Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Hypertension (489)

Fever (107)

Cough (94)

Pneumonia (83)

Obesity (78)


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 489
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    Experiences of Women Who Gave Birth MESHD in US Hospitals During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Authors: Elizabeth Mollard; Amaya Wittmaack; Anna Nemudraia; Laina N. Hall; Pushya Krishna; Tanner Wiegand; Royce A. Wilkinson; Deann T. Snyder; Jodi F. Hedges; Mark A. Jutila; Matthew P. Taylor; Blake Wiedenheft; Jess Shen; Christine Bruce; Bryn Hazlett; Susan Poutanen; Lilliana Attisano; Rod Bremner; Benjamin Blencowe; Tony Mazzulli; Hong Han; Laurence Pelletier; Jeffrey L Wrana

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.15.20213504 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of women who gave birth in a US hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic. Women who gave birth between March and July 2020 completed a survey on the experience of giving birth during a pandemic. 885 women were consented and participated in the study. 22.5% of women reported hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, 33.8% reported anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, 18.6% reported depression MESHD, and 1.13% reported testing positive for COVID-19. 61% of women reported inadequate support for childbirth, and 20.5% reported that they did not feel safe giving birth in the hospital. Women who tested positive for COVID-19 were more likely to be of Asian race, have a cesarean section, not have a birth partner present, and discontinue breastfeeding before 6 weeks. Pandemic related changes to maternity care practices may have impacted birthing women's perceptions of safety and support in the hospital environment and affected symptoms of stress. Healthcare policy and maternity care practices should promote feelings of safety and control and overall experience for women giving birth in the hospital during a pandemic.

    Correlation of COVID-19 Mortality with Clinical Parameters in an Urban and Suburban Nursing Home Population

    Authors: Richard S Kirby; John A Kirby; Asad Shah; Abeer Al Helali; Emadullah Raidullah; Ameirah Al Ali; Mohammed Elghazali; Deena Ahmed; Shaikha Al Kaabi; Safaa Almazrouei; Juan M Lavista Ferres; Jane Eddleston; Chris Brookes; Christopher Harrison; Weiqi Liu; Tianyi Liu; Jin-Wen Song; Liangliang Sun; Fan Yang; Xin Zhang; Bo Zhang; Ming Shi; Fanping Meng; Yanning Song; Yongpei Yu; Jiqiu Wen; Qi Li; Qing Mao; Markus Maeurer; Alimuddin Zumla; Chen Yao; Weifen Xie; Fu-Sheng Wang; Anthony Atala; Ali Ghodsizad; Joshua M Hare

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.15.20213629 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    Importance and Objective: COVID-19 has a high mortality rate amongst nursing home populations (26.4% nationally and 28.3% in New Jersey). Identification of factors influencing mortality in COVID-19 positive nursing home populations may help direct physicians towards appropriate glycemic, blood SERO pressure, weight, kidney function, lipid, thyroid, and hematologic management to reduce COVID-19 mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients in two nursing home facilities (one urban, one suburban) from 3/16/2020 to 7/13/2020 with positive COVID-19 PCR assays. Age TRANS, race, sex, lipids, hematologic parameters, body mass index, blood SERO pressure, thyroid function, albumin, blood SERO urea nitrogen, creatinine, and hemoglobin A1c were correlated with COVID-19 mortality by chi-squared analysis. Main Outcome and Results: 56 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. Mortality was 14.3% while the New Jersey nursing home average mortality rate was 28.3% as of August 2020. Our patient cohort had a 49.5% reduction in mortality compared to the state average. In our overall cohort, none of the clinical parameters correlated with COVID-19 mortality using chi-squared analysis. In the 56 patient cohort, average clinical and laboratory findings were 74.0 years, 62.5% female TRANS, 28.5% uncontrolled hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, BMI 25.6, hemoglobin A1c 6.4, TSH 2.4, vitamin B12 568.3, folate 12.4, iron 47.8, total iron binding capacity 271.8, hemoglobin 11.6, albumin 3.5, triglycerides 100.3, total cholesterol 133.5, HDL 40.9, and BUN to Creatinine ratio 22.2:1. Logistic multivariate regression analyses failed to demonstrate clinically significant correlation with COVID-19 mortality. In the urban nursing home, BUN to creatinine ratio exceeding 20:1 was the only factor that showed statistical significance to COVID-19 mortality (p = 0.03). In the suburban nursing home, age TRANS over 80 was the only clinical factor demonstrating statistical significance to COVID-19 mortality (p = 0.003). Conclusions and Relevance: In our COVID-19 positive nursing home patients, no one parameter was clinically significant in the overall 56-patient cohort; however, mortality in our population was 14.3% compared to New Jerseys 28.3%, a 49.5% reduction in mortality. Rigorous control of the aforementioned clinical parameters may have contributed to this reduction in mortality. Further research requires analysis of more nursing home patients to determine whether rigorous control of clinical parameters decreases mortality from COVID-19.

