Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Hypertension (192)

Obesity (37)

Fever (35)

Pneumonia (31)

Cough (28)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 192
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    COVID-19 causing HELLP-like syndrome MESHD in pregnancy and role of angiogenic factors for differential diagnosis

    Authors: Francesc Figueras; Elisa LLurba; Raigam Martinez-Portilla; Josefina Mora; Fatima Crispi; Eduard Gratacos

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20133801 Date: 2020-07-11

    Importance: The clinical presentation of hemolysis MESHD, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count ( HELLP) syndrome MESHD is one of the more severe forms of preeclampsia HP. COVID-19 infection MESHD exhibits signs that are shared with preeclampsia HP and HELLP syndrome MESHD, which may lead to needless interventions and iatrogenic preterm delivery. Objective: We evaluated the prevalence SERO of HELLP-like signs in pregnant women admitted for COVID-19 and the value of angiogenic factors to rule out preeclampsia HP. Methods: a consecutive series of 27 pregnant women beyond 20 weeks of gestation, with symptomatic COVID-19. Clinical and analytical features were recorded and those cases with signs of HELLP syndrome MESHD were tested for sFlt-1/PlGF ratio. Results: Seven patients (25.9%) presented at least one sign of suspected HELLP syndrome MESHD, of which 2 (7.4%) were diagnosed clinically with PE because of hypertension MESHD hypertension HP and high transaminases and 5 (18.5%) had only elevated transaminases. sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was normal in 6 of 7. Conclusion: Symptomatic COVID-19 may simulate severe preeclampsia HP in pregnancy. Angiogenic factors may be essential to avoid false diagnosis and needless interventions. These data were presented in a Virtual Symposium on Covid-19 and Pregnancy on 17 April: 2020:(http://medicinafetalbarcelona.org/simposiocovid19/ [Spanish] and https://medicinafetalbarcelona.org/symposiumcovid19/ [English]

    Association of Cancer with Risk and Mortality of COVID-19: Results from the UK Biobank

    Authors: Zhuqing Shi; W. Kyle Resurreccion; Chi-Hsiung Wang; Jun Wei; Rong Na; S. Lilly Zheng; Liana K. Billings; Brian T. Helfand; Janardan Khandekar; Jianfeng Xu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20151076 Date: 2020-07-11

    Although cancer has been associated with COVID-19 risk and mortality in hospital-based studies, few population-based studies have been reported. Utilizing data from the UK Biobank (UKB), a population-based prospective cohort, we formally tested the association of over 44 different types of cancer with COVID-19 infection MESHD and mortality among 7,661 subjects who were tested by June 17, 2020. Compared to non-cancer subjects, cancer subjects (N=1,521) had significantly lower overall risk for COVID-19 infection MESHD [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79 (0.68-0.92), P=2.60E-03]. However, a trend of higher risk for COVID-19 mortality was found among 256 COVID-19 positive cancer patients, especially for hematologic cancers such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma MESHD non-Hodgkin lymphoma HP [3.82 (1.17-12.01), P=0.02]. In cancer patients, while few demographic, lifestyle, genetic and comorbidity factors predicted risk for COVID-19 infection MESHD, older age TRANS, male TRANS sex, heart disease MESHD and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP significantly predicted COVID-19 mortality. The lower risk for COVID-19 infection MESHD is likely due to extra caution in COVID-19 prevention and more testing among cancer patients, an encouraging finding that demonstrates the feasibility of intervention. These results, if confirmed in future releases of UKB data and other independent populations, may provide guidance for COVID-19 prevention and treatment among cancer patients.

    Clinical characteristics and outcomes in diabetes patients admitted with COVID-19 in Dubai: a cross-sectional single centre study.

