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SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    The Economic Impact of the SARS-COV-2 ( COVID-19 MESHD) Pandemic in Spain

    Authors: Jaime Pinilla; Patricia Barber; Laura Vallejo-Torres; Silvia Rodríguez-Mireles; Beatriz González López-Valcárcel G.; LLuis Serra-Majem

    id:10.20944/preprints202103.0469.v1 Date: 2021-03-18 Source: Preprints.org

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic MESHD has hit the Spanish economy hard. The result is an unprecedented economic and social crisis due to uncertainty about the remedy, and due to the socio-economic effects on people’s lives. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the macro-economic impact of COVID-19 MESHD in 2020, using the principal indicators of the Spanish economic and productive model. National statistics were examined in the search for impacts or anomalies MESHD occurring since the beginning of the pandemic. To estimate the strength of the impact on each of the indicators analysed, we used Bayesian structural time series. Results: In 2020, the cumulative impact on the Gross Domestic Product was of -11.41% [95% credible interval: -13.46; -9.29]. The indicator for Business Turnover fell by -9.37% [-12.71; -6.07]. The reduction in business activity was related to the sharp fall in demand. The Spanish employment market was strongly affected; our estimates showed a cumulative increase of 11.9% [4.27; 19.45] in the rate of unemployment during 2020. The autonomous communities which are economically the most heavily dependent on the services sector were those which recorded the worst indicators. Conclusions: Our estimates portray a dramatic situation in our country, and show all too clearly the fragility of a productive system which has to make the behavioural changes that are necessary to confront the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD.

    Are we back to normal yet? The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD on mental health with a specific focus on schizotypal traits in the general population of Germany and the UK, comparing responses from April/May vs. September/October

    Authors: Sarah Daimer; Lorenz Mihatsch; Lisa Ronan; Graham K Murray; Franziska Knolle

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.15.21251726 Date: 2021-02-17 Source: medRxiv

    Studies reported a strong impact on mental health during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD in March-June, 2020. In this study, we investigated the impact of the pandemic on mental health in general and on schizoptypal traits specifically in general population samples of the UK (N 1st timepoint=239, N 2nd timepoint= 126) and Germany (N 1st timepoint= 543, N 2nd timepoint=401) over two timepoints, April/May and September/October 2020. We were able to show that whereas general psychological symptoms (global symptom index, GSI) and percentage of responders above clinical cut-off for further psychological investigation declined from the first to the second timepoint in both countries, schizotypy scores (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire) were increased at the second timepoint. We investigated potential predictors, using regression models. For schizotypy, we detected a doubling or more of the estimated impact from the first to the second timepoint, including stronger perceived loneliness, increased use of drugs, stronger financial burden, and decreased regular exercise and sleep. These effects predicted GSI, however with a lower increase of impact from the first to the second timepoint. We furthermore found that living in the UK was a predictor for higher schizotypal scores or GSI. However, the results are highly comparable between the two countries. In conclusion, this study shows that while the general psychological impact decreases MESHD, potentially showing a normative response to an exceptional situation; schizotypy scores increase, revealing a stronger impact of loneliness, drug use, and financial burden. This development might create an increased risk for developing psychosis MESHD in some individuals. The development of the general psychological and schizotypy scores over time requires further attention and investigation.

    Clinical outcomes and risk factors for COVID-19 MESHD among migrant populations in high-income countries: a systematic review

    Authors: Sally E Hayward; Anna Deal; Cherie Cheng; Alison F Crawshaw; Miriam Orcutt; Tushna F Vandrevala; Marrie Norredam; Manuel Carballo; Yusuf Ciftci; Ana Requena-Mendez; Chris Greenaway; Jessica Carter; Felicity Knights; Anushka Mehrotra; Farah Seedat; Kayvan Bozorgmehr; Apostolos Veizis; Ines Campos-Matos; Fatima Wurie; Teymur Noori; Martin McKee; Bernadette Kumar; Sally Hargreaves

