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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (9)

NSP5 (4)

ProteinS1 (2)

ProteinN (1)

NSP2 (1)


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    Network Representation Learning-Based Drug Mechanism Discovery and Anti-Inflammatory Response Against COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Wang Xiaoqi; Bin Xin; Zhijian Xu; Kenli LI; Fei Li; Wu Zhong; Weihong Tan; Shaoliang Peng

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12531314.v3 Date: 2021-01-18 Source: ChemRxiv

    Recent studies have been demonstrated that the excessive inflammatory response is an important factor of death in COVID-19 MESHD patients. In this study, we proposed a network representation learning-based methodology, termed AIdrug2cov, to discover drug mechanism and anti-inflammatory response for patients with COVID-19 MESHD. This work explores the multi-hub characteristic of a heterogeneous drug network integrating 8 unique networks. Inspired by the multi-hub characteristic, we design three billion special meta paths to train a deep representation model for learning low-dimensional vectors that integrate long-range structure dependency and complex semantic relation among network nodes. Using the representation vectors, AIdrug2cov identifies 40 potential targets and 22 high-confidence drugs that bind to tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α HGNC tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α MESHD or interleukin(IL)-6 HGNC to prevent excessive inflammatory responses in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Finally, we analyze mechanisms of action based on PubMed publications and ongoing clinical trials, and explore the possible binding modes between the new predicted drugs and targets via docking program. In addition, the results in 5 pharmacological application suggested that AIdrug2cov significantly outperforms 5 other state-of-the-art network representation approaches, future demonstrating the availability of AIdrug2cov in drug development field. In summary, AIdrug2cov is practically useful for accelerating COVID-19 MESHD therapeutic development. The source code and data can be downloaded from https://github.com/pengsl-lab/AIdrug2cov.git.

    Early immune pathology and persistent dysregulation MESHD characterise severe COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Laura Bergamaschi; Federica Mescia; Lorinda Turner; Aimee Hanson; Prasanti Kotagiri; Benjamin J. Dunmore; Helene Ruffieux; Aloka DeSa; Oisin Huhn; Mark R. Wills; Stephen Baker; Rainer Doffinger; Gordon Dougan; Anne Elmer; Ian G Goodfellow; Ravindra K. Gupta; Myra Hosmillo; Kelvin Hunter; Nathalie Kingston; Paul J. Lehner; Nicholas J. Matheson; Jeremy K. Nicholson; Anna M. Petrunkina; Sylvia Richardson; Caroline Saunders; James E.D. Thaventhiran; Erik J.M. Toonen; Michael P. Weekes; - CambridgeInstituteofTherapeuticImmunologyandInfectiousDisease-NationalInstituteofHealthResearch(CITI; Mark Toshner; Christoph Hess; John R. Bradley; Paul A. Lyons; Kenneth G.C. Smith

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.11.20248765 Date: 2021-01-15 Source: medRxiv

    In a study of 207 SARS-CoV2-infected MESHD individuals with a range of severities followed over 12 weeks from symptom onset, we demonstrate that an early robust immune response, without systemic inflammation MESHD, is characteristic of asymptomatic or mild disease. Those presenting to hospital had delayed adaptive responses and systemic inflammation MESHD already evident at around symptom onset. Such early evidence of inflammation MESHD suggests immunopathology may be inevitable in some individuals, or that preventative intervention might be needed before symptom onset. Viral load does not correlate with the development of this pathological response, but does with its subsequent severity. Immune recovery is complex, with profound persistent cellular abnormalities correlating with a change in the nature of the inflammatory response, where signatures characteristic of increased oxidative phosphorylation and reactive-oxygen species-associated inflammation MESHD replace those driven by TNF HGNC and IL-6 HGNC. These late immunometabolic inflammatory changes and unresolved immune cell defects, if persistent, may contribute to "long COVID".

    Cerebrospinal fluid in COVID-19 MESHD neurological complications: no cytokine storm or neuroinflammation.

