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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    The Essential Role of Vitamin D in the Biosynthesis of Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides May Explain Why Deficiency Increases Mortality Risk in COVID-19 MESHD Infections

    Authors: Patrick J. McCullough; Jeffrey Amend; William P. McCullough; Steven J. Repas; Jeffrey B. Travers; Douglas S. Lehrer

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0265.v1 Date: 2020-05-16 Source: Preprints.org

    Abstract: A primary action of vitamin D is regulation of gene transcription. Many cell types possess genes that make antimicrobial peptides ( AMPS HGNC) (endogenous antibiotics), recently discovered to be regulated by vitamin D. Two examples are cathelicidin and beta defensins, both bioactive against many different bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, parasites and viruses. The signal transduction pathway is triggered by sensing microorganisms via cell surface receptors, causing intracellular production of calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D) and vitamin D receptors, leading to upregulation of AMP production. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations required to sustain adequate AMP production to eradicate infections are unknown. Vitamin D3 is photosynthesized in skin in amounts ranging from 10,000 (250 mcg) to 25,000 (625 mcg) International Units (IU) from 7-dehydrocholesterol after whole-body exposure to one minimal erythemal dose (MED) of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and is impacted by many factors including geographic localities, seasonal changes and skin pigmentation MESHD. We and others have reported extended daily oral dosing with these amounts of vitamin D3 safe. We routinely observe serum 25(OH)D concentrations below 20ng/ml on new admissions, which have been reported insufficient MESHD to sustain AMP production. In contrast serum 25(OH)D concentrations above 100ng/ml have been reported after serial UVB treatments for psoriasis MESHD. Little vitamin D naturally occurs in food, and insufficient sun exposure may be causing worldwide deficiency. We review evidence suggesting that higher daily intakes of vitamin D3 than the currently recommended 600 (15 mcg) IU/day may be necessary to sustain AMP production in the face of an overwhelming infection, particularly in non-Hispanic blacks, a high risk population suffering the worst outcomes from COVID-19 MESHD. We propose that increased vitamin D supplementation could provide a safe and cost-effective way to protect all populations from infections, in particular those from pandemic COVID-19 MESHD.

    SARS-CoV-2 mortality in blacks and temperature-sensitivity to an angiotensin-2 receptor blocker

    Authors: Donald R. Forsdyke

    id:2005.01579v5 Date: 2020-04-30 Source: arXiv

    Tropical climates provoke adaptations in skin pigmentation MESHD and in mechanisms controlling the volume, salt-content and pressure of body fluids. For many whose distant ancestors moved to temperate climes, these adaptations proved harmful: pigmentation decreased by natural selection and susceptibility to hypertension MESHD emerged. Now an added risk is lung inflammation MESHD from coronavirus that may be furthered by innate immune differences. Hypertension MESHD and coronavirus have in common angiotensin converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC), which decreases blood pressure and mediates virus entry. In keeping with less detailed studies, a long-term case-report shows that decreased blood pressure induced by blocking a primary angiotensin receptor is supplemented, above critical blocker dosage, by a further temperature-dependent fall, likely mediated by ACE2 HGNC and secondary angiotensin receptors. Temperature-dependence suggests a linkage with tropical heritage and an influence of blockers on the progress of coronavirus infections MESHD. Positive therapeutic results should result from negation of host pro-inflammatory effects mediated by the primary angiotensin receptor and concomitant promotion of countervailing anti-inflammatory effects mediated by ACE2 HGNC through other receptors. These effects may involve innate immune system components (lectin complement pathway, NAD metabolome). Black vulnerability - more likely based on physiological than on socioeconomic differences - provides an important clue that may guide treatments.

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MeSH Disease
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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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