    Multi-organ impairment in low-risk individuals with long COVID

    Authors: Andrea Dennis; Malgorzata Wamil; Sandeep Kapur; Johann Alberts; Andrew Badley; Gustav Anton Decker; Stacey A Rizza; Rajarshi Banerjee; Amitava Banerjee; Mauro Giudici; Giovanni Naldi; Sabrina Gaito; Silvana Castaldi; Elia Biganzoli; Sachee Agrawal; Chandrakant Pawar; Mala Kaneria; Smita Mahale; Jayanthi Shastri; Vainav Patel; Paul Dark; Alexander Mathioudakis; Kathryn Gray; Graham Lord; Timothy Felton; Chris Brightling; Ling-Pei Ho; - NIHR Respiratory TRC; - CIRCO; Karen Piper Hanley; Angela Simpson; John R Grainger; Tracy Hussell; Elizabeth R Mann

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.14.20212555 Date: 2020-10-16 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD has disproportionately affected older individuals and those with underlying medical conditions. Research has focused on short-term outcomes in hospital, and single organ involvement. Consequently, impact of long COVID (persistent symptoms three months post-infection) across multiple organs in low-risk individuals is yet to be assessed. Methods: An ongoing prospective, longitudinal, two-centre, observational study was performed in individuals symptomatic after recovery from acute SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Symptoms and organ function (heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, pancreas, spleen) were assessed by standardised questionnaires (EQ-5D-5L, Dyspnoea-12 MESHD), blood SERO investigations and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging, defining single and multi-organ impairment by consensus definitions. Findings: Between April and September 2020, 201 individuals (mean age TRANS 44 (SD 11.0) years, 70% female TRANS, 87% white, 31% healthcare workers) completed assessments following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (median 140, IQR 105-160 days after initial symptoms). The prevalence SERO of pre-existing conditions ( obesity HP obesity MESHD: 20%, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD: 6%; diabetes MESHD: 2%; heart disease MESHD: 4%) was low, and only 18% of individuals had been hospitalised with COVID-19. Fatigue HP (98%), muscle aches MESHD (88%), breathlessness (87%), and headaches HP headaches MESHD (83%) were the most frequently reported symptoms. Ongoing cardiorespiratory (92%) and gastrointestinal (73%) symptoms were common, and 42% of individuals had ten or more symptoms. There was evidence of mild organ impairment in heart (32%), lungs (33%), kidneys (12%), liver (10%), pancreas MESHD (17%), and spleen (6%). Single (66%) and multi-organ (25%) impairment was observed, and was significantly associated with risk of prior COVID-19 hospitalisation (p<0.05). Interpretation: In a young, low-risk population with ongoing symptoms, almost 70% of individuals have impairment in one or more organs four months after initial symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. There are implications not only for burden of long COVID but also public health approaches which have assumed low risk in young people with no comorbidities.

