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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (732)

NSP5 (34)

ProteinN (30)

ProteinS1 (28)

ComplexRdRp (23)


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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients Own Higher Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Long Chen; Li Zhong

    id:202002.0386/v1 Date: 2020-02-26 Source: Preprints.org

    Both lung adenocarcinoma and SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD could cause pulmonary inflammation MESHD. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC, not only as the functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2 but also play key role in lung adenocarcinoma. To study the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in lung adenocarcinoma patients, mRNA and miRNA profiles were obtained from TCGA and GEO databases followed by bioinformatics analysis. A regulatory network which regards angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC as the center would be structured. In addition, via immunological analysis about key factors in lung adenocarcinoma patients, to explore the essential reasons for the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2. Compared with normal tissue, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC was increased in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Furthermore, a total of 7 differently expressed correlated mRNAs ( ACE2 HGNC, CXCL9 HGNC, MMP12 HGNC, IL6 HGNC, AZU1 HGNC, FCN3 HGNC, HYAL1 HGNC and IRAK3 HGNC) and 5 differently expressed correlated miRNAs (miR-125b-5p, miR-9-5p HGNC, miR-130b-5p, miR-381-3p and miR-421 HGNC) were screened followed by enrichment analysis. Interestingly, toll-like receptor signaling pathway with the most frequent occurrence was enriched by mRNA ( IL6 HGNC) and miRNA (miR-125b-5p) sets simultaneously. Finally through comprehensive analysis, it was assumed that miR-125b-5p- ACE2 HGNC- IL6 HGNC axis in the structured regulatory network could alter risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    TWIRLS, an automated topic-wise inference method based on massive literature, suggests a possible mechanism via ACE2 HGNC for the pathological changes in the human host after coronavirus infection

    Authors: Xiaoyang Ji; Chunming Zhang; Yubo Zhai; Zhonghai Zhang; Yiqing Xue; Chunli Zhang; Guangming Tan; Gang Niu

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.24.20025437 Date: 2020-02-26 Source: medRxiv

    Faced with the current large-scale public health emergency, collecting, sorting, and analyzing biomedical information related to the "coronavirus" should be done as quickly as possible to gain a global perspective, which is a basic requirement for strengthening epidemic control capacity. However, for human researchers studying the viruses and the hosts, the vast amount of information available cannot be processed effectively and in a timely manner, particularly when the scientific understanding may be limited, which can further lower the information processing efficiency. We present TWIRLS, a method that can automatically acquire, organize, and classify information. Additionally, independent functional data sources can be added to build an inference system using a machine-based approach, which can provide relevant knowledge to help human researchers quickly establish subject cognition and to make more effective decisions. TWIRLS can automatically analyze more than three million words in more than 14,000 literature articles in only 4 hours. Combining with generalized gene interaction databases creates a data interface that can help researchers to further analyze the information. Using the TWIRLS system, we found that an important regulatory factor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) may be involved in the host pathological changes on binding to the coronavirus after infection. After triggering functional changes in ACE2 HGNC/AT2R, an imbalance in the steady-state cytokine regulatory axis involving the Renin-Angiotensin System and IP-10 HGNC leads to a cytokine storm.

