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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (51)

ProteinN (19)

NSP5 (11)

ComplexRdRp (9)

ProteinE (6)


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    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD in the Central Nervous System of a 1-Year-Old Infant

    Authors: Ismael Carlos Gomes; Karina Karmirian; Julia Oliveira; Carolina Pedrosa; Mayara Abud Mendes; Fernando Colonna Rosman; Leila Chimelli; Stevens Rehen

    id:202009.0297/v5 Date: 2021-03-15 Source: Preprints.org

    Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) was initially characterized as a respiratory illness MESHD. Neurological manifestations were reported mostly in severely affected patients. Routes for brain infection MESHD and the presence of virus particles in situ have not been well described, raising controversy about how the virus causes neurological symptoms. Here, we report the autopsy findings of a 1-year old infant with COVID-19 MESHD. In addition to pneumonitis MESHD and multiple organ damage related to thrombosis MESHD, SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD the choroid plexus, ventricles, and cerebral cortex. This is the first evidence of SARS-CoV-2 detection in an infant post-mortem brain.

    COVID-19 MESHD Infection Localization and Severity Grading from Chest X-ray Images

    Authors: Anas M. Tahir; Muhammad E. H. Chowdhury; Amith Khandakar; Tawsifur Rahman; Yazan Qiblawey; Uzair Khurshid; Serkan Kiranyaz; Nabil Ibtehaz; M Shohel Rahman; Somaya Al-Madeed; Khaled Hameed; Tahir Hamid; Sakib Mahmud; Maymouna Ezeddin

    id:2103.07985v1 Date: 2021-03-14 Source: arXiv

    Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has been the main agenda of the whole world, since it came into sight in December 2019 as it has significantly affected the world economy and healthcare system. Given the effects of COVID-19 MESHD on pulmonary tissues, chest radiographic imaging has become a necessity for screening and monitoring the disease. Numerous studies have proposed Deep Learning approaches for the automatic diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD. Although these methods achieved astonishing performance in detection, they have used limited chest X-ray (CXR) repositories for evaluation, usually with a few hundred COVID-19 MESHD CXR images only. Thus, such data scarcity prevents reliable evaluation with the potential of overfitting. In addition, most studies showed no or limited capability in infection localization and severity grading of COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD. In this study, we address this urgent need by proposing a systematic and unified approach for lung segmentation and COVID-19 MESHD localization with infection quantification from CXR images. To accomplish this, we have constructed the largest benchmark dataset with 33,920 CXR images, including 11,956 COVID-19 MESHD samples, where the annotation of ground-truth lung segmentation masks is performed on CXRs by a novel human-machine collaborative approach. An extensive set of experiments was performed using the state-of-the-art segmentation networks, U-Net, U-Net++, and Feature Pyramid Networks (FPN). The developed network, after an extensive iterative process, reached a superior performance for lung region segmentation with Intersection over Union (IoU) of 96.11% and Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 97.99%. Furthermore, COVID-19 MESHD infections of various shapes and types were reliably localized with 83.05% IoU and 88.21% DSC. Finally, the proposed approach has achieved an outstanding COVID-19 MESHD detection performance with both sensitivity and specificity values above 99%.

    Awake prone position in adult nonintubated patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure MESHD secondary to COVID-19 MESHD:A multi-centre feasibility randomized controlled trial

    Authors: Devachandran Jayakumar; Pratheema Ramachandran; Ebenezer Rabindrarajan; Bharathkumar Tirupakuzhi Vijayaraghavan; Ramakrishnan Nagarajan; Ramesh Venkataraman

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.13.21253499 Date: 2021-03-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The primary manifestation of Corona Virus Disease MESHD -2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) is acute hypoxic respiratory failure MESHD secondary to pneumonia and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD. Prone position has been shown to improve outcomes in ventilated patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD. The feasibility and safety of awake prone positioning and its impact on outcomes if any, in non-intubated patients with mild to moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD secondary to COVID-19 MESHD is unknown. Results of the observational studies published thus far in this pandemic have been conflicting. In this context, we conducted a multi-centre, parallel group, randomised controlled feasibility study on awake prone positioning in non-intubated patients with COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD requiring supplemental oxygen. Methods: 60 patients diagnosed with acute hypoxic respiratory failure MESHD secondary to COVID -19 pneumonia MESHD requiring 4 or more litres of oxygen to maintain a saturation of [≥] 92% were recruited in this study. Thirty patients each were randomised to either standard care or awake prone group. Patients randomised to the standard care were allowed to change their position as per comfort and patients randomized to the prone group were encouraged to self-prone for at least 6 hours a day. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients adhering to the protocol in each group. Secondary outcomes include failure of therapy leading to escalation of respiratory support, number of hours prone, maximum hours of continuous prone positioning in a day, length of stay in ICU, ICU mortality, total number of patients needing intubation and adverse events. Results: In the prone group, 43% (13 out of 30) of patients were able to self-prone for 6 or more hours a day. The median maximum prone duration per session was 2 hours. In the supine group, 47% (14 out of 30) were completely supine and 53% spent some hours in the prone position, but none exceeded 6 hours. There was no significant difference in any of the secondary outcomes between the two groups and there were no adverse events. Interpretation: Awake proning in non-intubated patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure MESHD is feasible and safe under clinical trial conditions. The results of our feasibility study will potentially help in the design of larger definitive trials to address this key knowledge gap.

    Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Lixiang Lou Sr.; Hui Zhang Sr.; Baoming Tang Sr.; Ming Li; Zeqing Li; Haifang Cao; Jian Li; Yuliang Chong; Zhaowei Li

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.12.21253472 Date: 2021-03-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Although the number of COVID-19 MESHD ( coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD) cases continues to increase globally, there are few studies on the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with COVID-19 MESHD. Objective: To conduct a comprehensive systematic evaluation and meta-analysis of the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD in children and adolescents to better guide the response to the current epidemic. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI (Chinese database), Clinical Trials.gov and chictr.org.cn (China). The methodological quality of the included literature was evaluated using the Quality Assessment Tool for Case Series Studies. Meta-analysis was performed using STATA 14.0. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q statistic and quantified using I2. We used fixed-effects or random-effects models to pool clinical data in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was evaluated by the Begg's test. Results: We analyzed 49 studies involving 1627 patients. In the pooled data, the most common clinical symptoms were fever MESHD (56% [0.50-0.61]) and cough (45% [0.39-0.51]). The most common laboratory abnormalities were elevated procalcitonin (40% [0.23-0.57]), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (31% [0.19-0.43]), increased lymphocyte count (28% [0.17-0.42]), increased creatine kinase (28% [0.18- 0.40]), and elevated C-reactive protein HGNC (26% [0.17-0.36]). The most common abnormalities determined by computed tomography were lower-lobe involvement (56% [0.42- 0.70]), ground-glass opacities (33% [0.25-0.42]), bilateral pneumonia MESHD (32% [0.24- 0.40]), patchy shadowing (31% [0.18- 0.45]), and upper lobe involvement MESHD (30% [0.20- 0.41]). Conclusion: Disease severity among children and adolescents with COVID-19 MESHD was milder than that among adult patients, with a greater proportion of mild and asymptomatic cases, and thus, the diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD and control of the infection source are more challenging.

    Phodopus roborovskii SH101 as a systemic infection MESHD model of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Chongkai Zhai; Mingda Wang; Hea-Jong Chung; Md. Mehedi Hassan; Seungkoo Lee; Hyeon-Jin Kim; Seong-Tshool Hong

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.10.434891 Date: 2021-03-11 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently causing a worldwide threat with its unusually high transmission rates and rapid evolution into diverse strains. Unlike typical respiratory viruses, SARS-CoV-2 frequently causes systemic infection by breaking the boundaries of the respiratory systems. The development of animal models recapitulating the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 MESHD is of utmost importance not only for the development of vaccines and antivirals but also for understanding the pathogenesis. However, there has not been developed an animal model for systemic infection of SARS-CoV-2 MESHD representing most aspects of the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 MESHD with systemic symptoms. Here we report that a hamster strain of Phodopus roborovskii SH101, a laboratory inbred hamster strain of P. roborovskii, displayed most symptoms of systemic infection MESHD upon SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD as in the case of the human counterpart, unlike current COVID-19 MESHD animal models. P. roborovskii SH101 post-infection of SARS-CoV-2 MESHD represented most clinical symptoms of COVID-19 MESHD such as snuffling, dyspnea MESHD, cough, labored breathing MESHD, hunched posture, progressive weight loss MESHD, and ruffled fur, in addition to high fever MESHD following shaking chills. Histological examinations also revealed a serious right-predominated pneumonia MESHD as well as slight organ damages in the brain and liver, manifesting systemic COVID-19 MESHD cases. Considering the merit of a small animal as well as its clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in human, this hamster model seems to provide an ideal tool to investigate COVID-19 MESHD.

    ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) protects against SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 and B.1.1.7

    Authors: Robert Fischer; Neeltje van Doremalen; Danielle Adney; Claude Yinda; Julia Port; Myndi Holbrook; Jonathan Schulz; Brandi Williamson; Tina Thomas; Kent Barbian; Sarah Anzick; Stacy Ricklefs; Brian Smith; Dan Long; Craig Martens; Greg Saturday; Emmie de Wit; Sarah Gilbert; Teresa Lambe; Vincent Munster

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.11.435000 Date: 2021-03-11 Source: bioRxiv

    We investigated ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 in Syrian hamsters. We previously showed protection against SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD and pneumonia MESHD in hamsters vaccinated with a single dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Here, we observed a 9.5-fold reduction of virus neutralizing antibody titer in vaccinated hamster sera against B.1.351 compared to B.1.1.7. Vaccinated hamsters challenged with B.1.1.7 or B.1.351 did not lose weight compared to control animals. In contrast to control animals, the lungs of vaccinated animals did not show any gross lesions. Minimal to no viral subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) and no infectious virus was detected in lungs of vaccinated animals. Histopathological evaluation showed extensive pulmonary pathology caused by B.1.1.7 or B.1.351 replication in the control animals, but none in the vaccinated animals. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against clinical disease caused by B.1.1.7 or B.1.351 VOCs.

    Randomised Clinical Trial to Evaluate Safety and Efficacy of Convalescent Plasma Use Among Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 MESHD (PERUCONPLASMA): A Structured Summary af a Study Protocol for a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Authors: Alonso Soto; Fiorella Krapp; Alex Vargas; Lucía Cabrejos; Enrique Argumanis; Patricia L García; Karina Altamirano; Martín Montes; Pamela R Chacón-Uscamaita; Patricia J. García

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-317097/v1 Date: 2021-03-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives The general objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that administration of convalescent plasma from donors with previous diagnosis of severe COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD is safe and associated with a decrease in all-cause in-hospital mortality among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 MESHD at 30 days in comparison with standard treatment alone. The secondary objectives are: 1) to assess the efficacy of convalescent plasma to reduce the length of hospitalization; 2) to assess the efficacy of convalescent plasma to reduce the length of ICU stay; and 3) to assess the efficacy of convalescent plasma on reducing the requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation or ICU stay.  Trial design PERUCONPLASMA is a IIb phase open label, randomised, superiority clinical trial with 1:1 allocation taking place in real life routine clinical practice at public hospitals in Lima, Peru. Participants will be randomised to receive convalescent plasma along with local standard treatment or local standard treatment alone. After allocation all participants will be followed for a total of 30 days or until hospital discharge, whichever occurs first.  

    Diagnostic accuracy and predictive value of clinical symptoms for the diagnosis of mild COVID 19

    Authors: Vasyl Ivanovich Popovych; Ivana Koshel; Yulia Haman; Vitaly Leschak; Ruslan Duplikhin

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.05.21252963 Date: 2021-03-08 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of clinical symptoms and their predictive values in patients with suspected mild COVID 19 and to identify target groups for self isolation and outpatient treatment without additional testing in the primary health care system. Methods We conducted an open label prospective study in both male and female patients aged 18 to 72 years with suspected mild COVID 19 who were sequentially enrolled in the study. The clinical diagnosis was performed in accordance with the WHO recommendations based on the acute onset of such symptoms as olfactory dysfunction MESHD, hyperthermia MESHD, myalgia MESHD, nasal congestion, nasal discharge, cough, rhinolalia MESHD, sore throat, without pneumonia MESHD or hypoxia MESHD in persons in contact with a confirmed case of COVID 19. The physician assessed clinical symptoms using a 4-point scale. The patient self-assessed clinical symptoms using a ten point visual analogue scale (VAS). All enrolled patients underwent laboratory testing to confirm the diagnosis of COVID 19. Results Of the 120 patients underwent testing, the diagnosis of mild COVID 19 was confirmed in 96 patients and ruled out in 24 patients. When assessing symptoms by a physician according to the correlation analysis, hyperthermia MESHD, myalgia MESHD, nasal congestion and rhinolalia MESHD have a positive predictive value with a significance level of more than 0.6. When self-assessing symptoms by a patient, fever MESHD, myalgia MESHD and nasal congestion have a diagnostic accuracy with a significance level of more than 0.5. Nasal discharge, cough MESHD and sore throat have negative predictive values. Discussion The presence of these symptoms in patients with an acute onset of the disease can help to make a clinical diagnosis of coronavirus disease MESHD and identify target groups for self-isolation and outpatient treatment without additional testing. Highly suspect asymptomatic patients are not considered as those who have possible mild COVID 19 infection. Keywords: diagnostic accuracy, predictive values, COVID 19, symptom

    Horse Owner Compliance to Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions During the COVID-19 Pandemic MESHD