    Authors: Maria A. Garcia; Paula V. Barreras; Allie Lewis; Gabriel Pinilla; Lori J. Sokoll; Thomas Kickler; Heba Mostafa; Mario Caturegli; Abhay Moghekar; Kathryn C. Fitzgerald; - Hopkins Neuro-COVID-19 Group; Carlos A Pardo; Sriram Subramaniam; Alyson Ann Ann Kelvin; Mohamed G. Al Kuwari; Hamad Eid Al Romaihi; Mohamed H. Al-Thani; Roberto Bertollini; Abdullatif Al Khal; Laith J Abu-Raddad; Menno D. de Jong; Marije K Bomers

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.10.20249014 Date: 2021-01-12 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND. Neurological complications MESHD occur in COVID-19 MESHD. We aimed to examine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of COVID-19 MESHD subjects with neurological complications MESHD and determine presence of neuroinflammatory changes implicated in pathogenesis. METHODS. Cross-sectional study of CSF neuroinflammatory profiles from 18 COVID-19 MESHD subjects with neurological complications categorized by diagnosis ( stroke MESHD, encephalopathy MESHD, headache MESHD) and illness severity (critical, severe, moderate, mild). COVID-19 MESHD CSF was compared with CSF from healthy, infectious and neuroinflammatory disorders MESHD and stroke MESHD controls (n=82). Cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, TNF-alpha HGNC, IFN-gamma HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-12p70, IL-17A HGNC), inflammation MESHD and coagulation markers (high-sensitivity- C Reactive Protein HGNC [hsCRP], ferritin, fibrinogen HGNC, D-dimer, Factor VIII) and neurofilament light chain ( NF-L HGNC), were quantified. SARS-CoV2 RNA and SARS-CoV2 IgG and IgA antibodies in CSF were tested with RT-PCR and ELISA. RESULTS. CSF from COVID-19 MESHD subjects showed a paucity of neuroinflammatory changes, absence of pleocytosis MESHD or specific increases in pro-inflammatory markers or cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, ferritin, or D-dimer). Anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD subjects (77%) were observed despite no evidence of SARS-CoV2 viral RNA. A similar increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, TNF-alpha HGNC;, IL-12p70) and IL-10 HGNC in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD and non- COVID-19 MESHD stroke MESHD subjects was observed compared to controls. CSF-NF-L was elevated in subjects with stroke MESHD and critical COVID-19 MESHD. CSF-hsCRP was present almost exclusively in COVID-19 MESHD cases. CONCLUSION. The paucity of neuroinflammatory changes in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD subjects and lack of SARS-CoV2 RNA do not support the presumed neurovirulence of SARS-CoV2 or neuroinflammation MESHD in pathogenesis of neurological complications in COVID-19 MESHD. Elevated CSF-NF-L indicates neuroaxonal injury MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD cases. The role of CSF SARS-CoV2 IgG antibodies is still undetermined.

    Efficacy of Doxycycline in treating COVID-19 MESHD Positive Patients: A Case Series

    Authors: Zohreh Akhoundi Meybody; Mohammad Bagher Owlia; Sina Owlia; Seyed Rohollah Mousavi nasab

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-141875/v1 Date: 2021-01-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Given the high morbidity and mortality caused by Coronavrus Disease MESHD 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD), scientific research is necessary to achieve a proper treatment regimen. Since doxycycline is effective in reducing inflammatory factors, including IL-6 HGNC and TNF-alpha HGNC that play an important role in initiating cytokine storms and probably causing death MESHD in patients with COVID-19 MESHD, its use is associated with low side effects, can be used orally, and is well tolerated, the present study was attempted to evaluate the efficacy of doxycycline in the treatment of inpatients and outpatients with COVID-19 MESHD.Methods This descriptive and prospective study was performed on inpatients and outpatients with COVID-19 MESHD from September 14, 2020, to September 28, 2020. The patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 MESHD based on polymerase chain reaction test (PCR) from nasopharyngeal secretions or computerized tomography scan (CT). Patients who met the inclusion criteria received doxycycline at a dose of 100 mg every 12 hours for 7 days and then were evaluated on the baseline day and on days 3, 7, and 14 after admission for cough, Shortness of breath MESHD ( SOB MESHD), temperature and oxygen saturation (O2 sat).Results Out of 21 patients, 11 patients were male and 10 patients were female. Three patients had diabetes MESHD, hypertension MESHD, and lymphoma MESHD. Only 2 patients were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), and no patients died. Cough, SOB MESHD, temperature, and O2 sat improved in both of outpatients and inpatients compared to baseline. In general, the results showed that doxycycline was more effective in improving cough, SOB MESHD, temperature, and O2 sat in outpatients than inpatients. No side effects were reported by the patients.Conclusion It can be concluded that doxycycline with the dose and duration prescribed in our study could play an effective role in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 MESHD. Its use improved patients’ cough, SOB MESHD, temperature, and O2 sat.