    Discovery of potential drugs for COVID-19 MESHD based on the connectivity map

    Authors: Zhonglin Li; Tao Bai; Ling Yang; Xiaohua Hou

    doi:10.21203/rs.2.24684/v1 Date: 2020-02-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Corona virus infective disease MESHD 19 ( COVID-19 MESHD) is the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and spreads very rapidly, which become a worldwide public healthy crisis. Until now, there is no effective antivirus drugs or vaccines specifically used for its treatment. So it is urgent to discover efficient therapeutic methods. The same as SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 MESHD also invades organism by combining with Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC). Recently, there are reports about SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD host not only through the respiratory tract, but also gastrointestinal tract. However, it is proved that ACE2 HGNC plays a key role in protecting subjects from lung injury MESHD and resisting the inflammation MESHD caused by intestinal epithelial damage. Interestingly, the expression of ACE2 HGNC protein is reduced after SARS-CoV infection MESHD. Methods: According to the dataset of genes co-expressed with ACE2 HGNC in the colonic epithelial cells, we established a protein-protein interaction (PPI) Network and selected hub genes from them. The cluster analysis was performed to find out the dense region of the PPI Network. Then, gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis were performed to explore the main function of genes co-expressed with ACE2 HGNC. Finally, we predicted the potential drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 MESHD based on the connectivity map ( Cmap HGNC) . Results: We constructed a PPI network containing 125 hub genes of genes co-expressed with ACE2 HGNC in the colonic epithelial cells and obtained two modules through cluster analysis. The GO analysis and the KEGG pathway revealed these genes were aggregated in ribosome, exosomes, extracellular cellular components; structure constituent of ribosome, G-protein coupled receptor activity, MHC class I and II receptor activity biological processes; immune response, protein metabolism, signal transduction biological processes; and ribosome, graft-versus-host disease MESHD, viral myocarditis MESHD pathways. The result from Cmap HGNC indicated ikarugamycin, molsidomine had highly correlated scores with the query files. Conclusion: We found out that ikarugamycin and molsidomine were the potential drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 MESHD.

    Asians Do Not Exhibit Elevated Expression or Unique Genetic Polymorphisms for ACE2 HGNC, the Cell-Entry Receptor of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Ying Chen; Kejia Shan; Wenfeng Qian

    id:10.20944/preprints202002.0258.v2 Date: 2020-02-25 Source: Preprints.org

    The recurrent coronavirus outbreaks in China ( SARS-CoV MESHD and its relative, SARS-CoV-2) have raised speculations that perhaps Asians are somehow more susceptible to these coronaviruses. Here, we test this possibility based on an analysis of the lung-specific expression of ACE2 HGNC, which encodes the known cell-entry receptor of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 MESHD. We show that ACE2 HGNC expression is not affected during tumorigenesis, supporting that the abundant transcriptomes in cancer MESHD genomic studies can be informatively used to study ACE2 HGNC expression among diverse individuals without cancer MESHD. We find that ACE2 HGNC expression in the lung increases with age, but is not associated with sex. Further, Asians do not differ from other populations for ACE2 HGNC expression and do not harbor unique genetic polymorphisms in the ACE2 HGNC locus. Thus, beyond illustrating an innovative method for assessing the potential impacts of demographic factors for non-cancer diseases MESHD from large-scale cancer sample datasets, our statistically robust findings emphasize that individuals of all races require the same level of personal protection against SARS-CoV-2.

    Structural basis for receptor recognition by the novel coronavirus from Wuhan

    Authors: Jian Shang; Gang Ye; Ke Shi; Yushun Wan; Chuming Luo; Hideki Aihara; Qibin Geng; Ashley Auerbach; Fang Li

    doi:10.21203/rs.2.24749/v1 Date: 2020-02-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    A novel SARS-like coronavirus (2019-nCoV) recently emerged from Wuhan, China and is quickly spreading in humans. A key to tackling this epidemic is to understand the virus’s receptor recognition mechanism, which regulates its infection, pathogenesis, and host range. 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV MESHD recognize the same host receptor ACE2 HGNC. Here we determined the crystal structure of 2019-nCoV receptor-binding domain (RBD) (engineered to facilitate crystallization) in complex of human ACE2 HGNC.Compared with SARS-CoV MESHD, an ACE2 HGNC-binding ridge in 2019-nCoV RBD takes more compact conformations, causing structural changes at the RBD/ ACE2 HGNC interface. Adaptive to these structural changes, several mutations in 2019-nCoV RBD enhance ACE2 HGNC- binding affinity, contributing to the high infectivity of 2019-CoV. These mutations also reveal the molecular mechanisms of the animal-to-human transmission of 2019-nCoV. Alarmingly, a single N439R mutation in 2019-nCoV RBD further enhances its ACE2 HGNC- binding affinity, indicating possible future evolution of 2019-nCoV in humans. This study sheds light on the epidemiology and evolution of 2019-nCoV, and provides guidance for intervention strategies targeting receptor recognition by 2019-nCoV.

