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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (15)

ProteinN (6)

NSP5 (4)

ProteinS1 (3)

NSP3 (2)


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    Clinical characteristics of 36 non-survivors with COVID-19 MESHD in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Ying Huang; Rui Yang; Ying Xu; Ping Gong

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.27.20029009 Date: 2020-02-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background Although the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has caused over 2200 deaths in China, there was no study about death yet. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of non-survivors with COVID-19 MESHD. Methods For this retrospective, single-center study, we included 36 non-survivors with COVID-19 MESHD in the Fifth Hospital of Wuhan. Cases were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR between Jan 21 and Feb 10, 2020 according to the recommended protocol. The epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes were followed up until Feb 14, 2020. This study was approved by the ethics commissions of the Fifth Hospital of Wuhan, with a waiver of informed consent due to a public health outbreak investigation. Results We included 36 patients who died from COVID-19 MESHD. The mean age of the patients was 69.22 years (SD 9.64, range 50-90). 25(69.44%) patients were males, and 11 (30.56%) female. 26 (72.22%) patients had chronic diseases MESHD, mainly including hypertension MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD and diabetes MESHD. Patients had common clinical symptoms of fever MESHD (34 [94.44%] patients), cough (28 [77.78%] patients), shortness of breath MESHD (21 [58.33%] patients), and fatigue MESHD (17 [47.22%] patient). Chest computed tomographic scans showed that 31 (96.88%) patients had bilateral pneumonia MESHD. Lymphopenia MESHD occurred in 24 patients (70.59%), decreased albumin (30.18, [SD, 4.76]) in 25 patients (80.65%), elevated D-dimer (8.64 [IQR, 2.39-20]) in 27 patients (100%), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (502.5 U/L [IQR, 410-629]) in 26 patients (100%). Nearly all of the patients have elevated CRP (106.3 mg/L [IQR, 60.83-225.3]), PCT (0.61 ng/ml [IQR, 0.16-2.10]) and IL-6 HGNC (100.6 pg/ml [IQR, 51.51-919.5]). Most patients received antiviral therapy and antibiotic therapy, and more than half of patients received glucocorticoid therapy (25 [69.44%]). All the patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD ( ARDS MESHD). The median time from onset to ARDS MESHD was 11 days. One (2.78%) patient presented with acute renal injury MESHD. The median time from onset to death MESHD was 17 days. Interpretation Lots of patients died from COVID-19 MESHD till now. The median survival time of these non-survivors from onset to death was about 2 weeks. Most patients were older males with comorbidities. They finally progressed to ARDS MESHD. The median time from onset to ARDS MESHD was 11 days. Gradually decreased lymphocytes and increased inflammation MESHD biomarkers were common, and need to be monitored in the routine treatment.

    Correlation Analysis Between Disease Severity and Inflammation-related Parameters in Patients with COVID-19 MESHD Pneumonia

    Authors: Jing Gong; Hui Dong; Song Qing Xia; Yi Zhao Huang; Dingkun Wang; Yan Zhao; Wenhua Liu; Shenghao Tu; Mingmin Zhang; Qi Wang; Fuer Lu

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.25.20025643 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: medRxiv