    Authors: Rahila Bhatti; Amar Omer; Samara Khattib; Seemin Shiraz; Glenn Matfin

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.08.20149096 Date: 2020-07-10

    Aim: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalised Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) patients with diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in patients with diabetes admitted with COVID-19 to Mediclinic Parkview Hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) from 30th March to 7th June 2020. They had laboratory and/or radiologically confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), known as COVID-19. Variation in characteristics, length of stay in hospital, diabetes status, comorbidities and outcomes were examined. Results: A total of 103 patients with confirmed COVID-19 presentations had diabetes. During the same timeframe, 410 patients overall were admitted with COVID-19 infection MESHD. This gives a total proportion of persons admitted with COVID-19 infection MESHD and coexistent diabetes/prediabetes of 25%. 67% (n=69) of the COVID-19 diabetes cohort were male TRANS. Patients admitted with COVID-19 and diabetes represented 17 different ethnicities. Of these, 59.2% (n=61) were Asians and 35% (n=36) were from Arab countries. Mean age TRANS (SD) was 54 (12.5) years. 85.4% (n=88) were known to have diabetes prior to admission, while 14.6% (n=15) were newly diagnosed with either diabetes or prediabetes during admission. Most patients in the study cohort had type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, with only 3% overall having type 1 diabetes (n=3). 46.9% of patients had evidence of good glycaemic control of their diabetes during the preceding 4-12 weeks prior to admission as defined arbitrarily by admission HbA1c <7.5%. 73.8% (n=76) had other comorbidities including hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, ischaemic heart disease MESHD, and dyslipidaemia. Laboratory data Mean(SD) on admission for those who needed ward-based care versus those needing intensive care unit (ICU) care: Fibrinogen 462.75 (125.16) mg/dl vs 660 (187.58) mg/dl ; D-dimer 0.66 (0.55) mcg/ml vs 2.3 (3.48) mcg/ml; Ferritin 358.08 (442.05) mg/dl vs 1762.38 (2586.38) mg/dl; and CRP 33.9 (38.62) mg/L vs 137 (111.72) mg/L were all statistically significantly higher for the ICU cohort (p<0.05). Average length of stay in hospital was 14.55 days. 28.2% of patients needed ICU admission. 4.9% (n=5) overall died during hospitalisation (all in ICU). Conclusions: In this single-centre study in Dubai, 25% of patients admitted with COVID-19 also had diabetes/prediabetes. Most diabetes patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 disease MESHD were males TRANS of Asian origin. 14.6% had new diagnosis of diabetes/prediabetes on admission. The majority of patients with diabetes/prediabetes and COVID-19 infection MESHD had other important comorbidities (n=76; 73.8%). Only 4 patients had negative COVID-19 RT-PCR but had pathognomonic changes of COVID-19 radiologically. Our comprehensive laboratory analysis revealed distinct abnormal patterns of biomarkers that are associated with poor prognosis: Fibrinogen, D-dimer, Ferritin and CRP levels were all statistically significantly higher (p<0.05) at presentation in patients who subsequently needed ICU care compared with those patients who remained ward-based. 28.2% overall needed ICU admission, out of which 5 patients died. More studies with larger sample sizes are needed to compare data of COVID-19 patients admitted with and without diabetes within the UAE region.

    Severe SAR TRANS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in humans is defined by a shift in the serum SERO lipidome resulting indysregulation of eicosanoid immune mediators

    Authors: Benjamin Schwarz; Lokesh Sharma; Lydia Roberts; Xiaohua Peng; Santos Bermejo; Ian Leighton; Arnau Casanovas Massana; Shelli Farhadian; Albert Ko; Yale IMPACT Team; Charles DelaCruz; Catharine M Bosio

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20149849 Date: 2020-07-10

    The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 10 million people worldwide with mortality exceeding half a million patients. Risk factors associated with severe disease MESHD and mortality include advanced age TRANS, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes, and obesity MESHD obesity HP. Clear mechanistic understanding of how these comorbidities converge to enable severe infection HP infection MESHD is lacking. Notably each of these risk factors pathologically disrupts the lipidome and this disruption may be a unifying feature of severe COVID-19. Here we provide the first in depth interrogation of lipidomic changes, including structural-lipids as well as the eicosanoids and docosanoids lipid mediators (LMs), that mark COVID-19 disease MESHD severity. Our data reveal that progression from moderate to severe disease MESHD is marked by a loss of specific immune regulatory LMs and increased pro-inflammatory species. Given the important immune regulatory role of LMs, these data provide mechanistic insight into the immune balance in COVID-19 and potential targets for therapy with currently approved pharmaceuticals.