    Humoral and cell-mediated response in colostrum after exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD

    Authors: Vignesh Narayanaswamy; Brian Pentecost; Dominique Alfandari; Emily Chin; Kathleen Minor; Alyssa Kastrinakis; Tanya Lieberman; Kathleen F Arcaro; Heidi Leftwich

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.03.20248715 Date: 2021-01-04 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundColostrum provides an immune sharing between a mother and her infant. The transfer in colostrum of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and the elicited cytokines may provide crucial protection to the infant. There is limited literature on the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 present in colostrum. ObjectiveTo evaluate the presence of antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 and the associated cytokines in colostrum from women who tested positive for the virus. Study DesignBetween March and September 2020 we obtained bilateral colostrum samples collected on spot cards within 48 hours of delivery from 15 new mothers who had previously tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Five of these 15 COVID-19 MESHD positive women also provided bilateral liquid colostrum within 1-2 days of providing the spot card samples. Archived bilateral colostrum samples collected from 8 women during 2011-2013 were used as pre- COVID-19 MESHD controls. All samples were tested for reactivity to the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein using an ELISA that measures SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgA, IgG, and IgM, and for concentrations of 10 inflammatory cytokines ( IFN{gamma HGNC}, TNF HGNC, IL-1{beta HGNC}, IL-2 HGNC, IL-4 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-8 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-12, IL-13 HGNC) using a multiplex electrochemiluminescent sandwich assay. ResultsBilateral colostrum samples from 73%, 73% and 33% of the 15 COVID-19 MESHD mothers exhibited IgA, IgG, and IgM reactivity to RBD respectively. Colostrum samples from two of the 8 pre-pandemic controls showed IgA and IgG reactivity to RBD. Additionally, COVID-19 MESHD mothers had significantly higher levels of 9 of the 10 inflammatory markers (all except IFN{gamma HGNC}) as compared to the pre- COVID-19 MESHD controls. Comparable results were obtained with both the spot card-eluates and liquid samples. ConclusionsA strong humoral immune response is present in the colostrum of women who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 before delivering. High levels of 9 inflammatory markers were also present in the colostrum. The evolution and duration of the antibody response, as well as dynamics of the cytokine response, remain to be determined. Our results also indicate that future large-scale studies can be conducted with milk easily collected on paper spot cards.

    SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein S1 induces neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia

    Authors: Olumayokun A Olajide; Victoria U Iwuanyanwu; Oyinkansola D Adegbola; Oliver Artz; Daniele Rosado; Tara Skopelitis; Munenori Kitagawa; Ullas V Pedmale; David Jackson

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.29.424619 Date: 2020-12-29 Source: bioRxiv

    The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a global pandemic. In addition to respiratory complications as a result of SARS-CoV-2 illness MESHD, accumulating evidence suggests that neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms MESHD are associated with the disease caused by the virus. In this study, we investigated the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein S1 stimulation on neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia. Analyses of culture supernatants revealed an increase in the production of TNF HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-1{beta HGNC} and iNOS HGNC/NO. SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein S1 increased protein expressions of phospho-p65 and phospho-I{kappa}B, as well as enhancing DNA binding and transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B HGNC. Pro-inflammatory effects of the glycoprotein effects were reduced in the presence of BAY11-7082 (1 M). The presence of SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein S1 in BV-2 microglia increased the protein expression of NLRP3 HGNC, as well as caspase-1 HGNC activity. However, pre-treatment with CRID3 (1 M) or BAY11-7082 (1 M) resulted in the inhibition of NLRP3 HGNC inflammasome/ caspase-1 HGNC. It was also observed that CRID3 attenuated SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein S1-induced increase in IL-1{beta HGNC} production. Increased protein expression of p38 MAPK was observed in BV-2 microglia stimulated with the spike glycoprotein S1 PROTEIN, and was reduced in the presence of SKF 86002. These results have provided the first evidence demonstrating SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN S1 glycoprotein-induced neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia. We propose that promotion of neuroinflammation by this glycoprotein is mediated through activation of NF-{kappa}B HGNC, NLRP3 HGNC inflammasome and p38 MAPK. These results are significant because of their relevance to our understanding of neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms MESHD observed in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.