    Change of disease distribution in pediatric neurology inpatients during the COVID-19 outbreak in southwest China

    Authors: Xueping Wang; Wenguang Hu; Jialei Chen; Ling Liu

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-10-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    This study aimed to investigate the change of disease distribution in pediatric neurology inpatients during the COVID-19 outbreak in southwest China. We retrospectively extracted the demographic data and diagnosis of discharged patients registered at pediatric neurology department of Chengdu Women’s and Children’s Central Hospital from January 1 to July 31, 2019 and January 1 to July 31, 2020. Total number of inpatients decreased during COVID-19 outbreak. Children TRANS diagnosed as febrile seizure HP febrile seizure MESHD caused by infection (1799/60.7% vs 980/59%, P = 0.141), dyskinesia HP dyskinesia MESHD (31/1.0% vs 28/1.7%, P = 0.075) and benign intracranial hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (41/1.4% vs 21/1.3%, P = 0.791) did not change. While children TRANS diagnosed as epilepsy MESHD (304/10.3% vs 348/21%, P < 0.001), migraine HP migraine MESHD (25/0.8% vs 31/1.9%, P = 0.003), mental disease MESHD (24/0.8% vs 43/2.6%, P < 0.001) and peripheral neuropathy HP peripheral neuropathy MESHD (38/1.3% vs 43/2.6%, P = 0.001) increased in 2020. Children TRANS diagnosed as intracranial infection MESHD (535/18% vs113/6.8%, P < 0.001) and myopathy HP myopathy MESHD (106/3.6% in vs 22/2.0%, P = 0.003) reduced in 2020. Conclusions: We found a significant increase in the proportion of mood-related diseases, while disease caused by infection decreased. We should pay attention to children’s mental state during the public health epidemic and the management of chronic disease MESHD.

    Impact of COVID-19 Restrictions on People with Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD

    Authors: Carissa Bonner; Erin Cvejic; Julie Ayre; Jennifer Isautier; Christopher Semsarian; Brooke Nickel; Carys Batcup; Kristen Pickles; Rachael Dodd; Samuel Cornell; Tessa Copp; Kirsten J McCaffery; Olav Rooyackers; Lars I. Eriksson; Anders Sonnerborg; Soo Aleman; Kristoffer Stralin; Sara Gredmark-Russ; Jonas Klingstrom; Jenny Mjosberg; - the Karolinska KI/K COVID-19 Study Group; Mervyn Andiapen; Marianna Fontana; Angelique Smit; Amanda Semper; Ben O'Brien; Benjamin Chain; Tim Brooks; Charlotte Manisty; Thomas Treibel; James Moon; - COVIDsortium Investigators; Mahdad C. Noursadeghi; - COVIDsortium Immune correlates network; Daniel M Altmann; Mala K. Mani; Aine McKnight; Rosemary J. Boyton; DANIEL PRIETO-ALHAMBRA

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.12.20211722 Date: 2020-10-14 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: It is unclear how people with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD are responding to the COVID-19 pandemic given their increased risk, and whether targeted public health strategies are needed. Design: This retrospective case-control study compared people with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD to matched healthy controls during COVID-19 lockdown, to determine whether they have higher risk perceptions, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and prevention intentions. Methods: Baseline data from a national survey were collected in April 2020 during COVID-19 lockdown. Of 4362 baseline participants, 466 people reported hypertension HP hypertension MESHD with no other chronic conditions, and were randomly matched to healthy controls with similar age TRANS, gender TRANS, education and health literacy. A subset (n=1369) was followed-up at 2 months after restrictions eased, including 147 participants with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD only. Risk perceptions, prevention intentions and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD were measured. Results: At baseline, perceived seriousness was high for both hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and control groups. The hypertension HP hypertension MESHD group had higher anxiety HP anxiety MESHD than controls; and were more willing to have the influenza vaccine. At follow-up, these differences were no longer present in the longitudinal sub-sample. Perceived seriousness and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD had decreased, but vaccine intentions for both influenza and COVID-19 remained high (>80%). Conclusions: Anxiety HP Anxiety MESHD was above normal levels during the COVID-19 lockdown. This was higher in the hypertension HP hypertension MESHD group, who also had higher vaccination intentions. Locations with prolonged restrictions may require targeted mental health screening for vulnerable groups. Despite a decrease in perceived risk and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD after 2 months of lockdown restrictions, vaccination intentions for both influenza and COVID-19 remained high, which is encouraging for future prevention of COVID-19.

