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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Seroconversion stages COVID19 MESHD into distinct pathophysiological states

    Authors: Matthew D. Galbraith; Kohl T. Kinning; Kelly D Sullivan; Ryan Baxter; Paula Araya; Kimberly R Jordan; Seth Russell; Keith P Smith; Ross E Granrath; Jessica R Shaw; Monika Dzieciatkowska; Tusharkanti Ghosh; Andrew A Monte; Angelo D'Alessandro; Kirk C Hansen; Tellen D Bennett; Elena W.Y. Hsieh; Joaquin M Espinosa

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.05.20244442 Date: 2020-12-07 Source: medRxiv

    COVID19 MESHD is a heterogeneous medical condition involving a suite of underlying pathophysiological processes including hyperinflammation, endothelial damage, thrombotic microangiopathy MESHD, and end-organ damage. Limited knowledge about the molecular mechanisms driving these processes and lack of staging biomarkers hamper the ability to stratify patients for targeted therapeutics. We report here the results of a cross-sectional multi-omics analysis of hospitalized COVID19 MESHD patients revealing that seroconversion status associates with distinct underlying pathophysiological states. Seronegative COVID19 MESHD patients harbor hyperactive T cells and NK cells, high levels of IFN alpha HGNC, gamma and lambda ligands, markers of systemic complement activation, neutropenia MESHD, lymphopenia MESHD and thrombocytopenia MESHD. In seropositive patients, all of these processes are attenuated, observing instead increases in B cell subsets, emergency hematopoiesis MESHD, increased markers of platelet activation, and hypoalbuminemia MESHD. We propose that seroconversion status could potentially be used as a biosignature to stratify patients for therapeutic intervention and to inform analysis of clinical trial results in heterogenous patient populations.

    Safety of systemic anti-cancer treatment in oncology patients with non-severe COVID-19 MESHD: a prospective cohort study

    Authors: Cédric Van Marcke; Natasha Honoré; Athénaïs van der Elst; Simon Beyaert; Françoise Derouane; Caroline Dumont; Frank Aboubakar Nana; Jean-François Baurain; Ivan Borbath; Philippe Collard; Frank Cornélis; Astrid De Cuyper; François Duhoux; Bertrand Filleul; Rachel Galot; Marco Gizzi; Filomena Mazzeo; Thierry Pieters; Emmanuel Seront; Isabelle Sinapi; Marc Van den Eynde; Nicolas Whenham; Jean-Cyr Yombi; Anaïs Scohy; Aline Van Maanen; Jean-Pascal Machiels

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-102553/v1 Date: 2020-11-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The viral pandemic coronavirus disease MESHD coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has disrupted cancer MESHD patient management around the world. Most reported data relate to incidence, risk factors, and outcome of severe COVID-19 MESHD. The safety of systemic anti-cancer therapy in oncology patients with non-severe COVID-19 MESHD is unknown.Methods ONCOSARS-1 was a prospective, single-center, academic observational study. Adult patients with solid tumors MESHD treated in the oncology day unit with systemic anti-cancer therapy during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD in Belgium were included. All patients (n=363) underwent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) serological testing after the peak of the pandemic in Belgium. Additionally, 141 of these patients also had a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test during the pandemic. The main objective was to determine the safety of systemic cancer MESHD treatment, measured by the rate of adverse events according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients compared with SARS-CoV-2-negative patients.Results Twenty-two (6%) of the 363 eligible patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR and/or serology. Of these, three required transient oxygen supplementation, but none required admission to the intensive care unit. Hematotoxicity MESHD was the only adverse event more frequently observed in SARS-CoV-2 -positive patients than in SARS-CoV-2-negative patients: 73% vs 35% (P<0.001). This association remained significant (odds ratio (OR) 4.1, P=0.009) even after adjusting for performance status and type of systemic treatment. Hematological adverse events led to more treatment delays for the SARS-CoV-2-positive group: 55% vs 20% (P<0.001). Median duration of treatment interruption was similar between the two groups: 14 and 11 days, respectively. Febrile neutropenia MESHD, infections unrelated to COVID-19 MESHD, and bleeding MESHD events occurred at a low rate in the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients.Conclusion Systemic anti-cancer therapy appeared safe in ambulatory oncology patients treated during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. There were, however, more treatment delays in the SARS-CoV-2-positive population, mainly due to a higher rate of hematological adverse events. 