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.21.20248475 Date: 2020-12-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background Migrants, including refugees, asylum seekers, labour migrants, and undocumented migrants, now constitute a considerable proportion of most high-income countries' populations, including their skilled and unskilled workforces. Migrants may be at increased risk of COVID-19 MESHD due to their health and social circumstances, yet the extent to which they are being affected and their predisposing risk factors are not clearly understood. We did a systematic review to assess clinical outcomes of COVID-19 MESHD in migrant populations (cases, hospitalisations, deaths MESHD), indirect health and social impacts MESHD, and to determine key risk factors. Methods We did a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines, registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020222135). We searched databases including PubMed, Global Health, Scopus, CINAHL, and pre-print databases (medRxiv) via the WHO Global Research on COVID-19 MESHD database to Nov 18, 2020 for peer-reviewed and grey literature pertaining to migrants (defined as foreign born) and COVID-19 MESHD in 82 high-income countries. We used our international networks to source national datasets and grey literature. Data were extracted on our primary outcomes (cases, hospitalisations, deaths MESHD) and we evaluated secondary outcomes on indirect health and social impacts, and risk factors, using narrative synthesis. Results 3016 data sources were screened with 158 from 15 countries included in the analysis (35 data sources for primary outcomes: cases [21], hospitalisations [4]; deaths [15]; 123 for secondary outcomes). We found that migrants are at increased risk of infection and are disproportionately represented among COVID-19 MESHD cases. Available datasets suggest a similarly disproportionate representation of migrants in reported COVID-19 MESHD deaths, as well as increased all-cause mortality in migrants in some countries in 2020. Undocumented migrants, migrant health and care workers, and migrants housed in camps and labour compounds may have been especially affected. In general, migrants have higher levels of many risk factors and vulnerabilities relevant to COVID-19 MESHD, including increased exposure to SARS-CoV-2 due to high-risk occupations and overcrowded accommodation, and barriers to health care including inadequate information, language barriers, and reduced entitlement to healthcare coverage related to their immigration status. Conclusions Migrants in high-income countries are at high risk of exposure to, and infection with, COVID-19 MESHD. These data are of immediate relevance to national public health responses to the pandemic and should inform policymaking on strategies for reducing transmission of COVID-19 MESHD in this population. Robust data on testing uptake and clinical outcomes in migrants, and barriers and facilitators to COVID-19 MESHD vaccination, are urgently needed, alongside strengthening engagement with diverse migrant groups.

    Pandemic Informatics: Preparation, Robustness, and Resilience

    Authors: Elizabeth Bradley; Madhav Marathe; Melanie Moses; William D Gropp; Daniel Lopresti

    id:2012.09300v1 Date: 2020-12-16 Source: arXiv

    Infectious diseases cause more than 13 million deaths a year, worldwide. Globalization, urbanization, climate change, and ecological pressures have significantly increased the risk of a global pandemic. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic MESHD-the first since the H1N1 outbreak more than a decade ago and the worst since the 1918 influenza pandemic-illustrates these matters vividly. More than 47M confirmed infections and 1M deaths have been reported worldwide as of November 4, 2020 and the global markets have lost trillions of dollars. The pandemic will continue to have significant disruptive impacts MESHD upon the United States and the world for years; its secondary and tertiary impacts might be felt for more than a decade. An effective strategy to reduce the national and global burden of pandemics must: 1) detect timing and location of occurrence, taking into account the many interdependent driving factors; 2) anticipate public reaction to an outbreak, including panic behaviors MESHD that obstruct responders and spread contagion; 3) and develop actionable policies that enable targeted and effective responses.

    EXPLORING THE HEALTHY BEHAVIORS OF NIGERIANS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC MESHD.

    Authors: Ifeanyichukwu Meek Eyisi

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.25.20235457 Date: 2020-11-28 Source: medRxiv

    Healthy behaviors remain important for staying safe during the coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic. This study, therefore, explored the healthy behaviors of Nigerians during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD and the impact of COVID-19 MESHD related news on healthy behaviors. Thirty-three (17 females and 16 males) participants from the general Nigerian population with age range of 23-64 years were recruited via social media using the snowball technique. Responses were elicited using semi-structured questions and subjected to thematic analysis. The healthy behaviors identified included; social distancing, changes in nutrition, hand washing or sanitizing, exercise, increased vigilance from those with comorbidities, and use of facemask. In another analysis, the impacts of COVID-19 MESHD related news on healthy behaviors were; behavior modification, anxious impacts MESHD, and fake news about COVID-19 MESHD caused people to stop listening to COVID-19 MESHD related news. Findings generated practical implications for enhancing healthy behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. The role of the media in strengthening healthy behaviors during the pandemic was also highlighted.