    Profiling ACE2 HGNC expression in colon tissue of healthy adults and colorectal cancer patients by single-cell transcriptome analysis

    Authors: Haoyan Chen; Baoqin Xuan; Yuqing Yan; Xiaoqiang Zhu; Chaoqin Shen; Gang Zhao; Linhua Ji; Danhua Xu; Hua Xiong; TaChung Yu; Xiaobo Li; Qiang Liu; Yingxuan Chen; Yun Cui; Jie Hong; Jing-Yuan Fang

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.15.20023457 Date: 2020-02-23 Source: medRxiv

    A newly identified novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has caused numerous acute respiratory syndrome MESHD cases in Wuhan China from December 2019 to Feb 2020. Its fast spreading to other provinces in China and overseas is very likely causing a pandemic. Since the novel coronavirus has been reported to be capable of endangering thousands of lives, it is extremely important to find out how the coronavirus is transmitted in human organs. Apart from fever MESHD and respiratory complications MESHD, gastrointestinal symptoms MESHD are observed in some patients with 2019-nCoV but the significance remains undetermined. The cell receptor angiotensin covering enzyme II ( ACE2 HGNC), which is the major receptor of SARS-nCoV MESHD, has been reported to be a cellular entry receptor of 2019-nCoV as well. Here, to more precisely explore the potential pathogen transmission route of the 2019-nCoV infection MESHDs in the gastrointestinal tract, we analyzed the ACE2 HGNC RNA expression profile in the colon tissue of healthy adults and colorectal cancer MESHD patients of our cohort and other databases. The data indicates that ACE2 HGNC is mainly expressed in epithelial cells of the colon. The expression of ACE2 HGNC is gradually increased from healthy control, adenoma MESHD to colorectal cancer MESHD patients in our cohort as well as in the external Asian datasets. According to the expression profile of ACE2 HGNC in colon epithelial cells, we speculate adenoma MESHD and colorectal cancer MESHD patients are more likely to be infected with 2019-nCoV than healthy people. Our data may provide a theoretical basis for the classification and management of future 2019-nCoV susceptibility people in clinical application.

    Two Things about COVID-19 MESHD Might Need Attention

    Authors: Xiaodong Jia; Chengliang Yin; Shanshan Lu; Yan Chen; Qingyan Liu; Junfan Bai; Yinying Lu

    id:10.20944/preprints202002.0315.v1 Date: 2020-02-23 Source: Preprints.org

    The spread of 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) throughout the world has been a severe challenge for public health. The human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) has a remarkably high affinity binding to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). By the search for network database and re-analysis of pubic data, we found the level of ACE2 HGNC expression in adipose tissue was higher than that in lung tissue, which indicated the adipose tissue might be vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 as well; the levels of ACE2 HGNC expressed by adipocytes and adipose progenitor cells were similar between non- obese MESHD individuals and obese MESHD individuals, but obese MESHD individuals have more adiposes so as to increase the number of ACE2 HGNC-expressing cells; the expression of ACE2 HGNC in tumor MESHD tissues posed by five different types of cancers MESHD increased significantly compared with that in adjacent tissues. Thus, we suggest that more attentions might be given to obese MESHD individuals and the five types of cancer MESHD patients during the outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD.