    Clinical, Behavioral and Social Factors Associated with Racial Disparities in Hospitalized and Ambulatory COVID-19 Patients from an Integrated Health Care System in Georgia

    Authors: Felipe Lobelo; Alan X Bienvenida; Serena Leung; Armand N Mbanya; Elizabeth J. Leslie; Kate E Koplan; S. Ryan Shin

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.08.20148973 Date: 2020-07-10

    Introduction: Racial and ethnic minorities have shouldered a disproportioned burden of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) infection MESHD to date in the US, but data on the various drivers of these disparities is limited. Objectives: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients and explore factors associated with hospitalization risk by race. Methods: Case series of 448 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 seen at Kaiser Permanente Georgia (KPGA), an integrated health care system serving the Atlanta metropolitan area, from March 3 to May 12, 2020. KPGA members with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Multivariable analyses for hospitalization risk also included an additional 3489 persons under investigation (PUI) with suspected infection MESHD. COVID-19 treatment and outcomes, underlying comorbidities and quality of care management metrics, socio-demographic and other individual and community-level social determinants of health (SDOH) indicators. Results: Of 448 COVID-19 positive members, 68,3% was non-Hispanic Black (n=306), 18% non-Hispanic White (n=81) and 13,7% Other race (n=61). Median age TRANS was 54 [IQR 43-63) years. Overall, 224 patients were hospitalized, median age TRANS 60 (50-69) years. Black race was a significant factor in the Confirmed + PUI, female TRANS and male TRANS models (ORs from 1.98 to 2.19). Obesity MESHD Obesity HP was associated with higher hospitalization odds in the confirmed, confirmed + PUI, Black and male TRANS models (ORs from 1.78 to 2.77). Chronic disease MESHD control metrics (diabetes, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, hyperlipidemia MESHD hyperlipidemia HP) were associated with lower odds of hospitalization ranging from 48% to 35% in the confirmed + PUI and Black models. Self-reported physical inactivity was associated with 50% higher hospitalization odds in the Black and Female TRANS models. Residence in the Northeast region of Atlanta was associated with lower hospitalization odds in the Confirmed + PUI, White and female TRANS models (ORs from 0.22 to 0.64) Conclusions: We found that non-Hispanic Black KPGA members had a disproportionately higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD and, after adjusting for covariates, twice the risk of hospitalization compared to other race groups. We found no significant differences in clinical outcomes or mortality across race/ethnicity groups. In addition to age TRANS, sex and comorbidity burden, pre-pandemic self-reported exercise, metrics on quality of care and control of underlying cardio- metabolic diseases MESHD, and location of residence in Atlanta were significantly associated with hospitalization risk by race groups. Beyond well-known physiologic and clinical factors, individual and community-level social indicators and health behaviors must be considered as interventions designed to reduce COVID-19 disparities and the systemic effects of racism are implemented.

    The COVID-19 mortality effects of underlying health conditions in India: a modelling study

    Authors: Paul Novosad; Radhika Jain; Alison Campion; Sam Asher

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.05.20140343 Date: 2020-07-08

    Objective: To model how known COVID-19 comorbidities will affect mortality rates and the age TRANS distribution of mortality in a large lower middle income country (India), as compared with a high income country (England), and to identify which health conditions drive any differences. Design: Modelling study. Setting: England and India. Participants: 1,375,548 respondents aged TRANS 18 to 99 to the District Level Household Survey-4 and Annual Health Survey in India. Additional information on health condition prevalence SERO on individuals aged TRANS 18 to 99 was obtained from the Health Survey for England and the Global Burden of Diseases MESHD, Risk Factors, and Injuries Studies (GBD). Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was the proportional increase in age TRANS-specific mortality in each country due to the prevalence SERO of each COVID-19 mortality risk factor (diabetes, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, obesity MESHD obesity HP, chronic heart disease MESHD, respiratory illness, kidney disease MESHD, liver disease MESHD, and cancer, among others). The combined change in overall mortality and the share of deaths MESHD under 60 from the combination of risk factors was estimated in each country. Results: Relative to England, Indians have higher rates of diabetes (10.6% vs. 8.5%), chronic respiratory disease MESHD (4.8% vs. 2.5%), and kidney disease MESHD (9.7% vs. 5.6%), and lower rates of obesity MESHD obesity HP (4.4% vs. 27.9%), chronic heart disease MESHD (4.4% vs. 5.9%), and cancer (0.3% vs. 2.8%). Population COVID-19 mortality in India relative to England is most increased by diabetes (+5.4%) and chronic respiratory disease MESHD (+2.3%), and most reduced by obesity MESHD obesity HP (-9.7%), cancer (-3.2%), and chronic heart disease MESHD (-1.9%). Overall, comorbidities lower mortality in India relative to England by 9.7%. Accounting for demographics and population health explains a third of the difference in share of deaths MESHD under age TRANS 60 between the two countries. Conclusions: Known COVID-19 health risk factors are not expected to have a large effect on aggregate mortality or its age TRANS distribution in India relative to England. The high share of COVID-19 deaths MESHD from people under 60 in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains unexplained. Understanding mortality risk associated with health conditions prevalent in LMICs, such as malnutrition MESHD malnutrition HP and HIV/AIDS, is essential for understanding differential mortality. Keywords: COVID-19, India, low- and middle-income countries, comorbidity

