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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (51)

ProteinN (19)

NSP5 (11)

ComplexRdRp (9)

ProteinE (6)


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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    ACE2 expression by colonic epithelial cells is associated with viral infection, immunity and energy metabolism

    Authors: Jun Wang; Shanmeizi Zhao; Ming Liu; Zhiyao Zhao; Yiping Xu; Ping Wang; Meng Lin; Yanhui Xu; Bing Huang; Xiaoyu Zuo; Zhanghua Chen; Fan Bai; Jun Cui; Andrew M Lew; Jincun Zhao; Yan Zhang; Haibin Luo; Yuxia Zhang

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.05.20020545 Date: 2020-02-07 Source: medRxiv

    Respiratory disease caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia MESHD first emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019 and spread rapidly to other provinces and other countries. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor for SARS-CoV MESHD and has been suggested to be also the receptor for 2019-nCoV. Paradoxically, ACE2 expression in the lung protects mice from SARS-CoV spike MESHD spike protein PROTEIN induced lung injury MESHD by attenuating the renin-angiotensin system. In the intestine, ACE2 also suppresses intestinal inflammation MESHD by maintaining amino acid homeostasis, antimicrobial peptide expression and ecology of the gut microbiome. Upon analysis of single cell-RNA sequencing data from control subjects and those with colitis MESHD or inflammatory bowel disease MESHD ( IBD MESHD), we found that ACE2 expression in the colonocytes was positively associated with genes regulating viral infection MESHD, innate and cellular immunity, but was negatively associated with viral transcription, protein translation, humoral immunity, phagocytosis and complement activation. In summary, we suggest that ACE2 may play dual roles in mediating the susceptibility and immunity of 2019-nCoV infection MESHD.

    Using predicted imports of 2019-nCoV cases to determine locations that may not be identifying all imported cases

    Authors: Pablo M De Salazar; Rene Niehus; Aimee Taylor; Caroline O Buckee; Marc Lipsitch

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.04.20020495 Date: 2020-02-05 Source: medRxiv

    Cases from the ongoing outbreak of atypical pneumonia MESHD caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) exported from mainland China can lead to self-sustained outbreaks in other populations. Internationally imported cases are currently being reported in several different locations. Early detection of imported cases is critical for containment of the virus. Based on air travel volume estimates from Wuhan to international destinations and using a generalized linear regression model we identify locations which may potentially have undetected internationally imported cases.

    Population movement, city closure and spatial transmission of the 2019-nCoV infection MESHD in China

    Authors: Siqi Ai; Guanghu Zhu; Fei Tian; Huan Li; Yuan Gao; Yinglin Wu; Qiyong Liu; Hualiang Lin

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.04.20020339 Date: 2020-02-05 Source: medRxiv

    The outbreak of pneumonia MESHD caused by a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan City of China obtained global concern, the population outflow from Wuhan has contributed to spatial expansion in other parts of China. We examined the effects of population outflow from Wuhan on the 2019-nCoV transmission in other provinces and cities of China, as well as the impacts of the city closure in Wuhan. We observed a significantly positive association between population movement and the number of cases. Further analysis revealed that if the city closure policy was implemented two days earlier, 1420 (95% CI: 1059, 1833) cases could be prevented, and if two days later, 1462 (95% CI: 1090, 1886) more cases would be possible. Our findings suggest that population movement might be one important trigger of the 2019-nCoV infection MESHD transmission in China, and the policy of city closure is effective to prevent the epidemic.

    The digestive system is a potential route of 2019-nCov infection MESHD: a bioinformatics analysis based on single-cell transcriptomes

    Authors: Hao Zhang; Zijian Kang; Haiyi Gong; Da Xu; Jing Wang; Zifu Li; Xingang Cui; Jianru Xiao; Tong Meng; Wang Zhou; Jianmin Liu; Huji Xu

    doi:10.1101/2020.01.30.927806 Date: 2020-01-31 Source: bioRxiv

    Since December 2019, a newly identified coronavirus (2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCov) is causing outbreak of pneumonia MESHD in one of largest cities, Wuhan, in Hubei province of China and has draw significant public health attention. The same as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) MESHD, 2019-nCov enters into host cells via cell receptor angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). In order to dissect the ACE2-expressing cell composition and proportion and explore a potential route of the 2019-nCov infection MESHD in digestive system infection MESHD, 4 datasets with single-cell transcriptomes of lung, esophagus, gastric, ileum and colon MESHD were analyzed. The data showed that ACE2 was not only highly expressed in the lung AT2 cells, esophagus upper and stratified epithelial cells but also in absorptive enterocytes from ileum and colon MESHD. These results indicated along with respiratory systems, digestive system is a potential routes for 2019-nCov infection MESHD. In conclusion, this study has provided the bioinformatics evidence of the potential route for infection of 2019-nCov in digestive system along with respiratory tract and may have significant impact for our healthy policy setting regards to prevention of 2019-nCoV infection MESHD.