    Identification of a Potential Mechanism of Acute Kidney Injury During the Covid-19 MESHD Outbreak: A Study Based on Single-Cell Transcriptome Analysis

    Authors: Da Xu; Hao Zhang; Hai-yi Gong; Jia-xin Chen; Jian-qing Ye; Tong Meng; Si-shun Gan; Fa-jun Qu; Chuan-min Chu; Wang Zhou; Xiu-wu Pan; Lin-hui Wang; Xin-gang Cui

    id:202002.0331/v1 Date: 2020-02-23 Source: Preprints.org

    Purpose: Acute kidney injury MESHD ( AKI MESHD) is a severe symptom of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD), especially for patients in a critical condition.This study explored the potential mechanism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on AKI at the single-cell level. Methods: 15 normal human kidney samples were collected and analyzed using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Subsequently, we analyzed the components and proportions of kidney cells expressing the host cellular receptor ACE2 HGNC and the key protease TMPRSSs family, and analyzed the expression differences in Occidental and Asian populations. Results: We drafted the currently available world's largest human kidney cell atlas with 42,589 cells and identified 19 clusters through unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis. ACE2 HGNC and TMPRSSs genes were significantly co-expressed in podocytes and proximal convoluted tubules as potential host cells targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Comparative analysis showed that ACE2 HGNC expression in kidney cells was no less than that in the lung, esophagus, small intestine and colon MESHD, suggesting that the kidney may be an important target organ for SARS-CoV-2. In addition, given the high expression of ACE2 HGNC and kidney disease MESHD-related genes in Occidental donors relative to Asian donors, Occidental populations with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD might be a higher risk of of kidney injury MESHD.

    scRNA-seq Profiling of Human Testes Reveals the Presence of ACE2 HGNC Receptor, a Target for SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD, in Spermatogonia, Leydig and Sertoli Cells

    Authors: Zhengpin Wang; Xiaojiang Xu

    id:10.20944/preprints202002.0299.v1 Date: 2020-02-21 Source: Preprints.org

    In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in patients with pneumonia MESHD (called COVID-19 MESHD) in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. SARS-CoV-2 shares high sequence similarity and uses the same cell entry receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 ( ACE2 HGNC), as does severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) MESHD. Several studies have provided bioinformatic evidence of potential routes for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and urinary systems. However, whether the reproductive system is a potential target of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD has not been determined. Here, we investigate the expression pattern of ACE2 HGNC in adult human testis at the level of single-cell transcriptomes. The results indicate that ACE2 HGNC is predominantly enriched in spermatogonia, Leydig and Sertoli cells. Gene ontology analyses indicate that GO categories associated with viral reproduction and transmission are highly enriched in ACE2 HGNC-positive spermatogonia while male gamete generation related terms are down-regulated. Cell-cell junction and immunity related GO terms are increased in ACE2 HGNC-positive Leydig and Sertoli cells, but mitochondria and reproduction related GO terms are decreased. These findings provide evidence that human testes are a potential target of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD which may have significant impact on our understanding of the pathophysiology of this rapidly spreading disease.

    Bioinformatic Analysis Reveals That the Reproductive System is Potentially at Risk from SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Jiawei Zhang; Yuqi Wu; Rui Wang; Keshi Lu; Menjiang Tu; Huan Guo; Weijie Xie; Zizhen Qin; Shulin Li; Pei Zhu; Xiangwei Wang

    id:10.20944/preprints202002.0307.v1 Date: 2020-02-21 Source: Preprints.org

    An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in China towards the end of 2019, and has spread rapidly ever since. Previous studies showed that some virus could affect the reproductive system and cause long-term complications. Recent studies exploring the source of SARS-CoV-2 using genomic sequencing have revealed that SARS-CoV-2 enters the host cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme II ( ACE2 HGNC), the receptor that recognizes SARS-CoV. To investigate the expression of ACE2 HGNC and to explore the potential risk of infection in the reproductive system, we performed a thorough bioinformatic analysis on data from public databases involving RNA expression, protein expression, and single-cell RNA expression studies. The analyzed data showed high levels of ACE2 HGNC mRNA and protein expression in the testis and spermatids and equal levels of ACE2 HGNC expression in the uterus and lung. Comprehensive single-cell analysis identified ACE2 HGNC expression in the lung, testis, spermatids, and uterus. In conclusion, this study revealed the potential risk associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the reproductive system and predicted that long-term complications might have a significant impact on the prevention and management of COVID-19 MESHD, the disease caused upon infection with SARS-CoV-2.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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