pain MESHD in the upper abdomen. He had no symptoms of respiratory tract infection MESHD, normal peripheral blood oxygenation and chest X-ray. He was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with acute pancreatitis MESHD basing on the Revised Atlanta Classification. After discharge the patient continued to have food intolerance and abdominal discomfort for several weeks, but COVID-19 MESHD did not affect his HIV course. Three months post COVID-19 MESHD his anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies were negative, and low level of 2 AU/mL of anti-S-RBD IgG antibodies was detected.Conclusions: SASR-CoV-2 infection MESHD is the most likely cause of pancreatitis MESHD in the presented patient. Several other case reports were published however none in HIV-positive patient. Therefore in COVID-19 MESHD patients serum amylase and lipase levels should be included into routine laboratory tests’ panel. Abdominal ultrasound and CECT should be considered as diagnostic tool in patients with abnormal laboratory findings or clinical manifestation suggesting GI MESHD tract involvement. 

    Real-time analysis of a mass vaccination effort via an Artificial Intelligence platform confirms the safety of FDA-authorized COVID-19 MESHD vaccines

    Authors: Reid McMurry; Patrick J Lenehan; Samir Awasthi; Eli Silvert; Arjun Puranik; Colin Pawlowski; AJ Venkatakrishnan; Praveen Anand; Vineet Agarwal; John C OHoro; Gregory J Gores; Amy W Williams; Andrew D Badley; John Halamka; Abinash Virk; Melanie D Swift; Katie Carlson; Deeksha Doddahonnaiah; Anna Metzger; Nikhil Kayal; Gabi Berner; Eshwan Ramudu; Corinne Carpenter; Tyler Wagner; Ajit Rajasekharan; Venky Soundararajan

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.20.21252134 Date: 2021-02-23 Source: medRxiv

    As the COVID-19 MESHD vaccination campaign unfolds as one of the most rapid and widespread in history, it is important to continuously assess the real-world safety of the FDA-authorized vaccines. Curation from large-scale electronic health records (EHRs) allows for near real-time safety evaluations that were not previously possible. Here, we advance context- and sentiment-aware deep neural networks over the multi-state Mayo Clinic enterprise (Minnesota, Arizona, Florida, Wisconsin) for automatically curating the adverse effects mentioned by healthcare providers in over 108,000 EHR clinical notes between December 1st 2020 and February 8th 2021. We retrospectively compared the clinical notes of 31,029 individuals who received at least one dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna mRNA vaccine to those of 30,933 unvaccinated individuals who were propensity matched by demographics, residential location, and history of prior SARS-CoV-2 testing. We find that vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals were seen in the clinic at similar rates within 21 days of the first or second actual or assigned vaccination date (first dose Odds Ratio = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.10-1.18; second dose Odds Ratio = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.86-0.96). Further, the incidence rates of all surveyed adverse effects were similar or lower in vaccinated individuals compared to unvaccinated individuals after either vaccine dose, although myalgia MESHD was modestly increased within 7 days of the second dose when considering only pairs of matched individuals who each had at least one clinical note in this time window (Incidence Rate Ratio = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-6.7). Finally, the most frequently documented adverse effects within 7 days of each vaccine dose were fatigue (Dose 1: 1.75%, Dose 2: 1.18%), nausea MESHD (Dose 1: 1.03%, Dose 2: 0.84%), myalgia MESHD (Dose 1: 0.41%; Dose 2: 0.43%), diarrhea MESHD (Dose 1: 0.65%; Dose 2: 0.45%), arthralgia MESHD (Dose 1: 0.64%; Dose 2: 0.57%), erythema MESHD (Dose 1: 0.56%; Dose 2: 0.44%), vomiting MESHD (Dose 1: 0.44%, Dose 2: 0.29%) and fever MESHD (Dose 1: 0.21%; Dose 2: 0.18%). These frequencies of adverse event documentation in EHR notes are 2.1 times (95% CI: [1.5, 3.0]) to 1500 times (95% CI: [670, 2800]) lower than the frequencies of adverse events recorded via active solicitation during clinical trials or post-marketing surveillance, with headache MESHD after second vaccination showing the highest ratio of trial reporting to EHR documentation. This rapid and timely analysis of EHR notes from 31,029 vaccinated individuals highlights the rarity of vaccine-associated adverse effects requiring clinical attention and reaffirms the tolerability of the FDA-authorized COVID-19 MESHD vaccines in practice.