    Impact of Congestive Heart Failure HP Heart Failure MESHD and Role of Cardiac Biomarkers in COVID-19 patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Tarun Dalia; Shubham Lahan; Sagar Ranka; Prakash Acharya; Archana Gautam; Ioannis Mastoris; Andrew Sauer; Zubair Shah

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.06.20147421 Date: 2020-07-07

    Background: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported to cause worse outcomes in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease MESHD, especially in patients with acute cardiac injury, which is determined by elevated levels of high- sensitivity SERO troponin. There is a paucity of data on the impact of congestive heart failure HP heart failure MESHD (CHF) on outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a literature search of PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases from 11/1/2019 till 06/07/2020, and identified all relevant studies reporting cardiovascular comorbidities, cardiac biomarkers, disease MESHD severity, and survival. Pooled data from the selected studies were used for metanalysis to identify the impact of risk factors and cardiac biomarker elevation on disease MESHD severity and/or mortality. Results: We collected pooled data on 5,967 COVID-19 patients from 20 individual studies. We found that both non-survivors and those with severe disease MESHD had an increased risk of acute cardiac injury and cardiac arrhythmias MESHD arrhythmias HP, our pooled relative risk (RR) was - 8.52 (95% CI 3.63-19.98) (p<0.001); and 3.61 (95% CI 2.03-6.43) (p=0.001), respectively. Mean difference in the levels of Troponin-I, CK-MB, and NT-proBNP was higher in deceased and severely infected patients. The RR of in-hospital mortality was 2.35 (95% CI 1.18-4.70) (p=0.022) and 1.52 (95% CI 1.12-2.05) (p=0.008) among patients who had pre-existing CHF and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, respectively. Conclusion: Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 infection MESHD appears to significantly adversely impact patient prognosis and survival. Pre-existence of CHF and high cardiac biomarkers like NT-pro BNP and CK-MB levels in COVID-19 patients correlates with worse outcomes. Keywords: Acute cardiac injury; cardiac arrhythmia MESHD arrhythmia HP; mortality risk; cardiac biomarkers, COVID-19.

    Early Diagnosis and Clinical Significance of Acute Cardiac Injury - Under the Iceberg: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 619 Non-critically Ill Hospitalized COVID-19 Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP Patients

    Authors: Yang Xie; Sichun Chen; Xueli Wang; Baige Li; Tianlu Zhang; Xingwei He; NingLing Sun; Luyan Wang; Hesong Zeng; Yin Shen

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.06.20147256 Date: 2020-07-07