    Therapeutic Drugs Targeting 2019-nCoV Main Protease PROTEIN by High-Throughput Screening

    Authors: Yan Li; Jinyong Zhang; Ning Wang; Haibo Li; Yun Shi; Gang Guo; Kaiyun Liu; Hao Zeng; Quanming Zou

    doi:10.1101/2020.01.28.922922 Date: 2020-01-29 Source: bioRxiv

    2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a virus identified as the cause of the outbreak of pneumonia MESHD first detected in Wuhan, China. Investigations on the transmissibility, severity, and other features associated with this virus are ongoing. Currently, there is no vaccine or therapeutic antibody to prevent the infection, and more time is required to develop an effective immune strategy against the pathogen. In contrast, specific inhibitors targeting the key protease involved in replication and proliferation of the virus are the most effective means to alleviate the epidemic. The main protease PROTEIN of SARS-CoV MESHD is essential for the life cycle of the virus, which showed 96.1% of similarity with the main proteaseof 2019-nCoV, is considered to be an attractive target for drug development. In this study, we have identified 4 small molecular drugs with high binding capacity with SARS-CoV MESHD main protease PROTEIN by high-throughput screening based on the 8,000 clinical drug libraries, all these drugs have been widely used in clinical applications with guaranteed safety, which may serve as promising candidates to treat the infection of 2019-nCoV.

    Infodemiological Study Using Google Trends on Coronavirus Epidemic in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Artur Strzelecki; Mariia Rizun

    id:2001.11021v3 Date: 2020-01-29 Source: arXiv

    The recent emergence of a new coronavirus ( COVID-19 MESHD) has gained a high cover in public media and worldwide news. The virus has caused a viral pneumonia MESHD in tens of thousands of people in Wuhan, a central city of China. This short paper gives a brief introduction on how the demand for information on this new epidemic is reported through Google Trends. The reported period is 31 December 2020 to 20 March 2020. The authors draw conclusions on current infodemiological data on COVID-19 MESHD using three main search keywords: coronavirus, SARS and MERS. Two approaches are set. First is the worldwide perspective, second - the Chinese one, which reveals that in China this disease in the first days was more often referred to SARS then to general coronaviruses, whereas worldwide, since the beginning, it is more often referred to coronaviruses.

    Epidemiological identification of a novel infectious disease in real time: Analysis of the atypical pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China, 2019-20

    Authors: Sung-mok Jung; Ryo Kinoshita; Robin N. Thompson; Katsuma Hayashi; Natalie M. Linton; Yichi Yang; Andrei R. Akhmetzhanov; Hiroshi Nishiura

    doi:10.1101/2020.01.26.20018887 Date: 2020-01-28 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: Virological tests indicate that a novel coronavirus is the most likely explanation for the 2019-20 pneumonia MESHD outbreak in Wuhan, China. We demonstrate that non-virological descriptive characteristics could have determined that the outbreak is caused by a novel pathogen in advance of virological testing. Methods: Characteristics of the ongoing outbreak were collected in real time from two medical social media sites. These were compared against characteristics of ten existing pathogens that can induce atypical pneumonia MESHD. The probability that the current outbreak is due to "Disease MESHD X" (i.e., previously unknown etiology) as opposed to one of the known pathogens was inferred, and this estimate was updated as the outbreak continued. Results: The probability that Disease X is driving the outbreak was assessed as over 32% on 31 December 2019, one week before virus identification. After some specific pathogens were ruled out by laboratory tests on 5 Jan 2020, the inferred probability of Disease X was over 59%. Conclusions: We showed quantitatively that the emerging outbreak of atypical pneumonia MESHD cases is consistent with causation by a novel pathogen. The proposed approach, that uses only routinely-observed non-virological data, can aid ongoing risk assessments even before virological test results become available. Keywords: Epidemic; Causation; Bayes' theorem; Diagnosis; Prediction; Statistical model