    Verifying Extra-Pulmonary Manifestation of COVID-19 MESHD in Firoozgar Hospital 2020: An Observational Study

    Authors: Azadeh Mottaghi; Maryam Roham; Mahin Jamshidi Makiani; Mitra Ranjbar; Azadeh Laali; Neda Rahimian

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-01-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 MESHD is a new emerging disease MESHD that causes a pandemic situation in the world. Corona virus can enter into the body via several ways and it damages other organs of the body in addition to the respiratory system. This study aimed at verifying extra-pulmonary manifestation of COVID-19 MESHD.Methods: The present study was done as cross-sectional in the single center from March 1 HGNC to May 1 HGNC 2020 at Firoozgar educational hospital in Tehran, Iran. 107 patients with confirmed Covid-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD according to WHO interim guidance were recruited in this study. Extra-pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 MESHD were recorded. SPSS, version 26 was used for all analyses.Results: The mean (SD) and median of age was 59.3 (17.4) and 62.0 respectively and 58 (54.2%) were men. Body temperature of patients who were equal or less than 60 years was significantly higher than other patients (39.02 vs. 38.08, p=0001). The most common extra-pulmonary manifestation was GI symptoms MESHD included nausea MESHD, vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD, diarrhea MESHD, Hepatocellular LFT abnormality MESHD, Cholestatic LFT abnormality MESHD and Amylase lipase incensement (37 patients (34.6%)). Ophthalmological, cardiac, neurological and dermatological manifestations were shown in 6.5%, 6.5%, 14.9% and 14.0% of patients respectively. Conclusion: Investigating the clinical and radiological symptoms of COVID-19 MESHD showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD may also be associated with extrapulmonary symptoms. Therefore, clinicians and radiologists should be familiar with such symptoms of this disease. 

    A Comprehensive Analysis of COVID-19 MESHD Impact in Latin America

    Authors: Hassan Ashktorab; Antonio Pizuomo; Nora Alma Fierro González; Edgar Daniel Copado Villagrana; María Evangelina Herrera-Solís; Graciela Cardenas; Daniela Zavala-Alvarez; Gholamreza Oskrochi; Eyitope Awoyemi; Folake Adeleye; Maryam Mehdipour Dalivand; Adeyinka O Laiyemo; Edward E. Lee; Farshad Aduli; Zaki A Sherif; Hassan Brim

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-01-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Latin America has now become the epicenter of the global coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic. In the ongoing COVID -19 pandemic, a profound burden of SARS-COV-2 infection MESHD has been reported in Latin America. In the present study, we aim to determine the profiles that are associated with this disease in Latin America. We analyzed symptoms, morbidities and gastrointestinal ( GI MESHD) manifestations by country.Methods: We analyzed data from SARS-CoV-2 positive patients evaluated at healthcare centers and hospitals of 8 Latin American countries including Brazil, Peru, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Bolivia between March 1 HGNC and July 30, 2020.  These countries consist of a total population that exceeds 519 million. Demographics, comorbidities and clinical symptoms were collected. Statistical descriptive analysis and correlation analyses of symptoms, comorbidities and lethality were performed.Results: A total of 728,282 patients tested positive for COVID-19 MESHD across all the 8 Latin American countries. Of these, 52.6% were female. The average age was 48.4 years. Peru had the oldest cohort with 56.8 years old and highest rate of females (56.8%) while Chile had the youngest cohort (39 years old). Venezuela had the highest male prevalence (56.7%). Most common symptoms were cough with 60.1% (Bolivia had the highest rate 78%), fatigue/tiredness MESHD with 52.0%, sore throat with 50.3%, and fever MESHD with 44.2%. Bolivia had fever MESHD as the top symptom (83.3%). GI MESHD symptoms including diarrhea MESHD (highest in Mexico with 22.9%), nausea MESHD, vomiting MESHD, and abdominal pain MESHD were not associated with higher mortality. Hypertension MESHD was among the top (12.1%) comorbidities followed by diabetes MESHD with 8.3% and obesity MESHD 4.5%. In multivariable analyses, the leading and significant comorbidities were hypertension MESHD (r=0.83, p=0.02), diabetes MESHD (r=0.91, p=0.01), and obesity MESHD (r=0.86, p=0.03). Asthma (r=0.37, p=0.54) and increasing age (0.13 p=0.81) were not independently associated with higher mortality. Lethality was highest in Mexico (16.6%) and lowest in Venezuela (0.9%) among the analyzed cohorts.Conclusion: Nearly, 10.5%–53% of patients with COVID-19 MESHD have GI MESHD manifestations. Differential clinical symptoms were associated with COVID-19 MESHD in Latin America countries. Metabolic syndrome MESHD components were the main comorbidities associated with poor outcome. Country-specific management and prevention plans are needed. Country-specific management and prevention plans can be established from this meta-analysis. 