    The importance of education of infection control practices to acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient families for 2019-nCoV prevention

    Authors: Lichun Xie; Hui-ying Ye; Qing-ling Long; Si-xi Liu; Feiqiu Wen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-96896/v1 Date: 2020-10-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: With the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD (2019-nCoV, also named COVID-19 MESHD) and growing knowledge of its epidemiological characteristics, it has been clear that children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia MESHD ( ALL MESHD) are also susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: In the past four months, we educated the guardians of children with leukemia MESHD with a series of preventative measures, including ⑴ Hand Hygiene and Hand Care; ⑵ the use of masks; ⑶ separation and sterilization of patient items; ⑷ avoiding public transportation; ⑸ Staying at home unless medically necessary; ⑹ Telemedicine; ⑺ Allowing only one caretaker during hospital admission ⑻ minimizing patients and their families visiting or travelling. We conducted a retrospective review to study the relationship between compliance with personal preventive measures and exposure to 2019-nCoV among children will ALL MESHD and their caretakers before and during the outbreak of 2019-nCoV in China between Jan 21-May 23 of 2020. Results: Prior to the outbreak of coronavirus 2019-nCoV in Jan 2020, 88.9% of patients washed their hands before meals and 55.6% after they ate. All of the patients who are >3 years old and 91% of the patients <3 years olds wore face masks regularly as a strategy for protection in the outdoors. When in the hospital, 95.5% of the patients who are >3 years old and 78% of the patients <3 years olds wore face masks regularly as a strategy for protection. Since the outbreak of coronavirus 2019-nCoV in China in Jan, 2020, the percentage of compliance to hand-washing before and after meals rose to 100% for all patients, as well as the compliance of regular mask use was 100%. Similar trend is also seen in the caretakers, prior to the outbreak 75% of whom washed their hands before and 66.7% after they ate or handed food. ALL MESHD of them wore masks regularly in the hospital or outdoors. Since the outbreak, 100% of caretakers wore masks during outside and in the wards. Regardless of the children with ALL MESHD are immunocompromised patients, key message of infection prevention provided to the families were using alcohol to disinfect surfaces, avoid going to public transport and without visitor or travelling. Prior to the outbreak, internet consults consisted of 20% out of all patient consults. As of date, which is 160 days since the outbreak, 80% of patient consults are done via internet. ALL MESHD of patients are voiding public transportation. Private cars and taxi are their choices. ALL MESHD of them comply with the policy of just one companion and stayed at home unless have to get IV chemo or got likely infection. In April 2019, 21.38% of the ALL MESHD patients in inpatient department suffered febrile neutropenia MESHD. Otherwise, in April 2020, only 5.18% suffered febrile neutropenia MESHD.Conclusion: From Jan 22 of 2020 to the authorship of this report, within the 200 number of ALL MESHD patients whom we have provided care for in Shenzhen Children’s hospital, none of the patients as well as their families were infected with 2019-nCoV, and all of them received chemotherapy as planned. The infection rate of ALL MESHD patients suffered febrile neutropenia MESHD decreased by seventy-five percent. These outcomes demonstrated that our response to the public health emergency was on-time and appropriate. The operational result shows that the control measures taken are effective. Our experience suggest that offering prompt and appropriate instructions in addition to provision of regular education and preventative practices to patients and their families may be considered to other pediatric oncology centers around the world.

    Review of clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of COVID-19 MESHD in children-Systematic review and Meta-analysis

    Authors: Harmeet K Kharoud; Rizwana Asim; Lianne Siegel; Lovepreet Chahal; Gagan Deep Singh

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.23.20200410 Date: 2020-09-25 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of various clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of COVID-19 MESHD in children. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, and SCOPUS databases were searched to include studies conducted between January 1, 2020, and July 15, 2020 which reported data about clinical characteristics and laboratory findings in laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD in pediatric patients. Random effects meta-analysis using generalized linear mixed models was used to estimate the pooled prevalence. RESULTS: The most prevalent symptom of COVID-19 MESHD in children was 46.17% (95%CI 39.18-53.33%), followed by cough (40.15%, 95%CI 34.56-46.02%). Less common symptoms were found to be dyspnea MESHD, vomiting MESHD, nasal congestion/ rhinorrhea MESHD, diarrhea MESHD, sore throat/pharyngeal congestion, headache MESHD, and fatigue MESHD. The prevalence of asymptomatic children was 17.19% (95%CI 11.02-25.82%). The most prevalent laboratory findings in COVID-19 MESHD children were elevated Creatinine Kinase (26.86%, 95%CI 16.15-41.19%) and neutropenia MESHD (25.76%, 95%CI 13.96-42.58%). These were followed by elevated LDH, thrombocytosis MESHD, lymphocytosis MESHD, neutrophilia, elevated D Dimer, Elevated CRP, elevated ESR, leukocytosis MESHD, elevated AST HGNC and leukopenia MESHD. There was a low prevalence of elevated ALT and lymphopenia MESHD in children with COVID- 19. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study provides estimates of the pooled prevalence of various symptoms and laboratory findings of COVID-19 MESHD in the pediatric population.