    Aim: The new coronavirus pneumonia MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) outbreaking at the end of 2019 is highly contagious. Crude mortality rate reached 49% in critical patients. Inflammation matters MESHD on disease progression. This study analyzed blood inflammation MESHD indicators among mild, severe and critical patients, helping to identify severe or critical patients early. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 patients were included and divided to mild, severe or critical groups. Correlation of peripheral blood inflammation MESHD-related indicators with disease criticality was analyzed. Cut-off values for critically ill MESHD patients were speculated through the ROC curve. ResultsSignificantly, disease severity were associated with age (R=-0.564, P<0.001), interleukin-2 receptor ( IL2R HGNC) (R=-0.534, P<0.001), interleukin-6 HGNC ( IL-6 HGNC) (R=-0.535, P<0.001), interleukin-8 HGNC ( IL-8 HGNC) (R=-0.308, P<0.001), interleukin-10 HGNC ( IL-10 HGNC) (R=-0.422, P<0.001), tumor MESHD tumor HGNC necrosis MESHD factor ( TNF HGNC) (R=-0.322, P<0.001), C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC) (R=-0.604, P<0.001), ferroprotein (R=-0.508, P<0.001), procalcitonin (R=-0.650, P<0.001), white cell counts (WBC) (R=-0.54, P<0.001), lymphocyte counts (LC) (R=-0.56, P<0.001), neutrophil count (NC) (R=-0.585, P<0.001) and eosinophil counts (EC) (R=-0.299, P=0.01). ConclusionWith following parameters such as age >67.5 years, IL2R HGNC >793.5U/mL, CRP HGNC >30.7ng/mL, ferroprotein >2252g/L, WBC>9.5*10^9/L or NC >7.305*10^9/L, the progress of COVID-19 MESHD to critical stage should be closely observed and possibly prevented. Inflammation is closely related to severity of COVID-19 MESHD, and IL-6 HGNC, TNF HGNC and IL-8 HGNC might be promising therapeutic targets.

    Clinical characteristics of 82 death cases with COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Bicheng Zhang; Xiaoyang Zhou; Yanru Qiu; Fan Feng; Jia Feng; Yifan Jia; Hengcheng Zhu; Ke Hu; Jiasheng Liu; Zaiming Liu; Shihong Wang; Yiping Gong; Chenliang Zhou; Ting Zhu; Yanxiang Cheng; Zhichao Liu; Hongping Deng; Fenghua Tao; Yijun Ren; Biheng Cheng; Ling Gao; Xiongfei Wu; Lilei Yu; Zhixin Huang; Zhangfan Mao; Qibin Song; Bo Zhu; Jun Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.26.20028191 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background A recently developing pneumonia MESHD caused by SARS-CoV-2 was originated in Wuhan, China, and has quickly spread across the world. We reported the clinical characteristics of 82 death cases with COVID-19 MESHD in a single center. Methods Clinical data on 82 death cases laboratory-confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were obtained from a Wuhan local hospital's electronic medical records according to previously designed standardized data collection forms. Findings All patients were local residents of Wuhan, and the great proportion of them were diagnosed as severe illness when admitted. Most of the death MESHD cases were male (65.9%). More than half of dead patients were older than 60 years (80.5%) and the median age was 72.5 years. The bulk of death cases had comorbidity (76.8%), including hypertension MESHD (56.1%), heart disease MESHD (20.7%), diabetes MESHD (18.3%), cerebrovascular disease MESHD (12.2%), and cancer MESHD (7.3%). Respiratory failure MESHD remained the leading cause of death MESHD (69.5%), following by sepsis syndrome MESHD/MOF (28.0%), cardiac failure MESHD (14.6%), hemorrhage MESHD (6.1%), and renal failure MESHD (3.7%). Furthermore, respiratory, cardiac, hemorrhage MESHD, hepatic, and renal damage MESHD were found in 100%, 89%, 80.5%, 78.0%, and 31.7% of patients, respectively. On the admission, lymphopenia MESHD (89.2%), neutrophilia (74.3%), and thrombocytopenia MESHD (24.3%) were usually observed. Most patients had a high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio of >5 (94.5%), high systemic immune-inflammation index of >500 (89.2%), increased C-reactive protein level (100%), lactate dehydrogenase (93.2%), and D-dimer (97.1%). A high level of IL-6 HGNC (>10 pg/ml) was observed in all detected patients. Median time from initial symptom to death was 15 days (IQR 11-20), and a significant association between aspartate aminotransferase (p=0.002), alanine aminotransferase (p=0.037) and time from initial symptom to death were interestingly observed. Conclusion Older males with comorbidities are more likely to develop severe disease, even die from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Respiratory failure MESHD is the main cause of COVID-19 MESHD, but either virus itself or cytokine release storm mediated damage to other organ including cardiac, renal, hepatic, and hemorrhage MESHD should be taken seriously as well.

    Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients Own Higher Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Long Chen; Li Zhong

    id:202002.0386/v1 Date: 2020-02-26 Source: Preprints.org

    Both lung adenocarcinoma and SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD could cause pulmonary inflammation MESHD. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC, not only as the functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2 but also play key role in lung adenocarcinoma. To study the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in lung adenocarcinoma patients, mRNA and miRNA profiles were obtained from TCGA and GEO databases followed by bioinformatics analysis. A regulatory network which regards angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC as the center would be structured. In addition, via immunological analysis about key factors in lung adenocarcinoma patients, to explore the essential reasons for the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2. Compared with normal tissue, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC was increased in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Furthermore, a total of 7 differently expressed correlated mRNAs ( ACE2 HGNC, CXCL9 HGNC, MMP12 HGNC, IL6 HGNC, AZU1 HGNC, FCN3 HGNC, HYAL1 HGNC and IRAK3 HGNC) and 5 differently expressed correlated miRNAs (miR-125b-5p, miR-9-5p HGNC, miR-130b-5p, miR-381-3p and miR-421 HGNC) were screened followed by enrichment analysis. Interestingly, toll-like receptor signaling pathway with the most frequent occurrence was enriched by mRNA ( IL6 HGNC) and miRNA (miR-125b-5p) sets simultaneously. Finally through comprehensive analysis, it was assumed that miR-125b-5p- ACE2 HGNC- IL6 HGNC axis in the structured regulatory network could alter risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    Reduction and Functional Exhaustion of T Cells in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD)

    Authors: Bo Diao; Chenhui Wang; Yingjun Tan; Xiewan Chen; Ying Liu; Lifeng Ning; Li Chen; Min Li; Yueping Liu; Gang Wang; Zilin Yuan; Zeqing Feng; Yuzhang Wu; Yongwen Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.18.20024364 Date: 2020-02-20 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed great threat to human health, which has been declared a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) by the WHO. T cells play a critical role in antiviral immunity but their numbers and functional state in COVID-19 MESHD patients remain largely unclear. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the counts of total T cells, CD4+, CD8+ T cell subsets, and serum cytokine concentration from inpatient data of 522 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD, admitted into two hospitals in Wuhan from December 2019 to January 2020, and 40 healthy controls, who came to the hospitals for routine physical examination. In addition, the expression of T cell exhaustion markers PD-1 HGNC and Tim-3 HGNC were measured by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 14 COVID-19 MESHD cases. RESULTS The number of total T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were dramatically reduced in COVID-19 MESHD patients, especially among elderly patients ([≥]60 years of age) and in patients requiring Intensive Care Unit (ICU) care. Counts of total T cells, CD8+T cells or CD4+T cells lower than 800/L, 300/L, or 400/L, respectively, are negatively correlated with patient survival. Statistical analysis demonstrated that T cell numbers are negatively correlated to serum IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC and TNF HGNC- concentration, with patients in decline period showing reduced IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC and TNF HGNC- concentrations and restored T cell counts. Finally, T cells from COVID-19 MESHD patients have significantly higher levels of the exhausted marker PD-1 HGNC as compared to health controls. Moreover, increasing PD-1 and Tim-3 HGNC expression on T cells could be seen as patients progressed from prodromal to overtly symptomatic stages, further indicative of T cell exhaustion. CONCLUSIONS T cell counts are reduced significantly in COVID-19 MESHD patients, and the surviving T cells appear functionally exhausted. Non-ICU patients, with total T cells, CD8+T cells CD4+T cells counts lower than 800/L, 300/L, and 400/L, respectively, may still require aggressive intervention even in the immediate absence of more severe symptoms due to a high risk for further deterioration in condition.

