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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (14)

NSP5 (4)

ProteinS1 (3)

ProteinN (2)

NSP2 (1)


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    Epidemiological and clinical features of 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease cases in Chongqing municipality, China: a retrospective, descriptive, multiple-center study

    Authors: Di Qi; Xiaofeng Yan; Xumao Tang; Junnan Peng; Qian Yu; Longhua Feng; Guodan Yuan; An Zhang; Yaokai Chen; Jing Yuan; Xia Huang; Xianxiang Zhang; Peng Hu; Yuyan Song; Chunfang Qian; Qiangzhong Sun; Daoxin Wang; Jin Tong; Jianglin Xiang

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.01.20029397 Date: 2020-03-03 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundIn January 19, 2020, first case of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia ( COVID-19 MESHD) was confirmed in Chongqing municipality, China. MethodsIn this retrospective, descriptive, multiple-center study, total of 267 patients with COVID-19 MESHD confirmed by real-time RT-PCR in Chongqing from Jan 19 to Feb 16, 2020 were recruited. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, radiological characteristics, laboratory examinations, and treatment regimens were collected on admission. Clinical outcomes were followed up until Feb 16, 2020. Results267 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD patients admitted to 3 designated-hospitals in Chongqing provincial municipality from January 19 to February 16, 2020 were enrolled and categorized on admission. 217 (81.27%) and 50 (18.73%) patients were categorized into non-severe and severe subgroups, respectively. The median age of patients was 48.0 years (IQR, 35.0-65.0), with 129 (48.3%) of the patients were more than 50 years of age. 149 (55.8%) patients were men. Severe patients were significantly older (median age, 71.5 years [IQR, 65.8-77.0] vs 43.0 years [IQR, 32.5-57.0]) and more likely to be male (110 [50.7%] vs 39 [78.0%]) and have coexisting disorders (15 [30.0%] vs 26 [12.0%]). 41 (15.4%) patients had a recent travel to Hubei province, and 139 (52.1%) patients had a history of contact with patients from Hubei. On admission, the most common symptoms of COVID-19 MESHD were fever 225(84.3%), fatigue (208 [77.9%]), dry cough (189 [70.8%]), myalgia or arthralgia (136 [50.9%]). Severe patients were more likely to present dyspnea (17 [34.0%] vs 26 [12.0%]) and confusion (10 [20.0%] vs 15 [6.9%]). Rales (32 [12.0%]) and wheezes (20 [7.5%]) are not common noted for COVID-19 MESHD patients, especially for the non-severe (11 [5.1%], 10 [4.6%]). 118 (44.2%). Most severe patients demonstrated more laboratory abnormalities. 231 (86.5%), 61 (22.8%) patients had lymphopenia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, respectively. CD4+T cell counts decrease was observed in 77.1 % of cases, especially in the severe patients (45, 100%). 53.1% patients had decreased CD+3 T cell counts, count of CD8+T cells was lower than the normal range in part of patients (34.4%). More severe patients had lower level of CD4+ T cells and CD+3 T cells (45 [100.0%] vs 29[56.9%], 31 [68.9%] vs 20 [39.2%]). Most patients had normal level of IL-2 HGNC, IL-4 HGNC, TNF HGNC- and INF-{gamma}, while high level of IL-6 HGNC and IL-17A HGNC was common in COVID-19 MESHD patients (47 [70.1%], 35 [52.2%]). Level of IL-6 HGNC, IL-17A HGNC and TNF HGNC- was remarkably elevated in severe patients (32 [84.2%] vs 15 [51.7%], 25 [65.8%] vs 10 [34.5%], 17 [44.7%] vs 5 [17.2%]). All patients received antiviral therapy (267, 100%). A portion of severe patients (38, 76.0%) received systemic corticosteroid therapy. Invasive mechanical ventilation in prone position, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy was adopted only in severe patients with respiratory failure (5[10.0%], 35[70.0%], 12[24.0%]). Traditional Chinese medicine was adopted to most of severe patients (43,86.0%). Conclusion:Our study firstly demonstrated the regional disparity of COVID-19 MESHD in Chongqing municipality and further thoroughly compared the differences between severe and non-severe patients. The 28-day mortality of COVID-19 MESHD patients from 3 designed hospitals of Chongqing is 1.5%, lower than that of Hubei province and mainland China including Hubei province. However, the 28-mortality of severe patients was relatively high, with much higher when complications occurred. Notably, the 28-mortality of critically severe patients complicated with severe ARDS is considerably as high as 44.4%. Therefore, early diagnosis and intensive care of critically severe COVID-19 MESHD cases, especially those combined with ARDS, will be considerably essential to reduce mortality.