    The Effect of Neutropenia and Filgrastim HGNC ( G-CSF HGNC) in Cancer Patients With COVID-19 MESHD Infection

    Authors: Sejal Morjaria; Allen Zhang; Anna Kaltsas MD; Rekha Parameswaran; Dhruvkumar Patel; Wei Zhou; Jacqueline Predmore; Rocio Perez Johnston; Justin Jee; Miguel Perales; Anthony Daniyan; Ying Taur; Sham Mailankody

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.13.20174565 Date: 2020-08-15 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Neutropenia MESHD is commonly encountered in cancer MESHD patients, and recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor HGNC ( G-CSF HGNC, filgrastim HGNC) is widely given to oncology patients to counteract neutropenia MESHD and prevent infection. G-CSF HGNC is both a growth factor and cytokine that initiates proliferation and differentiation of mature granulocytes. However, the clinical impact of neutropenia MESHD and G-CSF HGNC use in cancer MESHD patients, who are also afflicted with coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD), remains unknown. Methods: An observational cohort of 304 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 MESHD at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center was assembled to investigate links between concurrent neutropenia MESHD (N=55) and G-CSF HGNC administration (N=16) on COVID-19 MESHD-associated respiratory failure MESHD and death MESHD. These factors were assessed as time-dependent predictors using an extended Cox model, controlling for age and underlying cancer MESHD diagnosis. To determine whether the degree of granulocyte response to G-CSF HGNC affected outcomes, a similar model was constructed with patients that received G-CSF HGNC, categorized into high- and low-response, based on the level of absolute neutrophil count (ANC) rise 24 hours after growth factor administration. Results: Neutropenia MESHD (ANC < 1 K/mcL) during COVID-19 MESHD course was not independently associated with severe respiratory failure MESHD or death MESHD (HR: 0.71, 95% Cl: 0.34-1.50, P value: 0.367) in hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients. When controlling for neutropenia MESHD, G-CSF HGNC administration was associated with increased need for high oxygen supplementation and death MESHD (HR: 2.97, 95% CI: 1.06-8.28, P value: 0.038). This effect was predominantly seen in patients that exhibited a high response to G-CSF HGNC based on their ANC increase post- G-CSF HGNC administration (HR: 5.18, 95% CI: 1.61-16.64, P value: 0.006). Conclusion: Possible risks versus benefits of G-CSF HGNC administration should be weighed in neutropenic cancer MESHD patients with COVID-19 MESHD infection, as G-CSF HGNC may lead to worsening clinical and respiratory status in this setting.

    Oncologic Immunomodulatory Agents in Patients with Cancer and COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Justin Jee; Aaron J Stonestrom; Sean Devlin; Teresa Nguyentran; Beatriz Wills; Varun Narendra; Michael B Foote; Melissa Lumish; Santosha Vardhana; Stephen Pastores; Neha Korde; Dhwani Patel; Steven Horwitz; Michael Scordo; Anthony Daniyan