    Perceived Risk and Knowledge of COVID-2019 Community Transmission among Local Council Leaders in Rural Districts of Eastern Uganda

    Authors: Abdul Walusansa; Jacob Stanley Iramiot; Ali Kudamba; Shaban Alemu Okurut; Joseph Mpagi; Aidah Namuli; Hawa Nabuuma; Wasige Godfrey; Hussein M. Kafeero; Jamil Ssenku

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-12-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Corona virus disease ( COVID-19 MESHD) is one of the topmost global hindrances to human existence. Rural settings have been reported to be more vulnerable in some parts of the world. In Uganda, local council (LC) leaders in rural districts are among the immediate personnel mandated to support compliance with preventive guidelines, and to identify and report/deliver COVID-19 MESHD cases to health units. We examined the potential risk of COVID-19 MESHD transmission, knowledge levels, perceptions & opinions of LC leaders in selected districts in Eastern Uganda, to support the design of risk-based COVID-19 MESHD control measures in rural settings, to protect lives better.Methods: A convenience sample was taken from village council leaders in the selected districts. Pretested questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to assess the knowledge levels, perceptions, and opinions of respondents about COVID-19 MESHD. An observational survey was also conducted to examine the barriers that might deter effective control of COVID-19 MESHD, with reference to health guidelines set by the Ugandan government and the World Health Organization. Data was analyzed using HyperRESEARCH 2.8 software, and STATA version-15.0.Results and discussion: Eighty percent of local council leaders reported that they were formally engaged in the fight against COVID-19 MESHD in their communities, and the common means of engagement were; dissemination of COVID-19 MESHD information by word of mouth, regulation of public events, and monitoring of visitors that come from distant places. All clients reported having received some information about this pandemic, but there was generally low knowledge on some vital aspects: 70% of the respondents did not know the meaning of COVID-19 MESHD; 100% were uninformed on these common symptoms; headache MESHD, sore throat, nausea MESHD, and loss of taste & smell; 10% did not know if willingness to conform to health guidelines may affect COVID-19 MESHD prevention, and they believed that domestic animals are viable vectors. Radio was the commonest source of COVID-19 MESHD information, but it was confounded by poor quality of radio-signals. Most respondents were of the view that in the communities they lead; inaccessibility to authentic health information, financial constraints, and belief that COVID-19 MESHD is a fallacy, were some of the leading obstacles to the fight against the pandemic. Low awareness and misconceptions on COVID-19 MESHD could be explained by; technological challenges, low literacy levels, and dissemination of wrong information about this pandemic. From the observational survey, the major factors which might intensify the risk of COVID-19 MESHD spread were: scarcity of requirements for hand hygiene, face protection, violation of health guidelines & directives, porous borders, terrain, and use of potentially polluted open water sources.Conclusion and recommendations: Rural communities in Eastern Uganda are vulnerable to the drastic spread of COVID-19 MESHD, due to challenges related to: low awareness of COVID-19 MESHD, reluctance in complying with preventive guidelines, finance, technology, terrain, porous borders, illiteracy and scarcity of protective wear and hygiene resources. Awareness creation, material aid, execution of preventive rules, and more research on COVID-19 MESHD are warranted. 