    Correlation Analysis Between Disease Severity and Inflammation-related Parameters in Patients with COVID-19 MESHD Pneumonia

    Authors: Jing Gong; Hui Dong; Song Qing Xia; Yi Zhao Huang; Dingkun Wang; Yan Zhao; Wenhua Liu; Shenghao Tu; Mingmin Zhang; Qi Wang; Fuer Lu

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.25.20025643 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: medRxiv

    Aim: The new coronavirus pneumonia MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) outbreaking at the end of 2019 is highly contagious. Crude mortality rate reached 49% in critical patients. Inflammation matters MESHD on disease progression. This study analyzed blood inflammation MESHD indicators among mild, severe and critical patients, helping to identify severe or critical patients early. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 patients were included and divided to mild, severe or critical groups. Correlation of peripheral blood inflammation MESHD-related indicators with disease criticality was analyzed. Cut-off values for critically ill MESHD patients were speculated through the ROC curve. ResultsSignificantly, disease severity were associated with age (R=-0.564, P<0.001), interleukin-2 receptor ( IL2R HGNC) (R=-0.534, P<0.001), interleukin-6 HGNC ( IL-6 HGNC) (R=-0.535, P<0.001), interleukin-8 HGNC ( IL-8 HGNC) (R=-0.308, P<0.001), interleukin-10 HGNC ( IL-10 HGNC) (R=-0.422, P<0.001), tumor MESHD tumor HGNC necrosis MESHD factor ( TNF HGNC) (R=-0.322, P<0.001), C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC) (R=-0.604, P<0.001), ferroprotein (R=-0.508, P<0.001), procalcitonin (R=-0.650, P<0.001), white cell counts (WBC) (R=-0.54, P<0.001), lymphocyte counts (LC) (R=-0.56, P<0.001), neutrophil count (NC) (R=-0.585, P<0.001) and eosinophil counts (EC) (R=-0.299, P=0.01). ConclusionWith following parameters such as age >67.5 years, IL2R HGNC >793.5U/mL, CRP HGNC >30.7ng/mL, ferroprotein >2252g/L, WBC>9.5*10^9/L or NC >7.305*10^9/L, the progress of COVID-19 MESHD to critical stage should be closely observed and possibly prevented. Inflammation is closely related to severity of COVID-19 MESHD, and IL-6 HGNC, TNF HGNC and IL-8 HGNC might be promising therapeutic targets.

    Reduction and Functional Exhaustion of T Cells in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD)

