Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (15)

ProteinN (6)

NSP5 (4)

ProteinS1 (3)

NSP3 (2)


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
    displaying 31 - 40 records in total 439
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    Compassionate use of rectal Ozone (O3) in severe COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD: a case-control study.

    Authors: Marcos Edgar Fernández-Cuadros; María Jesús Albaladejo-Florín; Sandra Alava-Rabasa; Juan Gallego-Galiana; Gerardo Fabiel Pérez-Cruz; Isabel Usandizaga-Elio; Enrique Pacios; David Torres-Garcia; Daiana Peña-Lora; Luz Casique-Bocanegra; María Jesús López-Muñoz; Javier Rodríguez-de-Cía; Olga Susana Pérez-Moro

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-02-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives: To evaluate effect of rectal Ozone in severe COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD and to compare to Standard-of-care (SOC). Material and Methods: In a case-control study, 14 patients with severe bilateral COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD (positive RT-PCR), treated with SOC and rectal Ozone, were evaluated before-and-after treatment and compared with SOC (14 patients) in a 10 day follow-up period. Ozone-protocol consisted of 8 sessions (1 session/day) of intra-rectal Ozone, (150mL volume, 35mg/ml concentration [5.25mg total dose]). The SOC-protocol included O 2- supply, antivirals (Remdesivir), corticosteroids (Dexamethasone/Metilprednisolone), monoclonal antibodies (Anakinra/Tocilizumab), antibiotics (Azytromicine), anticoagulants (Enoxaparine) and hyperimmune serum (if necessary). Primary outcome variables: a) clinical (O 2- saturation and O 2- supply); b) biochemical (Lymphocyte count, Fibrinogen HGNC, D-Dimer, Urea, Ferritin, LDH, IL-6 HGNC and CRP HGNC); c) radiological Taylor Scale. Secondary outcome variables: a) hospitalization length-of-stay, b) mortality-rate. Results: At baseline, Ozone/SOC-groups were not different on age, comorbidities, O 2 -saturation and O 2 -supply. Patients in Ozone-Group improved O 2- saturation and decrease O 2- supply. SOC maintained O 2- saturation and required more O 2- supply. Lymphocyte-count improved only in Ozone-group and with statistical difference (p<0.05). Biomarkers of inflammation MESHD ( Fibrinogen HGNC, D-Dimer, Urea, LDH, CRP HGNC and IL-6 HGNC) decreased in both groups, but only significantly in favor of Ozone-group (p<0.05). Ferritin showed a significant decrease in the Ozone-group but an increase on the SOC-Group. Radiological pneumonitis MESHD decreased on both groups but the decrease was only significant in the Ozone-Group (p<0.0001). Mortality and length-of-stay, although not significant, were inferior in Ozone-Group. Conclusion: Compassionate use of Rectal Ozone improved O 2 -saturation, reduced O 2 -supply, decreased inflammation MESHD biomarkers and improved Taylor’s radiological scale significantly when compared to SOC-Group. Mortality and length-of-stay was inferior in the Ozone-group, but this difference was not significant.

    The Age Again in The Eye of The Covid-19 MESHD Storm: Evidence-Based Decision Making.

    Authors: M. Carmen Martín; Aurora Jurado; Cristina Abad-Molina; Antonio Orduña; Oscar Yarce; Ana M. Navas; Vanesa Cunill; Danilo Escobar; Francisco Boix; Sergio Burillo-Sanz; María C. Vegas-Sánchez; Yesenia Jiménez-de las Pozas; Josefa Melero; Marta Aguilar; Oana Irina Sobieschi; Marcos López-Hoyos; Gonzalo Ocejo-Vinyals; David San Segundo; Delia Almeida; Silvia Medina; Luis Fernández-Pereira; Esther Vergara; Bibiana Quirant; Eva Martínez-Cáceres; Marc Boigues; Marta Alonso; Laura Esparcia-Pinedo; Celia López-Sanz; Javier Muñoz-Vico; Serafín López-Palmero; Antonio Trujillo; Paula Álvarez; Álvaro Prada; David Monzón; Jesús Ontañón; Francisco M. Marco; Sergio Mora; Ricardo Rojo; Gema González-Martínez; María T. Martínez-Saavedra; Juana Gil-Herrera; Sergi Cantenys-Molina; Manuel Hernández; Janire Perurena-Prieto; Beatriz Rodríguez-Bayona; Alba Martínez; Esther Ocaña; Juan Molina