    Prophylactic use of Hydroxychloroquine among Physicians working in Pandemic Hospitals

    Authors: Mehmet Gönenli; İlker Kayı; Nilüfer Alpay Kanıtez; Tuba Baydaş; Murat Köse; Emine Nalbantoğlu; Miraç Vural Keskinler; Timur Akpınar; Önder Ergönül

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-11-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Throughout the pandemic, physicians working at the frontlines have embarked on various quests to protect themselves, and many physicians preferred the use of hydroxychloroquine (HQN) as a prophylactic agent. This study aimed to investigate the reasons leading physicians to use HQN and the effects of HQN use on physicians.Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study with a target population of physicians working in pandemic hospitals in İstanbul, Turkey. We have recruited the participants from seven different hospitals via an invitation email between May 14 and June 13, 2020. An online questionnaire, including 57 questions in total, was sent to each physician.Results: A total of 148 (26%) physicians used hydroxychloroquine for prevention. Older physicians and ones who have a story of exposure to C OVID-19 MESHDpatients without any protection used more prophylactic HQN. Hydroxychloroquine did not differ statistically in terms of being infected among the exposed physicians (p=0.52). Nineteen (13%) physicians using hydroxychloroquine developed side effects related to the drug. Diarrhea MESHD and nausea MESHD were the most common.Conclusion: Prophylactic HQN use was more common among the physicians older than 40 years and who had higher exposure rates to a C OVID-19 MESHDpatient without any protection. The physicians working at the frontlines had the highest rate of infection. Hydroxychloroquine was not effective in the prophylaxis of C OVID-19 MESHDamong the exposed physicians.

    An international survey on the impact of COVID-19 MESHD in individuals with Down syndrome

    Authors: Anke Huels; Alberto C. S. Costa; Mara Dierssen; R. Asaad Baksh; Stefania Bargagna; Nicole T Baumer; Ana Claudia Brandao; Angelo Carfi; Maria Carmona-Iragui; Brain A Chicoine; Sujay Ghosh; Monica Lakhanpaul; Coral Manso; Miguel-Angel Mayer; Maria del Carmen Ortega; Diego Real de Asua; Anne-Sophie Rebillat; Lauren Ashley Russell; Giuseppina Sgandurra; Diletta Valentini; Stephanie L Sherman; Andre Strydom; - on behalf of the T21RS COVID-19 Initiative

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.03.20225359 Date: 2020-11-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Health conditions and immune dysfunction associated with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome, DS) may impact the clinical course of COVID-19 MESHD once infected by SARS-CoV-2. Methods: The T21RS COVID-19 MESHD Initiative launched an international survey for clinicians or caregivers/family members on patients with COVID-19 MESHD and DS (N=1046). De-identified survey data collected between April and October 2020 were analysed and compared with the UK ISARIC4C survey of hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients with and without DS. COVID-19 MESHD patients with DS from the ISARIC4C survey (ISARIC4C DS cases=100) were matched to a random set of patients without DS (ISARIC4C controls=400) and hospitalized DS cases in the T21RS survey (T21RS DS cases=100) based on age, gender, and ethnicity. Findings: The mean age in the T21RS survey was 29 years (SD=18), 73% lived with their family. Similar to the general population, the most frequent signs and symptoms of COVID-19 MESHD were fever MESHD, cough MESHD, and shortness of breath MESHD. Pain MESHD and nausea MESHD were reported less frequently (p<0.01), whereas altered consciousness/ confusion MESHD were reported more frequently (p<0.01). Risk factors for hospitalization and mortality were similar to the general population (age, male gender, diabetes MESHD, obesity MESHD, dementia MESHD) with the addition of congenital heart defects MESHD as a risk factor for hospitalization. Mortality rates showed a rapid increase from age 40 and were higher than for controls (T21RS DS versus controls: risk ratio (RR)=3.5 (95%-CI=2.6;4.4), ISARIC4C DS versus controls: RR=2.9 (95%-CI=2.1;3.8)) even after adjusting for known risk factors for COVID-19 MESHD mortality. Interpretation: Leading signs/symptoms of COVID-19 MESHD and risk factors for severe disease course are similar to the general population. However, individuals with DS present significantly higher rates of mortality, especially from age 40. Funding: Down Syndrome Affiliates in Action, Down Syndrome Medical Interest Group-USA, GiGi's Playhouse, Jerome Lejeune Foundation, LuMind IDSC Foundation, Matthews Foundation, National Down Syndrome Society, National Task Group on Intellectual Disabilities and Dementia MESHD Practices.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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