    Predictors of mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Athens, Greece

    Authors: Dimitrios Giannoglou; Evangelia Meimeti; Xenia Provatopoulou; Kostantinos Stathopoulos; Kriton-Ioannis Roukas; Petros Galanis

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.12.20211193 Date: 2020-10-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The epidemic of COVID-19 has rapidly spread worldwide, with millions of confirmed cases TRANS and related deaths. Numerous efforts are being made to clarify how the infection progresses and potential factors associated with disease severity and mortality. We investigated the mortality in Greek hospitalized COVID-19 patients and also the predictors of this mortality. Methods: Study population included 512 COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospitals of the Attica region of Greece. Patients demographic characteristics, comorbidities, allergies HP allergies MESHD, previous vaccination for seasonal influenza virus, admission to ICU, intubation, and death MESHD were recorded. Potential predictors of in-hospital mortality were identified by regression analysis. Results: The mean age TRANS of hospitalized patients was 60.4 years, and was higher in patients who deceased. The most common comorbidities were respiratory diseases MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, gastrointestinal disorders MESHD, dyslipidemia MESHD, mental health diseases, asthma HP asthma MESHD, diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD and cardiovascular diseases MESHD. The need for ICU care and intubation was significantly higher among patients who died. The mortality rate was 15.8% (81 out of 512). Age TRANS [≥]65 years, cancer MESHD, chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, endocrine diseases MESHD, central nervous system disorders MESHD, anemia HP anemia MESHD, and intubation were independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality, while allergies HP allergies MESHD and previous influenza vaccination were associated with decreased in-hospital mortality. Conclusion: Our finding of a beneficial effect of allergies HP allergies MESHD and influenza vaccination against COVID-19 infection MESHD merits further investigation, as it may shed light in the mechanisms underlying disease progression and severity. Most importantly, it may assist in the implementation of efficient protective measures and public healthcare policies.

    COVID-19 Disease Severity and Determinants among Ethiopian Patients: A study of the Millennium COVID-19 Care Center

    Authors: Tigist W. Leulseged; Kindalem G. Abebe; Ishmael S. Hassen; Endalkachew H. Maru; Wuletaw C Zewde; Nigat W Chamesew; Kalkidan T. Yegile; Abdi B. Bayisa; Dagne F. Siyoum; Mesay G. Edo; Edmealem G. Mesfin; Meskerem N. Derejie; Hilina K. Shiferaw; Jake Dunning; Cameron J Fairfield; Carrol Gamble; Christopher A Green; Sophie Halpin; Hayley Hardwick; Karl Holden; Peter Horby; Clare Jackson; Kenneth McLean; Laura Merson; Jonathan S Nguyen-Van-Tam; Lisa Norman; Piero L Olliaro; Mark G Pritchard; Clark D Russell; James Scott-Brown; Catherine A Shaw; Aziz Sheikh; Tom Solomon; Cathie LM Sudlow; Olivia V Swann; Lance Turtle; Peter JM Openshaw; J Kenneth Baillie; Malcolm Gracie Semple; Mahdad Noursadeghi