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-02-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: One hundred million of contagions, more than 2 million deaths and less than one year of COVID-19 MESHD have changed our lives and our health management systems forever. Ageing is known to be one of the significant determinants for COVID-19 MESHD severity. Two main reasons underlie this: immunosenescence and age correlation with main COVID-19 MESHD comorbidities such as hypertension or dyslipidaemia MESHD. This study has two aims. The first is to obtain cut-off points for laboratory parameters that can help us in clinical decision-making. The second one is to analyse the effect of pandemic lockdown on epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory parameters concerning the severity of the COVID-19 MESHD. For these purposes, 257 of SARSCoV2 inpatients during pandemic confinement were included in this study. Moreover, 584 case records from a previously analysed series, were compared with the present study data. Results: Concerning the characteristics of lockdown series, mild cases accounted for 14.4%, 54.1% were moderate and 31.5%, severe. There were 32.5% of home contagions, 26.3% community transmissions, 22.5% nursing home contagions, and 8.8% corresponding to frontline worker contagions regarding epidemiological features. Age >60 and male sex are hereby confirmed as severity determinants. Equally, higher severity was significantly associated with higher IL6 HGNC, CRP HGNC, ferritin, LDH, and leukocyte counts, and a lower percentage of lymphocyte, CD4 HGNC and CD8 HGNC count. Comparing this cohort with a previous 584-cases series, mild cases were less than those analysed in the first moment of the pandemic and dyslipidaemia became more frequent than before. Age, lymphocyte count and LDH had similar distributions at both moments. IL-6 HGNC, CRP HGNC and LDH values above 69 pg/mL, 97 mg/L and 328 U/L respectively, as well as a CD4 HGNC T-cell count below 535 cells/μL, were the best cut-offs predicting severity since these parameters offered reliable areas under the curve. Conclusion: Age, sex and dyslipidaemia together with selected laboratory parameters on admission can help us predict COVID-19 MESHD severity and, therefore, make clinical and resource management decisions. Demographic features associated with lockdown could affect the homogeneity of the data and the robustness of the results.

    Dynamics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibodies Post- COVID-19 MESHD in a Brazilian Amazon Population

    Authors: Carlos David Araújo Bichara; Ednelza da Silva Graça Amoras; Gergiane Lopes Vaz; Maria Karoliny da Silva Torres; Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz; Isabella Pinheiro Costa do Amaral; Izaura Maria Vieira Cayres Vallinoto; Cléa Nazaré Carneiro Bichara; Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-02-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In this study, the prevalence and persistence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus MESHD) IgG was evaluated in volunteers 90 days after COVID-19 MESHD ( coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD) diagnosis by correlating response dynamics with clinical conditions, IL-1β HGNC and IL-6 HGNC cytokine levels, epidemiological characteristics, and disease severity. Methods: The study recruited 200 volunteers aged 18 years or older of both sexes diagnosed with COVID-19 MESHD. ELISA testing was performed to detect IgG persistence and cytokine levels in 135 individuals with a previous serological test at the time of COVID-19 MESHD diagnosis.Results: Among the 135 individuals who underwent a previous serological test for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody and provided a new blood sample 90 days after the first examination, 125 showed reactivity to IgG (92.6%). Of the 125 individuals with detectable IgG in the first test, 69.6% showed persistence of this antibody after 90 days; however, in 10 (30.4%) individuals, IgG was nonreactive in the second evaluation. The frequency of all reported symptoms was higher in individuals who maintained IgG persistence after 90 days of symptoms, and no relationship with cytokine levels was observed. Conclusions: The results of the present study show a high frequency of loss of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies within three months after COVID-19 MESHD diagnosis in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Exosomes from COVID-19 MESHD patients carry tenascin-C HGNC and fibrinogen-β in triggering inflammatory signals in distant organ cells