    The Relationship between Psychological Impact and Self-control in Chinese Residents outside Hubei Province during the Epidemic of COVID-19 MESHD: The mediation of self-regulated fatigue

    Authors: Lian Xiong; Liangshi Yan; Xin Wang; Chu Yang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-99983/v1 Date: 2020-10-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Aim: This study aimed to study the psychological impact of COVID-19 MESHD on Chinese residents outside the Hubei province and the relationship among impact of event, self-regulated fatigue MESHD and self-control. Subject and Methods: The 400 questionnaires had been collected through an online survey platform from 30th January to 2nd February in 2020 and included 4 parts: (1) sociodemographic data; (2)The revised version of the Impact of Event Scale(IES-R); (3) Self-Regulatory Fatigue Scale( SRF HGNC-S); (4)Self control scale (SCS). Results: (1)There were significant differences between different levels of sociodemographic variables on IES-R, SRF-S MESHD SRF-S HGNC and SCS; (2) 75 (18.75%) residents reported a moderate-severe psychological impact MESHD; (3)There were significant differences between the previous researches and current study;(4)the high-score group of SCS had got significantly higher scores on  SRF HGNC-S and IES-R. (5) Self-regulated fatigue MESHD partially mediated the relationship between impact of event and self-control. Conclusion: We found that the residents suffered a psychological impact during the outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD .The more self-control they were, the more self-regulated fatigue MESHD and psychological impact they suffered, and self-control could not only had an direct influence on psychological impact but also had affected it indirectly through self-regulated fatigue MESHD

    Artificial intelligence to predict the risk of mortality from COVID-19 MESHD: Insights from a Canadian Application

    Authors: Brett Snider; Paige Phillips; Aryn MacLean; Edward A McBean; Andrew Gadsden; John Yawney

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.29.20201632 Date: 2020-09-30 Source: medRxiv

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD COVID-19 MESHD virus (SARS-CoV-2) has had enormous impacts MESHD, indicating need for non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) using Artificial Intelligence (AI) modeling. Investigation of AI models and statistical models provides important insights within the province of Ontario as a case study application using patients' physiological conditions, symptoms, and demographic information from datasets from Public Health Ontario (PHO) and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). The findings using XGBoost provide an accuracy of 0.9056 for PHO, and 0.935 for the PHAC datasets. Age is demonstrated to be the most important variable with the next two variables being Hospitalization and Occupation. Further, AI models demonstrate identify the importance of improved medical practice which evolved over the six months in treating COVID-19 MESHD virus during the pandemic, and that age is absolutely now the key factor, with much lower importance of other variables that were important to mortality near the beginning of the pandemic. An XGBoost model is shown to be fairly accurate when the training dataset surpasses 1000 cases, indicating that AI has definite potential to be a useful tool in the fight against COVID-19 MESHD even when caseload numbers needed for effective utilization of AI model are not large.

    Psychological Impact and Associated Factors During the Containment Stage of Covid-19 MESHD Epidemic Among College Students in China