    Authors: Bo Diao; Chenhui Wang; Yingjun Tan; Xiewan Chen; Ying Liu; Lifeng Ning; Li Chen; Min Li; Yueping Liu; Gang Wang; Zilin Yuan; Zeqing Feng; Yuzhang Wu; Yongwen Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.18.20024364 Date: 2020-02-20 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed great threat to human health, which has been declared a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) by the WHO. T cells play a critical role in antiviral immunity but their numbers and functional state in COVID-19 MESHD patients remain largely unclear. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the counts of total T cells, CD4+, CD8+ T cell subsets, and serum cytokine concentration from inpatient data of 522 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD, admitted into two hospitals in Wuhan from December 2019 to January 2020, and 40 healthy controls, who came to the hospitals for routine physical examination. In addition, the expression of T cell exhaustion markers PD-1 HGNC and Tim-3 HGNC were measured by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 14 COVID-19 MESHD cases. RESULTS The number of total T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were dramatically reduced in COVID-19 MESHD patients, especially among elderly patients ([≥]60 years of age) and in patients requiring Intensive Care Unit (ICU) care. Counts of total T cells, CD8+T cells or CD4+T cells lower than 800/L, 300/L, or 400/L, respectively, are negatively correlated with patient survival. Statistical analysis demonstrated that T cell numbers are negatively correlated to serum IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC and TNF HGNC- concentration, with patients in decline period showing reduced IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC and TNF HGNC- concentrations and restored T cell counts. Finally, T cells from COVID-19 MESHD patients have significantly higher levels of the exhausted marker PD-1 HGNC as compared to health controls. Moreover, increasing PD-1 and Tim-3 HGNC expression on T cells could be seen as patients progressed from prodromal to overtly symptomatic stages, further indicative of T cell exhaustion. CONCLUSIONS T cell counts are reduced significantly in COVID-19 MESHD patients, and the surviving T cells appear functionally exhausted. Non-ICU patients, with total T cells, CD8+T cells CD4+T cells counts lower than 800/L, 300/L, and 400/L, respectively, may still require aggressive intervention even in the immediate absence of more severe symptoms due to a high risk for further deterioration in condition.

    Clinical and immunologic features in severe and moderate forms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD

    Authors: Guang Chen; Di Wu; Wei Guo; Yong Cao; Da Huang; Hongwu Wang; Tao Wang; Xiaoyun Zhang; Huilong Chen; Haijing Yu; Xiaoping Zhang; Minxia Zhang; Shiji Wu; Jianxin Song; Tao Chen; Meifang Han; Shusheng Li; Xiaoping Luo; Jianping Zhao; Qin Ning

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.16.20023903 Date: 2020-02-19 Source: medRxiv

    Background Since late December, 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia MESHD cases caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, and continued to spread throughout China and across the globe. To date, few data on immunologic features of Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) have been reported. Methods In this single-centre retrospective study, a total of 21 patients with pneumonia MESHD who were laboratory-confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan Tongji hospital were included from Dec 19, 2019 to Jan 27, 2020. The immunologic characteristics as well as their clinical, laboratory, radiological features were compared between 11 severe cases and 10 moderate cases. Results Of the 21 patients with COVID-19 MESHD, only 4 (19%) had a history of exposure to the Huanan seafood market. 7 (33.3%) patients had underlying conditions. The average age of severe and moderate cases was 63.9 and 51.4 years, 10 (90.9%) severe cases and 7 (70.0%) moderate cases were male. Common clinical manifestations including fever MESHD (100%, 100%), cough (70%, 90%), fatigue MESHD (100%, 70%) and myalgia MESHD (50%, 30%) in severe cases and moderate cases. PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly lower in severe cases (122.9) than moderate cases (366.2). Lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in severe cases (7000 million/L) than moderate cases (11000 million/L). Alanine aminotransferase HGNC, lactate dehydrogenase levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein HGNC and ferritin were significantly higher in severe cases (41.4 U/L, 567.2 U/L, 135.2 mg/L and 1734.4 ug/L) than moderate cases (17.6 U/L, 234.4 U/L, 51.4 mg/L and 880.2 ug /L). IL-2R HGNC, TNF HGNC- and IL-10 HGNC concentrations on admission were significantly higher in severe cases (1202.4 pg/mL, 10.9 pg/mL and 10.9 pg/mL) than moderate cases (441.7 pg/mL, 7.5 pg/mL and 6.6 pg/mL). Absolute number of total T lymphocytes, CD4+T cells and CD8+T cells decreased in nearly all the patients, and were significantly lower in severe cases (332.5, 185.6 and 124.3 million/L) than moderate cases (676.5, 359.2 and 272.0 million/L). The expressions of IFN-{gamma HGNC} by CD4+T cells tended to be lower in severe cases (14.6%) than moderate cases (23.6%). Conclusion The SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD may affect primarily T lymphocytes, particularly CD4+T cells, resulting in significant decrease in number as well as IFN-{gamma HGNC} production, which may be associated with disease severity. Together with clinical characteristics, early immunologic indicators including diminished T lymphocytes and elevated cytokines may serve as potential markers for prognosis in COVID-19 MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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