    Authors: Subhayan Sur; Mousumi B. Khatun; Robert Steele; Scott Isbell; Ranjit Ray; Ratna B Ray

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.08.430369 Date: 2021-02-09 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD causes cytokine storm and overshoot immunity in humans; however, it remains to be determined whether genetic material of SARS-CoV-2 and/or virus induced soluble mediators from lung epithelial cells as natural host are carried out by macrophages or other vehicles at distant organs causing tissue damage. We speculated that exosomes as extracellular vesicles are secreted from SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD cells may transport messages to other cells of distant organs leading to pathogenic consequences. For this, we took an unbiased proteomic approach for analyses of exosomes isolated from plasma of healthy volunteers and SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients. Our results revealed that tenascin-C HGNC ( TNC HGNC) and fibrinogen-{beta} ( FGB HGNC) are highly abundant in exosomes from SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patient's plasma as compared to that of healthy normal controls. Since TNC HGNC and FGB HGNC stimulate pro-inflammatory cytokines via NF-kB pathway, we examined the status of TNF-a HGNC, IL-6 HGNC and CCL5 HGNC expression upon exposure of hepatocytes to exosomes from COVID-19 MESHD patients and observed significant increase when compared with that from healthy subjects. Together, our results demonstrated that soluble mediators, like TNC HGNC and FGB HGNC, are transported through plasma exosomes in SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients and trigger pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in cells of distant organs in COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Neural epidermal growth factor-like 1 HGNC protein variant increases survival and modulates the inflammatory and immune responses in human ACE-2 HGNC transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Roopa Biswas; Shannon Eaker; Dharmendra Kumar Soni; Swagata Kar; Denae LoBato; Cymbeline Culiat

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.08.430254 Date: 2021-02-08 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) is a viral illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) and is a worsening global pandemic. COVID-19 MESHD has caused at least 1.7 million deaths worldwide and over 300,000 in the United States. Recently, two promising vaccines are being administered in several countries. However, there remains an urgent need for a therapeutic treatment for COVID-19 MESHD patients with severe respiratory damage MESHD that can lead to intensive care, prolonged hospitalization, or mortality. Moreover, an increasing population of patients manifest lingering disabling symptoms (called Long Haulers). Here, we tested the efficacy of a recombinant neural epidermal growth factor like 1 protein variant (NELL1-NV1) in a COVID-19 MESHD mouse model, transgenic mice expressing the human angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) receptor (tg-mice hACE2 HGNC) infected with SARS-CoV-2. The administration of NELL1-NV1 to SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD tg-mice hACE2 HGNC significantly improved clinical health score and increased survival. Analyses of bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid demonstrated decreased levels of several cytokines and chemokines (IFN-{gamma}, IL-10, IL-12 p70, CXCL-10/IP-10, MIG and Rantes), in NV1-treated treated mice compared to controls. Cytokines including IL-1 HGNC, IL-9 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, LIX/ CXCL5 HGNC, KC/ CXCL1 HGNC, MIP-2 HGNC/ CXCL2 HGNC, MIP-1 HGNC/ CCL3 HGNC, and G-CSF HGNC, critical to immune responses such as neutrophil recruitment, viral clearance and vascularization, were increased compared to controls. Our data suggest the potential of NELL1 HGNC-NV1-based therapy to mitigate the cytokine storm, modulate the abnormal immune response and repair respiratory tissue damage in COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Combination therapy of Tocilizumab and steroid for management of COVID-19 MESHD associated cytokine release syndrome: A single center experience from Pune, Western India