    2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak: Intense surveillance is vital for preventing sustained transmission in new locations

    Authors: Robin Nicholas Thompson

    doi:10.1101/2020.01.24.919159 Date: 2020-01-25 Source: bioRxiv

    The outbreak of pneumonia MESHD originating in Wuhan, China, has generated 830 confirmed cases, including 26 deaths MESHD, as of 24 January 2020. The virus (2019-nCoV) has spread elsewhere in China and to other countries, including South Korea, Thailand, Japan and USA. Fortunately, there has not yet been evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission outside of China. Here we assess the risk of sustained transmission whenever the coronavirus arrives in other countries. Data describing the times from symptom onset to hospitalisation for 47 patients infected in the current outbreak are used to generate an estimate for the probability that an imported case is followed by sustained human-to-human transmission. Under the assumptions that the imported case is representative of the patients in China, and that the 2019-nCoV is similarly transmissible to the SARS coronavirus, the probability that an imported case is followed by sustained human-to-human transmission is 0.37. However, if the mean time from symptom onset to hospitalisation can be halved by intense surveillance, then the probability that an imported case leads to sustained transmission is only 0.005. This emphasises the importance of current surveillance efforts in countries around the world, to ensure that the ongoing outbreak will not become a large global epidemic.

    Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019-nCoV

    Authors: Julien Riou; Christian L Althaus

    doi:10.1101/2020.01.23.917351 Date: 2020-01-24 Source: bioRxiv

    On December 31, 2019, the World Health Organization was notified about a cluster of pneumonia MESHD of unknown aetiology in the city of Wuhan, China. Chinese authorities later identified a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) as the causative agent of the outbreak. As of January 23, 2020, 655 cases have been confirmed in China and several other countries. Understanding the transmission characteristics and the potential for sustained human-to-human transmission of 2019-nCoV is critically important for coordinating current screening and containment strategies, and determining whether the outbreak constitutes a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). We performed stochastic simulations of early outbreak trajectories that are consistent with the epidemiological findings to date. We found the basic reproduction number, R0, to be around 2.2 (90% high density interval 1.4--3.8), indicating the potential for sustained human-to-human transmission. Transmission characteristics appear to be of a similar magnitude to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD-related coronavirus ( SARS-CoV MESHD) and the 1918 pandemic influenza. These findings underline the importance of heightened screening, surveillance and control efforts, particularly at airports and other travel hubs, in order to prevent further international spread of 2019-nCoV.

    Host and infectivity prediction of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus using deep learning algorithm

    Authors: Qian Guo; Mo Li; Chunhui Wang; Zhengcheng Fang; Peihong Wang; Jie Tan; Shufang Wu; Yonghong Xiao; Huaiqiu Zhu

    doi:10.1101/2020.01.21.914044 Date: 2020-01-24 Source: bioRxiv

    The recent outbreak of pneumonia MESHD in Wuhan, China caused by the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) emphasizes the importance of detecting novel viruses and predicting their risks of infecting people. In this report, we introduced the VHP (Virus Host Prediction) to predict the potential hosts of viruses using deep learning algorithm. Our prediction suggests that 2019-nCoV has close infectivity with other human coronaviruses, especially the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) MESHD, Bat SARS-like Coronaviruses and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) MESHD. Based on our prediction, compared to the Coronaviruses infecting other vertebrates, bat coronaviruses are assigned with more similar infectivity patterns with 2019-nCoVs. Furthermore, by comparing the infectivity patterns of all viruses hosted on vertebrates, we found mink viruses show a closer infectivity pattern to 2019-nCov. These consequences of infectivity pattern analysis illustrate that bat and mink may be two candidate reservoirs of 2019-nCov.These results warn us to beware of 2019-nCoV and guide us to further explore the properties and reservoir of it. One Sentence SummaryIt is of great value to identify whether a newly discovered virus has the risk of infecting human. Guo et al. proposed a virus host prediction method based on deep learning to detect what kind of host a virus can infect with DNA sequence as input. Applied to the Wuhan 2019 Novel Coronavirus, our prediction demonstrated that several vertebrate-infectious coronaviruses have strong potential to infect human. This method will be helpful in future viral analysis and early prevention and control of viral pathogens.

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MeSH Disease
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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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