    Kinetics of Plasma Cytokines During and After Two Different Modalities of Extracorporeal Blood Purification in Critically Ill COVID-19 MESHD Patients

    Authors: Daniela Ponce; Welder Zamoner; Luis Eduardo Magalhães; Paula Gabriela Souza de Oliveira; Patricia Polla; Alexandre Naime Barbosa; Marjorie de Assis Golim; Andre Luis Balbi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-136018/v1 Date: 2020-12-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    Cytokine storm syndrome ( CSS MESHD) has been documented in coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) since the first reports of this disease. In the absence of vaccines or direct therapy for COVID-19 MESHD, extracorporeal blood treatment (EBT) could represent an option for the removal of cytokines and may be beneficial to improve the clinical outcome of critically ill MESHD patients. Intermittent haemodialysis ( IHD MESHD), using high flux (HF) or high cut-off membranes, and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) could be used for blood purification in COVID-19 MESHD patients with CSS. To the best of our knowledge, cytokine kinetics during and after different types of EBT on COVID-19 MESHD patients have never been studied. In this study, we describe cytokine variation and removal during and after IHD MESHD and CRRT in COVID-19 MESHD patients with acute kidney injury MESHD ( AKI MESHD). Methods: Patients with COVID-19 MESHD-related AKI MESHD according to Kidney Disease MESHD Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria and admitted at Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were studied. Blood samples were collected at the start and end of both IHD MESHD using HF membranes (10 patients) and continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF: 10 patients) in two sessions for measuring 13 different plasma interleukins and calculating the cytokine removal rate. Results: We evaluated cytokine removal in patients with COVID-19 MESHD-related AKI MESHD undergoing either prolonged IHD MESHD (10 patients) or CRRT (CVVHDF: 10 patients). There was no difference between the IHD MESHD and CVVHDF groups regarding mechanical ventilation, vasoactive drug use, age or prognostic scores. Patients treated by CRRT presented higher levels of IL-2 HGNC and IL-8 HGNC than patients treated by prolonged IHD at the start of dialysis. Cytokine removal ranged from 9–78%. Patients treated by CRRT presented higher cytokine removal rates than those treated by prolonged IHD for IL-2 HGNC, IL-6 IL-8, IP-10 HGNC and TNF HGNC. The removal rates of IL-4 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-1β HGNC, IL-17A HGNC, IFN HGNC, MCP-1 HGNC and free active TGF-B1 HGNC were similar in the two groups. After one session of CVVHDF (24 h) the IL-2 HGNC and IL-1β HGNC levels did not vary significantly, whereas IL-4 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-8 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-17A HGNC, TNF HGNC, IFN HGNC, IP-10 HGNC, MCP-1 HGNC, IL-12p70 and free active TGF-B1 HGNC decreased by 33.8–76%, and this decrease was maintained over the next 24 h. In the prolonged IHD groups, IL-2 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, TNF HGNC, IP-10 HGNC and IL-1β HGNC levels did not decrease significantly whereas IL-4 HGNC, IL-8 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-17A HGNC, IFN HGNC, MCP-1 HGNC, IL-12p70 and free active TGF-B1 HGNC decreased by 21.8–72%. However, all cytokine levels returned to their initial values after 24 h, despite their removal. Conclusions: Cytokine removal is lower using prolonged IHD MESHD with HF membranes than by using CVVHDF, and IHD MESHD allows a transient and selective decrease in cytokines that can be correlated with mortality during CSS-related COVID-19 MESHD.

    Altered Transcript Levels of Cytokines in COVID-19 MESHD Patients

    Authors: Majid Samsami; Alireza Fatemi; Reza Jalili Khoshnoud; Karim Kohansal; Arezou Sayad; Shabnam Soghala; Shahram Arsang-Jang; Mohammad Taheri; Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-126215/v1 Date: 2020-12-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD and the related disorder i.e. “ coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD” ( COVID-19 MESHD) have encouraged researchers to unravel the molecular mechanism of disease severity. Several lines of evidence support the impact of "cytokine storm" in the pathogenesis of severe forms of the disorder MESHD. We aimed to assess the expression levels of nine cytokine coding in COVID-19 MESHD patients admitted in a hospital. Expression levels of IFN-G HGNC, IL-2 HGNC, IL-4 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-17 HGNC, TGF-B HGNC, IL-8 HGNC and IL-1B HGNC were significantly higher in COVID-19 MESHD patients compared with healthy controls and in both female and male patients compared with sex-matched controls. However, expression of none of these cytokines was different between ICU-admitted patients and other patients except for IL-6 HGNC whose expression was lower in the former group compared with the latter (ratio of means = 0.33, P value = 4.82E-02). Expression of TNF-A HGNC was not different between COVID-19 MESHD patients and healthy controls. Then, we assessed diagnostic power of cytokine coding genes in differentiating between COVID-19 MESHD patients and controls. The area under curve (AUC) values range from 0.94 for IFN-G HGNC to 1.0 for IL-2 HGNC and IL-1B HGNC. After combining the transcript levels of all cytokines, AUC, sensitivity and specificity values reached 1.0, 1.0 and 0.99, respectively. For differentiation between ICU-admitted patients and other patients, IL-4 HGNC with AUC value of 0.68, had the best diagnostic power among cytokine coding genes. Expression of none of cytokine coding genes was correlated with the assessed clinical/demographic data including age, gender, ICU admission, or CRP HGNC/ESR levels. Our study provides further evidence for contribution of “cytokine storm” in the pathobiology of moderate/severe forms of COVID-19 MESHD.