    Authors: Ameet Dravid; Reema Kashiva; Zafer Khan; Danish Memon; Aparna Kodre; Prashant Potdar; Milind Mane; Rakesh Borse; Vishal Pawar; Dattatraya Patil; Debashis Banerjee; Kailas Bhoite; Reshma Pharande; Suraj Kalyani; Prathamesh Raut; Madhura Bapte; Anshul Mehta; M Sateesh Reddy; Krushnadas Bhayani; S S Laxmi; P D Vishnu; Shipra Srivastava; Shubham Khandelwal; Sailee More; Rohit Shinde; Mohit Pawar; Amol Harshe; Sagar Kadam; Uma Mahajan; Gaurav Joshi; Dilip Mane

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.04.21249959 Date: 2021-02-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Cytokine release syndrome ( CRS MESHD) or cytokine storm is thought to be the cause of inflammatory lung damage MESHD, worsening pneumonia MESHD and death MESHD in patients with COVID-19 MESHD. Steroids (Methylprednisolone or Dexamethasone) and Tocilizumab (TCZ), an interleukin-6 receptor HGNC antagonist, are approved for the treatment of CRS in India. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of TCZ and steroids in COVID-19 MESHD associated CRS. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary level private hospital in Pune, India between 2nd April and 2nd November 2020. All patients administered TCZ and steroids for treatment of CRS were included. The primary endpoint was the incidence of all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes studied were the need for mechanical ventilation and incidence of infectious complications. Baseline and time-dependent risk factors significantly associated with death MESHD were identified by Relative risk estimation. Results: Out of 2831 admitted patients, 515 (24.3% females) were administered TCZ and steroids. Median age of the cohort was 57 (IQR: 46.5, 66) years. Almost 72 % patients had preexisting co-morbidities. Median time to TCZ administration since onset of symptoms was 9 days (IQR: 7, 11). 63% patients needed intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Mechanical ventilation was required in 242 (47%) patients. Of these, 44.2% (107/242) recovered and were weaned off the ventilator. There were 135 deaths (26.2%), while 380 patients (73.8%) had clinical improvement. Infectious complications like hospital acquired pneumonia MESHD, bloodstream bacterial and fungal infections MESHD were observed in 2.13 %, 2.13 % and 0.06 % patients respectively. Age [≥] 60 years (p=0.014), presence of co-morbidities like hypertension MESHD (p = 0.011), IL-6 HGNC [≥] 100 pg/ml (p = 0.002), D-dimer [≥] 1000 ng/ml (p < 0.0001), CT severity index [≥] 18 (p < 0.0001) and systemic complications like lung fibrosis MESHD (p = 0.019), cardiac arrhythmia MESHD (p < 0.0001), hypotension MESHD (p < 0.0001) and encephalopathy MESHD (p < 0.0001) were associated with increased risk of death MESHD. Conclusions: Combination therapy of TCZ and Steroids is likely to be safe and effective in the management of COVID-19 MESHD associated cytokine release syndrome. Efficacy of this anti-inflammatory combination therapy needs to be validated in randomized controlled clinical trials.

    Longitudinal Analysis of Inflammatory Response to SARS-CoV-2 in the Upper Respiratory Tract Reveals an Association With Viral Load, Independent of Symptoms

    Authors: Arnaud Didierlaurent; Vu Diem-Lan; Paola Martinez Murillo; Fiona Pigny; Maria Vono; Benjamin Meyer; Christiane S Eberhardt; Sylvain Lemeille; Elodie Von Dach; Geraldine Blanchard-Rohner; Isabella Eckerle; Angela Huttner; Claire-Anne Siegrist; Laurent Kaiser