    Aberrant pathogenic GM-CSF HGNC+ T cells and inflammatory CD14 HGNC+ CD16 HGNC+ monocytes in severe pulmonary syndrome patients of a new coronavirus

    Authors: Yonggang Zhou; Binqing Fu; Xiaohu Zheng; Dongsheng Wang; Changcheng Zhao; Yingjie Qi; Rui Sun; Zhigang Tian; Xiaoling Xu; Haiming Wei

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.12.945576 Date: 2020-02-20 Source: bioRxiv

    Pathogenic human coronavirus infections MESHD, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) MESHD, cause high morbidity and mortality 1,2. Recently, a severe pneumonia-associated respiratory syndrome MESHD caused by a new coronavirus was reported at December 2019 (2019-nCoV) in the city Wuhan, Hubei province, China3-5, which was also named as pneumonia-associated respiratory syndrome MESHD (PARS)6. Up to 9th of February 2020, at least 37, 251 cases have been reported with 812 fatal cases according to the report from China CDC. However, the immune mechanism that potential orchestrated acute mortality from patients of 2019-nCoV is still unknown. Here we show that after the 2019-nCoV infection MESHD, CD4+T lymphocytes are rapidly activated to become pathogenic T helper (Th) 1 cells and generate GM-CSF HGNC etc. The cytokines environment induces inflammatory CD14 HGNC+ CD16 HGNC+ monocytes with high expression of IL-6 HGNC and accelerates the inflammation MESHD. These aberrant and excessive immune cells may enter the pulmonary circulation in huge numbers and play an immune damaging role to causing lung functional disability and quick mortality. Our results demonstrate that excessive non-effective host immune responses by pathogenic T cells and inflammatory monocytes may associate with severe lung pathology. Therefore, we suggest that monoclonal antibody that targets the GM-CSF HGNC or interleukin 6 receptor HGNC may potentially curb immunopathology caused by 2019-nCoV and consequently win more time for virus clearance.

    COVID-19 MESHD in a Designated Infectious Diseases HospitalOutside Hubei Province,China

    Authors: Qingxian Cai; Deliang Huang; Pengcheng Ou; Hong Yu; Zhibin Zhu; Zhang Xia; Yinan Su; Zhenghua Ma; Yiming Zhang; Zhiwei Li; Qing He; Yang Fu; Lei Liu; Jun Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.17.20024018 Date: 2020-02-19 Source: medRxiv

    Background A new type of novel coronavirus infection MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province. Previous investigations reported patients in Wuhan city often progressed into severe or critical and had a high mortality rate.The clinical characteristics of affected patients outside the epicenter of Hubei province are less well understood. Methods All confirmed COVID-19 MESHD case treated in the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen,from January 11, 2020 to February 6, 2020, were included in this study. We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical features of these cases to better inform patient management in normal hospital settings. Results Among the 298 confirmed cases, 233(81.5%) had been to Hubei while 42(14%) had not clear epidemiological history. Only 192(64%) cases presented with fever MESHD as initial symptom. The lymphocyte count decreased in 38% patients after admission. The number (percent) of cases classified as non-severe and severe was 240(80.6%) and 58(19.4%) respectively. Thirty-two patients (10.7%) needed ICU care. Compared to the non-severe cases, severe cases were associated with older age, underlying diseases, as well as higher levels of CRP HGNC, IL-6 HGNC and ESR. The median (IRQ) duration of positive viral test were 14(10-19). Slower clearance of virus was associated with higher risk of progression to severe clinical condition. As of February 14, 2020, 66(22.1%) patients were discharged and the overall mortality rate remains 0. Conclusions In a designated hospital outside the Hubei Province, COVID-19 MESHD patients were mainly characterized by mild symptoms and could be effectively manage by properly using the existing hospital system.