    Highly functional virus-specific cellular immune response in asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Nina Le Bert; Hannah E Clapham; Anthony T Tan; Wan Ni Chia; Christine YL Tham; Jane M Lim; Kamini Kunasegaran; Linda Tan; Charles-Antoine Dutertre; Nivedita Shankar; Joey ME Lim; Louisa Jin Sun; Marina Zahari; Zaw M Tun; Vishakha Kumar; Beng Lee Lim; Siew Hoon Lim; Adeline Chia; Yee-Joo Tan; Paul Anantharajah Tambyah; Shirin Kalimuddin; David CB Lye; Jenny GH Low; Lin-Fa Wang; Wei Yee Wan; Li Yang Hsu; Antonio Bertoletti; Clarence C Tam; Martina Recalde; Paula Casajust; Jitendra Jonnagaddala; Vignesh Subbian; David Vizcaya; Lana YH Lai; Fredrik Nyberg; Daniel R. Morales; Jose D. Posada; Nigam H. Shah; Mengchun Gong; Arani Vivekanantham; Aaron Abend; Evan P Minty; Marc A. Suchard; Peter Rijnbeek; Patrick B Ryan; Daniel Prieto-Alhambra

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.25.399139 Date: 2020-11-27 Source: bioRxiv

    The efficacy of virus-specific T cells in clearing pathogens involves a fine balance between their antiviral and inflammatory features. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in individuals who clear SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD without symptoms or disease could reveal non-pathological yet protective characteristics. We therefore compared the quantity and function of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in a cohort of asymptomatic individuals (n=85) with that of symptomatic COVID-19 MESHD patients (n=76), at different time points after antibody seroconversion. We quantified T cells reactive to structural proteins (M PROTEIN, NP and Spike) using ELISpot assays, and measured the magnitude of cytokine secretion ( IL-2 HGNC, IFN-{gamma HGNC}, IL-4 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-1{beta}, TNF- and IL-10) in whole blood following T cell activation with SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools as a functional readout. Frequencies of T cells specific for the different SARS-CoV-2 proteins in the early phases of recovery were similar between asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. However, we detected an increased IFN-{gamma HGNC} and IL-2 HGNC production in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic individuals after activation of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in blood. This was associated with a proportional secretion of IL-10 HGNC and pro-inflammatory cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, TNF HGNC- and IL-1{beta} HGNC) only in asymptomatic infection, while a disproportionate secretion of inflammatory cytokines was triggered by SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell activation in symptomatic individuals. Thus, asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD individuals are not characterized by a weak antiviral immunity; on the contrary, they mount a robust and highly functional virus-specific cellular immune response. Their ability to induce a proportionate production of IL-10 HGNC might help to reduce inflammatory events during viral clearance.

    Preparing for the Storm: Mitigating the Effect of SARS-CoV-2 Induced Hypercytokinemia

    Authors: Adekunle Rowaiye; Okiemute Okpalefe; Olukemi Onuh; Joyce Ogidigo; Oluwakemi Oladipo; Amoge Ogu; Angus Oli; Samson Olofinase; Onyekachi Onyekwere

    id:10.20944/preprints202011.0604.v1 Date: 2020-11-24 Source: Preprints.org

    With increasing fatalities, the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD COVID-19 pandemic MESHD constitutes a formidable global health challenge. The causative agent, SARS-CoV-2 constantly tests the efficacy of the immune system of its victims. The protective ability of the innate immune system as the first responder largely determines the progression of disease and its clinical prognosis. Evidence suggests that mortalities associated with COVID-19 MESHD are largely due to hyperinflammation and a dysregulated immune response. Consequently, the degree of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL1 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, and TNF alpha HGNC remarkably distinguishes between mild and severe cases of COVID-19 MESHD. The early prediction of a cytokine storm is made possible by several serum chemistry and hematological markers. The prompt use of these markers for laboratory tests, and the aggressive prevention and management of a cytokine release syndrome is critical in determining the level of morbidity and fatality associated with COVID-19 MESHD. With respect to the SARS-CoV-2 and the host cell, this literature review focuses on the dynamics of the COVID-19 MESHD disease highlighting on the pathogenesis, and the markers of Cytokine Storm. It also proffers solutions by critically looking at the current and potential pharmacological agents that are or can be used to mitigate and manage cytokine storms.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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