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-02-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD leads to high viral loads in the upper respiratory tract that may be determinant in virus dissemination. The extent of intranasal antiviral response in relation to symptoms is unknown. Understanding how local innate responses control virus is key in the development of therapeutic approaches. MethodsSARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD patients were enrolled in an observational study conducted at the Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland, investigating virological and immunological characteristics. Nasal-wash and serum specimens from a subset of patients were collected to measure viral load and a cytokine panel at different time points after infection; cytokine levels were analyzed in relation to symptoms.ResultsSamples from 13 SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD patients and six controls were analyzed. We found an increase in CXCL10 HGNC and IL-6 HGNC, whose levels remained elevated for up to 3 weeks after symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD also induced CCL2 HGNC and GM-CSF HGNC, suggesting local recruitment and activation of myeloid cells. Local cytokine levels correlated with viral load but not with serum cytokine levels, nor with specific symptoms, including anosmia.ConclusionsThe nasal MESHD epithelium is an active site of cytokine response against SARS-CoV-2 that can last more than 2 weeks; in this cohort, anosmia MESHD was not associated with increases in any locally produced cytokines.

    Exaggerated cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein S1 and its inhibition by dexamethasone

    Authors: Olumayokun A Olajide; Victoria U Iwuanyanwu; Izabela Lepiarz-Raba; Alaa A Al-Hindawi

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.03.429536 Date: 2021-02-03 Source: bioRxiv

    An understanding of the pathological inflammatory mechanisms involved in SARS CoV-2 virus infection MESHD is necessary in order to discover new molecular pharmacological targets for SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein. In this study, the effects of a recombinant SARS CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein S1 was investigated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Stimulation with spike glycoprotein S1 PROTEIN (100 ng/mL) resulted in significant elevation in the production of TNF HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-1{beta HGNC} and IL-8 HGNC. However, pre-treatment with dexamethasone (100 nM) caused a significant reduction in the release of these cytokines. Further experiments revealed that S1 stimulation of PBMCs increased phosphorylation of NF-{kappa}B HGNC p65 HGNC and I{kappa}B, while increasing I{kappa}B degradation. DNA binding of NF-{kappa}B HGNC p65 HGNC was also significantly increased following stimulation with S1. Treatment of PBMCs with dexamethasone (100 nM) or BAY11-7082 (1 M) resulted in inhibition of S1-induced NF-{kappa}B HGNC activation. Activation of p38 HGNC MAPK by S1 was blocked in the presence of dexamethasone and SKF 86002. CRID3, but not dexamethasone pre-treatment produced significant inhibition of S1-induced activation of NLRP3 HGNC/ caspase 1 HGNC. Further experiments revealed that S1-induced increase in the production of TNF HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-1{beta HGNC} and IL-8 HGNC was reduced in the presence of BAY11-7082 and SKF 86002, while CRID3 pre-treatment resulted in the reduction of IL-1{beta HGNC} production. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein S1 stimulate PBMCs to release pro inflammatory cytokines through mechanisms involving activation of NF-{kappa}B HGNC, p38 MAPK and NLRP3 HGNC inflammasome. It is proposed that clinical benefits of dexamethasone in COVID-19 MESHD is possibly due to its anti-inflammatory activity in reducing SARS-CoV-2 cytokine storm.

    Administration of tocilizumab to patients with high concentrations of IL-6 HGNC in the course of COVID-19 MESHD is associated with a better prognosis

    Authors: Robert Flisiak; Jerzy Jaroszewicz; Magdalena Rogalska; Tadeusz Lapinski; Aleksandra Berkan-Kawinska; Beata Bolewska; Magdalena Tudrujek-Zdunek; Dorota Kozielewicz; Marta Rorat; Piotr Leszczynski; Krzysztof Klos; Justyna Kowalska; Pawel Pabjan; Anna Piekarska; Iwona Mozer-Lisewska; Krzysztof Tomasiewicz; Malgorzata Pawlowska; Krzysztof Simon; Joanna Polanska; Dorota Zarebska-Michaluk