    Authors: Mingyu Si; Xiao-You Su; Yu Jiang; Wen-Jun Wang; Xiao-Fen Gu; Li Ma; Jing Li; Shao-Kai Zhang; Ze-Fang Ren; Yuan-Li Liu; You-Lin Qiao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-80603/v1 Date: 2020-09-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background College students are a uniquely vulnerable group and may experience high stress levels due to COVID-19 MESHD. This study aims to identify the the psychological state and related factors on Chinese college students during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. Methods From February 23 to March 5, 2020, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 3606 college students from seven provinces in China using standard questionnaires measuring adverse psychological outcomes and related factors including Impact of Event Scale-6 ( IES-6 HGNC), Depression MESHD, Anxiety MESHD and Stress Scale (DASS), Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were used to determine underlying constructs of the perceived threat items. Multivariate regression was used to explore the determinants of adverse psychological impact MESHD. Results Posttraumatic stress MESHD ( PTS MESHD) were prevalent in this sample of college students, and 34.22% met the cut-off for posttraumatic stress disorder MESHD ( PTSD MESHD). The proportion of having mild to extremely severe symptoms of depression MESHD, anxiety MESHD and stress were 15.70%, 13.31% and 7.10%, respectively. The impact of closed-off management on life, perceived threat and passive coping strategies were positively correlated to PTS MESHD and DASS scores, while knowledge score, perceived social support and active coping strategies were negatively correlated to DASS scores. Conclusions In summary, adverse psychological symptoms MESHD were prevalent among college students in China during the COVID-19 MESHD epidemic. Identifying vulnerable populations and formulating correspondingly psychological interventions would be beneficial to improve the mental health during the COVID-19 MESHD epidemic.

    Impact of COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic on cancer care delivery : A Real World Experience

    Authors: Avinash Pandey; Mala Rani; Neelam Chandra; Mridula Pandey; Ravindra Singh; Kanchan Monalisa; Vikash Yadav; Shivkant Singh

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20183145 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background: There is lack of information on the impact of Corona Virus Disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic on routine cancer MESHD care delivery. Aims and Objectives : To evaluate the change in Day Care Chemotherapy ( DCC HGNC) and Out Patient Department (OPD) patient numbers before and after COVID-19 MESHD national lockdown. Material and Methods: Demographic data, diagnosis, type and frequency of chemotherapy delivered in Day Care between 1st February 2020 to 31st July 2020 were retrieved. Out Patient Department daily patient numbers were collected during above period. Descriptive statistics, Odds ratio, Chi-square and Student T test were used to measure change in pattern of DDC and OPD MESHD patient numbers before and after 24th March 2020 (day of Lockdown). Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the strength of correlation between rise in COVID-19 MESHD cases and patient numbers. Results: 3192 DCC HGNC and 8209 OPD visits were recorded in 126 working days. Median age was 47 years( SD + 19.06). Breast (17%) and Gall bladder MESHD( 15%) were the most common cancers MESHD receiving chemotherapy. There was a significant decrease in number of DCC HGNC delivered in post COVID lockdown [ mean 21.97 ( + 9.7)] compared to pre COVID lockdown [mean 33.30 (+11.4)], t=4.11, p = 0.001.Similarly, there was a significant decrease in number of OPD visits in post COVID lockdown [ mean 47.13 ( + 18.8)] compared to pre COVID lockdown [mean 89.91 (+30.0)], t=7.09, p = 0.001. The odds of receiving weekly chemotherapy over non weekly regimes significantly decreased post COVID lockdown with Odds ratio of 0.52 (95% CI, 0.36-0.75) with Chi square of 12.57, p =0.001. Daily COVID cases in State and OPD MESHD patient number were found to be moderately positively correlated on Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.35 ,p =0.001. Conclusion: There was a significant fall in patient visit and chemotherapy cycles immediately after lockdown. The numbers increased later despite rise in COVID-19 MESHD cases.

    On Statistical Power for Case-Control Host Genomic Studies of COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Yu-Chung Lin; Jennifer D Brooks; Shelley B Bull; France Gagnon; Celia MT Greenwood; Rayjean J Hung; Jerald Lawless; Andrew Paterson; Lei Sun; Lisa J Strug

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.26.20182840 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    The identification of genetic variation that directly impacts infection MESHD susceptibility and disease severity of COVID-19 MESHD is an important step towards risk stratification, personalized treatment plans, therapeutic and vaccine development and deployment. Given the importance of study design in infectious disease MESHD genetic epidemiology, we use simulation and draw on current estimates of exposure, infectivity and test accuracy of COVID-19 MESHD to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting host genetic factors associated with susceptibility and severity with published COVID-19 MESHD study designs. We demonstrate why studying susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD could be futile at the early stages of the pandemic. Our insights can aid in the interpretation of genetic findings emerging in the literature and guide the design of future host genetic studies.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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