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.09.20209999 Date: 2020-10-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Understanding determinants of developing severe COVID-19 disease is important as studies show that severe disease is associated with worse outcomes. Objective: The study aimed to assess the determinants of COVID-19 disease severity among COVID-19 patients admitted to Millennium COVID-19 Care Center in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to August 2020 among randomly selected 686 patients. Chi-square test was used to detect the presence of a statistically significant difference in the characteristics of the patients based on disease severity (Mild Vs Moderate Vs Severe), where p-value of <0.05 was considered as having a statistically significant difference. A Multivariable multinomial logistic regression model was used to assess the presence of a significant association between the independent variables and COVID-19 disease severity where Adjusted Odds ratio (AOR), 95% CIs for AOR and P-values were used for testing significance and interpretation of results. Results: Having moderate as compared with mild disease was significantly associated with having hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (AOR= 2.302, 95% CI= 1.266, 4.184, p-value=0.006), diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (AOR=2.607, 95% CI= 1.307, 5.198, p-value=0.007 for diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD), fever HP fever MESHD (AOR= 6.115, 95% CI= 2.941, 12.716, p-value=0.0001) and headache HP headache MESHD (AOR= 2.695, 95% CI= 1.392, 5.215, p-value=0.003). Similarly, having severe disease as compared with mild disease was associated with age group TRANS (AOR= 4.428, 95% CI= 2.497, 7.853, p-value=0.0001 for 40-59 years and AOR=18.070, 95% CI=9.292, 35.140, p-value=0.0001 for [≥] 60 years), sex (AOR=1.842, 95% CI=1.121, 3.027, p-value=0.016), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (AOR= 1.966, 95% CI= 1.076, 3.593, p-value=0.028), diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (AOR= 3.926, 95% CI= 1.964, 7.847, p-value=0.0001), fever HP fever MESHD (AOR= 13.218, 95% CI= 6.109, 28.601, p-value=0.0001) and headache HP headache MESHD (AOR= 4.816, 95% CI= 2.324, 9.979, p-value=0.0001). In addition, determinants of severe disease as compared with moderate disease were found to be age group TRANS (AOR= 4.871, 95% CI= 2.854, 8.315, p-value=0.0001 for 40-59 years and AOR= 18.906, 95% CI= 9.838, 36.334, p-value=0.0001 for [≥] 60 years), fever HP fever MESHD (AOR= 2.161, 95% CI= 1.286, 3.634, p-value=0.004) and headache HP headache MESHD (AOR= 1.787, 95% CI= 1.028, 3.107, p-value=0.039). Conclusions: Being old, male TRANS sex, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD, and having symptoms of fever HP fever MESHD and headache HP headache MESHD were found to be determinants of developing a more severe COVID-19 disease category. We recommend a better preventive practice to be set in place so that these groups of patients can be protected from acquiring the disease. And for those who are already infected MESHD, a more careful follow-up and management should be given so that complication and death can be prevented. Furthermore, considering the above non respiratory symptoms as disease severity indicator could be important.

    Meta-analysis and adjusted estimation of COVID-19 case fatality risk in India and its association with the underlying comorbidities

    Authors: Balbir Bagicha Singh; Michael P Ward; Mark Lowerison; Ryan T Lewinson; Isabelle A Vallerand; Rob Deardon; Jatinder PS Gill; Baljit Singh; Herman W Barkema; M. Anwar Hossain

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.08.20209163 Date: 2020-10-13 Source: medRxiv

    There is a lack of COVID-19 adjusted case fatality risk (aCFR) estimates and information on states with high aCFR. State-specific aCFRs were estimated, using 13 day lag for fatality. To estimate country level aCFR, state estimates were meta-analysed. Multiple correspondence analyses (MCA), followed by univariable logistic regression, were conducted to understand the association between aCFR and geodemographic, health and social indicators. Based on health indicators, states likely to report a higher aCFR were identified. Using random- and fixed-effects models, the aCFRs in India were 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 - 1.70) and 2.97 (95% CI 2.94 - 3.00), respectively. The aCFR was grouped with the incidence of diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, cardiovascular diseases MESHD and acute respiratory infections MESHD in the first and second dimensions of MCA. The current study demonstrated the value of using meta-analysis to estimate aCFR. To decrease COVID-19 associated fatalities, states estimated to have a high aCFR must take steps to reduce co-morbidities.