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.28.21249932 Date: 2021-02-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background Despite the direct viral activity, the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) includes an overproduction of cytokines including interleukin 6 HGNC ( IL-6 HGNC). Therefore tocilizumab (TCZ), a monoclonal antibody against IL-6 HGNC receptors, became considered as a possible therapeutic option. Methods Patients were selected from the SARSTer national database, which included 2332 individuals with COVID-19 MESHD and the current study included 825 adult patients with moderate to severe course. The retrospective analysis was performed in 170 patients treated with TCZ and 655 without this medication or any other anti-cytokine therapy. The end-points of treatment effectiveness were a rate of death, need for mechanical ventilation, and clinical improvement. Results Patients treated with TCZ were balanced compared to non-TCZ regarding gender, age, BMI, and prevalence of coexisting conditions. The reduced death rate was demonstrated in patients treated with TCZ and baseline IL-6 HGNC >100 pg/ml (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.10-0.78), or those needing oxygen supplementations who worsened within 7 days of hospitalization (HR: 0.38, 95% CI:0.16-0.88). The best effectiveness of TCZ was achieved in patients with a combination of baseline IL-6>100 pg/ml and either SpO2[≤]90% (HR for death MESHD, mechanical ventilation, and clinical improvement after 21 or 28 days: 0.07, 0.14, 5.53, 5.18 respectively) or requiring oxygen supplementation (HR for death MESHD and clinical improvement after 21 or 28 days, 0.18, 2.66, 2.85 respectively). Conclusions Tocilizumab administered for COVID-19 MESHD in patients with a baseline concentration of IL-6>100 pg/ml is associated with reduced mortality and faster clinical improvement, particularly if there is a need for oxygen supplementation due to SpO2[≤]90%.

    Differential Cytokine Signatures of SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza Infection Highlight Key Differences in Pathobiology

    Authors: Andrew H Karaba; Weiqiang Zhou; Leon L Hsieh; Alexis Figueroa; Guido Massaccesi; Richard E Rothman; Katherine ZJ Fenstermacher; Lauren Sauer; Kathryn Shaw-Saliba; Paul W Blair; Sherry Leung; Russell Wesson; Nada Alachkar; Ramy El-Diwany; Hongkai Ji; Andrea L Cox

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.29.21250317 Date: 2021-02-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Several inflammatory cytokines are upregulated in severe COVID-19 MESHD. We compared cytokines in COVID-19 MESHD versus influenza in order to define differentiating features of the inflammatory response to these pathogens and their association with severe disease. Because elevated body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for severe COVID-19 MESHD, we examined the relationship of BMI to cytokines associated with severe disease. Methods: Thirty-seven cytokines and chemokines were measured in plasma from 145 patients with COVID-19 MESHD, 57 patients with influenza, and 30 healthy controls. Controlling for BMI, age, and sex, differences in cytokines between groups were determined by linear regression and random forest prediction was utilized to determine the cytokines most important in distinguishing severe COVID-19 MESHD and influenza. Mediation analysis was utilized to identify cytokines that mediate the effect of BMI on disease severity. Results: IL-18 HGNC, IL-1{beta HGNC}, IL-6 HGNC, and TNF HGNC- were significantly increased in COVID-19 MESHD versus influenza patients while GM-CSF HGNC, IFN-{gamma}, IFN-{lambda}1, IL-10 HGNC, IL-15 HGNC, and MCP-2 HGNC were significantly elevated in the influenza group. In subgroup analysis based on disease severity, IL-18 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, and TNF HGNC- were elevated in severe COVID-19 MESHD, but not severe influenza. Random forest analysis identified high IL-6 HGNC and low IFN-{lambda}1 HGNC levels as the most distinct between severe COVID-19 MESHD and severe influenza. Finally, IL-1RA HGNC was identified as a potential mediator of the effects of BMI on COVID-19 MESHD severity. Conclusions: These findings point to activation of fundamentally different innate immune pathways in SARS-CoV-2 and influenza infection MESHD, and emphasize drivers of severe COVID-19 MESHD to focus both mechanistic and therapeutic investigations.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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