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.11.20145458 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background Corticosteroids, anti- CD20 HGNC agents, immunotherapies, and cytotoxic chemotherapy are commonly used in the treatment of patients with cancer MESHD. How these agents impact patients with cancer MESHD who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 remains unclear. Methods We retrospectively investigated associations between SARS-CoV-2-associated respiratory failure MESHD or death MESHD with receipt of the aforementioned medications and with pre- COVID-19 MESHD neutropenia MESHD. The study included all cancer MESHD patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center until June 2, 2020 (N=820). We controlled for cancer MESHD-related characteristics known to predispose to worse COVID-19 MESHD. To address that more acutely ill patients receive therapeutic corticosteroids, we examined patient subsets based on different levels of respiratory support: <=2 L/min supplemental oxygen, >2L/min supplemental oxygen, and advanced respiratory support prior to death. Results Corticosteroid administration was associated with worse outcomes in the pre-2L supplemental oxygen cohort; no statistically significant difference was observed in the >2L/min supplemental oxygen and post-critical cohorts. Interleukin-6 HGNC ( IL-6 HGNC) and C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC) levels were lower, and ferritin levels were higher, after corticosteroid administration. In patients with metastatic thoracic cancer MESHD, 9 of 25 (36%) and 10 of 31 (32%) had respiratory failure MESHD or death MESHD among those who did and did not receive immunotherapy, respectively. Seven of 23 (30%) and 52 of 187 (28%) patients with hematologic cancer MESHD had respiratory failure MESHD or death MESHD among those who did and did not receive anti- CD20 HGNC therapy, respectively. Chemotherapy itself was not associated with worse outcomes, but pre- COVID-19 MESHD neutropenia MESHD was associated with worse COVID-19 MESHD course. Relative prevalence of chemotherapy-associated neutropenia MESHD in previous studies may account for different conclusions regarding the risks of chemotherapy in patients with COVID-19 MESHD. In the absence of prospective studies and evidence-based guidelines, our data may aid providers looking to assess the risks and benefits of these agents in caring for cancer MESHD patients in the COVID-19 MESHD era.

    Chemotherapy Increases the Risk of Developing Severe Illness in Breast Cancer Patients with COVID-19 MESHD: A Multi-Center Retrospective Study in Hubei, China

    Authors: Jielin Wei; Mengjiao Wu; Jing Liu; Xu Wang; Hua Yang; Pengfei Xia; Ling Peng; Yu Huang; Cuiwei Liu; Zihan Xia; Chuang Chen; Yanxia Zhao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57289/v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic MESHD COVID-19 pandemic MESHD is a significant worldwide health crisis. Patients with malignancy MESHD are considered at substantially increased risk of infection and poor outcomes. Breast cancer MESHD patients with COVID-19 MESHD represent an urgent clinical need. This study aimed to identify clinical characteristics of breast cancer MESHD patients with COVID-19 MESHD and risks associated with anti- cancer MESHD treatment.Methods: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included 45 breast cancer MESHD patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD at seven designated hospitals in Hubei, China. The medical records of breast cancer MESHD patients were collected from the records of 9559 COVID-19 MESHD patients from 13th January, 2020 to 18th March, 2020. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for COVID-19 MESHD severity.Results: Of 45 breast cancer MESHD patients with COVID-19 MESHD, 33 (73.3%) developed non-severe COVID-19 MESHD, while 12 (26.7%) developed severe COVID-19 MESHD, of which 3 (6.7%) patients died. The median age was 62 years, and 3 (6.7%) patients had stage IV breast cancer MESHD. Most patients developed fever MESHD (37, 82.2%), and most had bilateral lung involvement on chest CT (36, 80.0%). Univariate analysis showed the age over 75 and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score were associated with COVID-19 MESHD disease severity (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed patients received chemotherapy within 7 days had a significantly higher risk for severe COVID-19 MESHD (logistic regression model: RR=13.886, 95% CI 1.014-190.243, P=0.049; Cox proportional hazards model: HR=13.909, 95% CI 1.086-178.150, P=0.043), with more pronounced neutropenia MESHD and higher LDH, CRP HGNC and procalcitonin levels than patients else (P<0.05).Conclusions: The severity of COVID-19 MESHD in breast cancer MESHD patients was associated with baseline factors of the age over 75 and ECOG score, but not with tumor MESHD characteristics. Chemotherapy within 7 days before symptom onset was a risk factor for severe COVID-19 MESHD, reflected by neutropenia MESHD and elevated LDH, CRP HGNC and procalcitonin levels.