    Authors: Veronica Fowler; Loni Loftus

    id:10.20944/preprints202103.0211.v1 Date: 2021-03-08 Source: Preprints.org

    In December 2019, an unusual cluster of pneumonia MESHD cases were reported in Wuhan and promptly confirmed to be caused by a new virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) of which the disease it caused would be known as COVID-19 MESHD. In March 2020, in the absence of any vaccines, and in response to the global spread of SARS-CoV-2 the UK implemented non-pharmaceutical intervention (NPI) measures in the form of a national lockdown to decelerate the spread. Compliance with NPIs can have significant impact on reducing disease transmission however there are currently no studies measuring compliance within the horse ownership world which naturally brings groups of people together during everyday caregiving activities. This article describes the reported horse owner compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD from March 2020 to December 2020 as deduced from 1036 respondents which completed an anonymous online survey between December 30th, 2020 and January 11th, 2021. Where rules/guidance did exist, there was good compliance with 92.76% of respondents indicating that they were following them. The most common rule/guidance implemented was social distancing, which was also the most common rule/guidance to be breached. Riding with others whilst at the yard (hacking or in an arena) and meeting up with non-household members (family and friends) when off the yard were also common rules/guidelines breached. Respondents who kept their horses at either DIY livery, or on a private yard were most likely to breach rules/regulations whereas respondents who kept their horses at full livery were least likely to breach rules/regulations. The results indicate that compliance of horse owners with COVID-19 MESHD rules/guidance is high when rules/guidance exists. However, just under half of respondents indicated that there were no rules/guidelines on their yards indicating that there is room for an increased contribution from the horse owning community by encouraging more yards to impose control measures where they currently do not exist.

    Clinical course and risk factors for in-hospital mortality of 205 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD in Como, Lombardy Region, Italy

    Authors: Mauro Turrini; Angelo Gardellini; Livia Beretta; Lucia Buzzi; Stefano Ferrario; Sabrina Vasile; Raffaella Clerici; Andrea Colzani; Luigi Liparulo; Giovanni Scognamiglio; Gianni Imperiali; Giovanni Corrado; Antonella Strada; Marco Galletti; Nunzio Castiglione; Claudio Zanon

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.25.20134866 Date: 2021-03-05 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: With randomized clinical trials ongoing and vaccine still a long distance away, efforts to repurpose old medications used for other diseases provide hope for treatment of COVID-19 MESHD. Objectives: To examine the risk factors for in-hospital mortality and describe the effectiveness of different treatment strategies in a real-life setting of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia MESHD. Design: Real-life single-center study during the Lombardy COVID-19 MESHD outbreak. Setting: Valduce Hospital in Como, Lombardy Region, Italy. Participants: 205 laboratory-confirmed patients presenting with SARS-Cov-2 pneumonia MESHD requiring hospitalization. Interventions: All patients received best supportive care and, based on their clinical needs and comorbidities, specific interventions that included the main drugs being tested for repurposing to treat COVID-19 MESHD, such as hydroxychloroquine, anticoagulation, antiviral drugs, steroids or interleukin-6 HGNC pathway inhibitors. Main outcomes and measures: Clinical, laboratory and treatment characteristics were analyzed with univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods to explore their impact on in-hospital mortality and compared with current literature data. Results: Univariate analyses for clinical variables showed prognostic significance for age equal or greater than 70 years (estimated 28-days survival: 21.4 vs 67.4%; p<0.0001), presence of 2 or more relevant comorbidities (35.3 vs 61.8%; p=0.0008), ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (P/F) less than 200 at presentation (21-days survival: 14.7 vs 52.4%;p<0.0001), high levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (26.4 vs 65.3%; p=0.0001), and elevated C-reactive protein HGNC (CRP) values (25.4 vs 74.9%; p=0.0001), while no statistical significance was found for all the other clinical variables tested. At univariate analysis for the different treatment scheduled, prognostic significance for survival was showed for intermediate or therapeutic-dose anticoagulation (estimated 28-days survival: 37.1 vs 23.4%; p=0.0001), hydroxychloroquine (35.7 vs 27.3%; p=0.0029), early antiviral therapy with lopinavir/ritonavir (60.1 vs 22.4%; p<0.0001), late short-course of steroids (47.9 vs 18.2%; p<0.0001) or tocilizumab therapy (69.4 vs 29.4%; p=0.0059). Multivariable regression confirmed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with age older than 70 years (odds ratio 3.26, 95% CI 1.81 - 5.86; p<0.0001) and showed a reduction in mortality for patients treated with anticoagulant (-0.37, 0.49 - 0.95; p=0.0273), antiviral (-1.22, 0.16 - 0.54; p<0.0001), or steroids (-0.59, 0.35 - 0.87; p=0.0117) therapy.

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