    Covid-19 and HIV: not always an unfavorable combination

    Authors: Pedro Vieira Bertozzi; Amanda de Oliveira Vicente; Amanda Siqueira Pereira; João Pedro Espinha de Sant'Ana; Rafaela Braga Cabrera Mano; Luciana Souza Jorge; Rodrigo Afonso da Silva Sardenberg

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-10-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: A 73-years-old-man patient who had a history of Human Immunodefiency Virus (HIV) infection MESHD for over 20 years was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.Case presentation: The patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), where he remained for 25 days, due to a severe condition. Intubation, hemodialysis and tracheostomy were necessary to maintain homeostasis. In addition to regular treatment with etravirine, dolutegravir, darunavir and ritonavir for highly active antiretroviral therapy, the patient received To-cilizumab, which showed a great recovery in the patient's condition.Conclusion : The patient had several risk factors, such as: male TRANS gender TRANS, age TRANS> 70 years and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD. The use of To-cilizumab was of great importance in the patient's recovery, since the drug increased his immune response, which is deficient, due to HIV infection MESHD.


    Authors: Espen Jimenez Solem; Tonny Studsgaard Petersen; Christina Lioma; Christian Igel; Wouter Boomsma; Oswin Krause; Casper Hansen; Christian Hansen; Stephan Lorentzen; Raghavendra Selvan; Janne Petersen; Martin Erik Nyeland; Mikkel Zoellner Ankarfeldt; Gert Mehl Virenfeldt; Mathilde Winther-Jensen; Allan Linneberg; Mostafa Mediphour Ghazi; Nicki Detlefsen; Andreas Lauritzen; Abraham George Smith; Marleen de Bruijne; Bulat Ibragimov; Jens Petersen; Martin Lillholm; Marie Helleberg; Benjamin Skov Kaas-Hansen; Jon Middleton; Stine Hasling Mogensen; Hans Christian Thorsen-Meyer; Anders Perner; Mikkel Bonde; Alexander Bonde; Akshay Pai; Mads Nielsen; Martin Sillesen

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.06.20207209 Date: 2020-10-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Patients with severe COVID-19 have overwhelmed healthcare systems worldwide. We hypothesized that Machine Learning (ML) models could be used to predict risks at different stages of management (at diagnosis, hospital admission and ICU admission) and thereby provide insights into drivers and prognostic markers of disease progression and death MESHD. Methods: From a cohort of approx. 2.6 million citizens in the two regions of Denmark, SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests were performed on subjects suspected for COVID-19 disease; 3944 cases had at least one positive test and were subjected to further analysis. A cohort of SARS-CoV-2 positive cases from the United Kingdom Biobank was used for external validation. Findings: The ML models predicted the risk of death (Receiver Operation Characteristics Area Under the Curve, ROC-AUC) of 0.904 at diagnosis, 0.818, at hospital admission and 0.723 at Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. Similar metrics were achieved for predicted risks of hospital and ICU admission and use of mechanical ventilation. We identified some common risk factors, including age TRANS, body mass index (BMI) and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD as driving factors, although the top risk features shifted towards markers of shock HP shock MESHD and organ dysfunction MESHD in ICU patients. The external validation indicated fair predictive performance SERO for mortality prediction, but suboptimal performance SERO for predicting ICU admission. Interpretation: ML may be used to identify drivers of progression to more severe disease and for prognostication patients in patients with COVID-19. Prognostic features included age TRANS, BMI and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, although markers of shock HP shock MESHD and organ dysfunction became more important in more severe cases. We provide access to an online risk calculator based on these findings.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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