    Viral shedding and immunological features of children COVID-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Yang Yang; Haixia Zheng; Ling Peng; Jinli Wei; Yanrong Wang; Hexiao Li; Bo Peng; Shisong Fang; Mingxia Zhang; Yanjie Li; Hui Liu; Kai Feng; Li Xing; Jun Wang; Mengli Cao; Fuxiang Wang; Lei Liu; Yingxia Liu; Jing Yuan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48544/v2 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background SARS-CoV-2 could infect people at all ages, and the viral shedding and immunological features of children COVID-19 MESHD patients were analyzed.Methods Epidemiological information and clinical data were collected from 35 children patients. Viral RNAs in respiratory and fecal samples were detected. Plasma of 11 patients were collected and measured for 48 cytokines.Results 40% (14/35) of the children COVID-19 MESHD patients showed asymptomatic infections, while pneumonia MESHD shown by CT scan occurred in most of the cases (32/35, 91.43%). Elevated LDH, AST HGNC, CRP HGNC, neutropenia MESHD, leukopenia MESHD, lymphopenia MESHD and thrombocytopenia MESHD occurred in some cases, and CD4 HGNC and CD8 HGNC counts were normal. A total of 22 cytokines were significantly higher than the healthy control, and IP-10 HGNC, IFN-α2 HGNC of them in children were significantly lower than the adult patients. Meanwhile, MCP-3 HGNC, HGF HGNC, MIP-1α HGNC, and IL-1ra HGNC were similar or lower than healthy control, while significantly lower than adult patients. Viral RNAs were detected as early as the first day after illness onset (d.a.o) in both the respiratory and fecal samples. Viral RNAs decreased as the disease progression and mostly became negative in respiratory samples within 18 d.a.o, while maintained relatively stable during the disease progression and still detectable in some cases during 36~42 d.a.o. Conclusion COVID-19 MESHD in children was mild, and asymptomatic infection was common. Immune responses were relatively normal in children COVID-19 MESHD patients. Cytokine storm also occurred in children patients, while much weaker than adult patients. Positive rate of viral RNAs in fecal samples was high, and profile of viral shedding were different between respiratory and gastrointestinal tract.

    Characterization of a big family cluster infection associated with SARS-Cov-2 in Nanjing district

    Authors: Wei Chen; Chunmei Hu; Lili Huang; Yongchen zhang; Zhiliang Hu; Yi Zeng; Weixiao Wang; Xia Zhang; Yongxiang Yi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-18938/v1 Date: 2020-03-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD has brought catastrophe to huge numbers of families. However, even though numerous tragedies occurred, there were few reports about family cluster infection MESHD in the academic journals. Methods: The electronic medical records of 10 COVID-19 MESHD patients in a big family were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed.Results: These 10 patients, 4 males and 6 females, were infected through two successive family feasts during Spring Festival. The infection source was a family member at asymptomatic state, who lived in Hubei but travelled to Nanjing. The median age of these 10 patients was 61.5, with the oldest 95 and youngest 38. The incubation period varied from 3 to 17 days, with the median of 5.5. Of them, 2 patients were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms at onset were fever (6/10) and dry cough MESHD (6/10). All of them displayed lesions on the chest CT. 40% of them had leukopenia MESHD, neutropenia MESHD and lymphopenia MESHD. After anti-virus treatment, all the patients significantly improved and were discharged. Conclusions: SARS-Cov-2 was highly contagious and so crafty that a varied incubation period did exist. Part of patients might be asymptomatic, which was the potential source of transmission. More measures for protection or quarantine should be taken at home if family member had travel history nearby the epidemic area. 

    Characterization of a big family cluster infection associated with SARS-Cov-2 in Nanjing district

    Authors: Wei Chen; Chunmei Hu; Lili Huang; Yongchen zhang; Zhiliang Hu; Yi Zeng; Weixiao Wang; Xia Zhang; Yongxiang Yi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-18077/v1 Date: 2020-03-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD has brought catastrophe to huge numbers of families. However, even though numerous tragedies occurred, there were few reports about family cluster infection MESHD in the academic journals. Methods: The electronic medical records of 10 COVID-19 MESHD patients in a big family were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Results: These 10 patients, 4 males and 6 females, were infected through two successive family feasts during Spring Festival. The infection source was a family member at asymptomatic state, who lived in Hubei but travelled to Nanjing. The median age of these 10 patients was 61.5, with the oldest 95 and youngest 38. The incubation period varied from 3 to 17 days, with the median of 5.5. Of them, 2 patients were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms at onset were fever (6/10) and dry cough MESHD (6/10). All of them displayed lesions on the chest CT. 40% of them had leukopenia MESHD, neutropenia MESHD and lymphopenia MESHD. After anti-virus treatment, all the patients significantly improved and were discharged. Conclusions: SARS-Cov-2 was highly contagious and so crafty that a varied incubation period did exist. Part of patients might be asymptomatic, which was the potential source of transmission. More measures for protection or quarantine should be taken at home if family member had travel history nearby the epidemic area. Keywords: COVID-19 MESHD, SARS-Cov-2, family cluster, asymptomatic, incubation period.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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