    Longitudinal characteristics of lymphocyte responses and cytokine profiles in the peripheral blood of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients

    Authors: Jing Liu; Sumeng Li; Jia Liu; Boyun Liang; Xiaobei Wang; Hua Wang; Wei Li; Qiaoxia Tong; Jianhua Yi; Lei Zhao; Lijuan Xiong; Chunxia Guo; Jin Tian; Jinzhuo Luo; Jinghong Yao; Ran Pang; Hui Shen; Cheng Peng; Ting Liu; Qian Zhang; Jun Wu; Ling Xu; Sihong Lu; Baoju Wang; Zhihong Weng; Chunrong Han; Huabing Zhu; Ruxia Zhou; Helong Zhou; Xiliu Chen; Pian Ye; Bin Zhu; Shengsong He; Yongwen He; Shenghua Jie; Ping Wei; Jianao Zhang; Yinping Lu; Weixian Wang; Li Zhang; Ling Li; Fengqin Zhou; Jun Wang; Ulf Dittmer; Mengji Lu; Yu Hu; Dongliang Yang; Xin Zheng

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.16.20023671 Date: 2020-02-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The dynamic changes of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines profiles of patients with novel coronavirus disease ( COVID-19 MESHD) and their correlation with the disease severity remain unclear. Method: Peripheral blood samples were longitudinally collected from 40 confirmed COVID-19 MESHD patients and examined for lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry and cytokine profiles by specific immunoassays. Findings: Of the 40 COVID-19 MESHD patients enrolled, 13 severe cases showed significant and sustained decreases in lymphocyte counts but increases in neutrophil counts than 27 mild cases. Further analysis demonstrated significant decreases in the counts of T cells, especially CD8 HGNC + T cells, as well as increases in IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-2 HGNC and IFN-{gamma HGNC} levels in the peripheral blood in the severe cases compared to those in the mild cases. T cell counts and cytokine levels in severe COVID-19 MESHD patients who survived the disease gradually recovered at later time points to levels that were comparable to those of the mild cases. Moreover, the neutrophil-to- CD8 HGNC+ T cell ratio (N8R) were identified as the most powerful prognostic factor affecting the prognosis for severe COVID-19 MESHD. Conclusion: The degree of lymphopenia and a proinflammatory cytokine storm is higher in severe COVID-19 MESHD patients than in mild cases, and is associated with the disease severity. N8R may serve as a useful prognostic factor for early identification of severe COVID-19 MESHD cases.

    Characteristics of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in peripheral blood of 123 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia ( NCP PROTEIN)

    Authors: Suxin Wan; Qingjie Yi; Shibing Fan; Jinglong Lv; Xianxiang Zhang; Lian Guo; Chunhui Lang; Qing Xiao; Kaihu Xiao; Zhengjun Yi; Mao Qiang; Jianglin Xiang; Bangshuo Zhang; Yongping Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.10.20021832 Date: 2020-02-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background: To explore the cellular immunity and cytokines status of NCP PROTEIN patients and to predict the correlation between the cellular immunity levels, cytokines and the severity of patients. Methods: 123 NCP PROTEIN patients were divided into mild and severe groups. Peripheral blood was collected, lymphocyte subsets and cytokines were detected. Correlation analysis was performed on the lymphocyte subsets and cytokines, and the differences between the indexes of the two groups were analyzed. Results: 102 mild and 21 severe patients were included. Lymphocyte subsets were reduced in two groups. The proportion of CD8 HGNC + T reduction in the mild and severe group was 28.43% and 61.9%, respectively; The proportion of B cell reduction was 25.49% and 28.57%; The proportion of NK cell reduction was 34.31% and 47.62%; The detection value of IL-6 HGNC was 0 in 55.88% of the mild group, mild group has a significantly lower proportion of patients with IL-6 HGNC higher than normal than severe group; There was no significant linear correlation between the lymphocyte subsets and cytokines, while significant differences were noticed between the two groups in CD4 HGNC + T, CD8 HGNC + T, IL-6 HGNC and IL-10 HGNC. Conclusions: Low levels of CD4 HGNC+T and CD8 HGNC+T are common in severe NCP PROTEIN. IL-6 HGNC and IL-10 HGNC levels were higher in severe patients. T cell subsets and cytokines can be used as one of the basis for predicting the transition from mild to severe. Large number of samples are still needed to confirm the "warning value" of CD4 HGNC + T, CD8 HGNC + T IL-6 HGNC and IL-10 HGNC.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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