    Rationale: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) can cause a viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP together with other extrapulmonary complications. Acute cardiac related injury MESHD (ACRI) is common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Objective: To explain the pathological mechanism of ACRI and improve the treatment strategy by retrospectively observing the factors associated with ACRI and factors affecting the prognosis of ACRI with COVID-19 at an early stage. Methods: 619 COVID-19 patients were from Tongji Hospital, Wuhan. T test was used for continuous variables while Chi-square test for categorical factors. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Among the 619 OOS Level-I hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 102 (16.5%) were defined as ACRI (stage-1: 59 cases, stage-2: 43 cases). 50% of ACRI patients developed into severe cases and 25 patients died (CFR=24.5%), 42 times that of non-ACRI patients. Elderly TRANS (OR=2.83, P<0.001) , HTN (OR=2.09, P=0.005), {gamma}-globulin (OR=2.08, P=0.004), TCM (OR=0.55, P=0.017), PLT (OR=2.94, P<0.001) and NLR (OR=2.20, P=0.004) were independently correlated with ACRI. SBP[≥]140, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, DM, smoking history were correlated with ACRI-stage2 only. In the prognostic subgroup analysis of ACRI patients,{gamma}-globulin treatment could prolong LOS. TCM (OR=0.26, P=0.006), SBP[≥]160 (OR= 22.70, P=0.005), male TRANS (OR=2.66, P=0.044) were associated with severe illness while corticosteroids treatment (OR=3.34, P=0.033) and male TRANS (OR=4.303, P=0.008) with death MESHD. Surprisingly, we found the mortality of non- elderly TRANS patients is higher than elderly TRANS (32.4% VS 20.0%, P=0.164), and both IKF and RASI treatment were not correlated with any prognostic indicators including severe, death MESHD and LOS. Conclusion: This study observed that several non-traditional issues were associated with early cardiac injury in COVID-19 while many traditional cardiovascular risk factors were not. Besides elderly TRANS and male TRANS, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP was confirmed to be the most important risk factor.

    Renal carcinoma MESHD carcinoma HP is associated with increased risk of coronavirus infections MESHD

    Authors: Satyendra C Tripathi; Vishwajit Deshmukh; Chad J. Creighton; Ashlesh Patil

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.02.184663 Date: 2020-07-06

    The current pandemic COVID-19 has affected most severely to the people with old age TRANS, or with comorbidities such as hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP, chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, COPD, and cancers. Cancer patients are twice more likely to contract the disease MESHD because of the malignancy or treatment-related immunosuppression; hence identification of the vulnerable population among these patients is essential. It is speculated that along with ACE2, other auxiliary proteins (DPP4, ANPEP, ENPEP, TMPRSS2) might facilitate the entry of coronaviruses in the host cells. We took a bioinformatics approach to analyze the gene and protein expression data of these coronavirus receptors in human normal and cancer tissues of multiple organs. Here, we demonstrated an extensive RNA and protein expression profiling analysis of these receptors across solid tumors and normal tissues. We found that among all, renal tumor and normal tissues exhibited increased levels of ACE2, DPP4, ANPEP, and ENPEP. Our results revealed that TMPRSS2 may not be the co-receptor for coronavirus in renal carcinoma MESHD carcinoma HP patients. The receptors’ expression levels were variable in different tumor stage, molecular and immune subtypes of renal carcinoma MESHD carcinoma HP. In clear cell renal cell carcinomas HP renal cell carcinomas MESHD, coronavirus receptors were associated with high immune infiltration, markers of immunosuppression, and T cell exhaustion. Our study indicates that CoV receptors may play an important role in modulating the immune infiltrate and hence cellular immunity in renal carcinoma MESHD carcinoma HP. As our current knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms will improve, it may help us in designing focused therapeutic approaches.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.View Full Text

    Prior diagnoses and medications as risk factors for COVID-19 in a Los Angeles Health System

    Authors: Timothy S Chang; Yi Ding; Malika K Freund; Ruth Johnson; Tommer Schwarz; Julie M Yabu; Chad Hazlett; Jeffrey N Chiang; Ami Wulf; - UCLA Health Data Mart Working Group; Daniel H Geschwind; Manish J Butte; Bogdan Pasaniuc

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.03.20145581 Date: 2020-07-04

    With the continuing coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic coupled with phased reopening, it is critical to identify risk factors associated with susceptibility and severity of disease MESHD in a diverse population to help shape government policies, guide clinical decision making, and prioritize future COVID-19 research. In this retrospective case-control study, we used de-identified electronic health records (EHR) from the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Health System between March 9th, 2020 and June 14th, 2020 to identify risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility (severe acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR test positive), inpatient admission, and severe outcomes (treatment in an intensive care unit or intubation). Of the 26,602 individuals tested by PCR for SARS-CoV-2, 992 were COVID-19 positive (3.7% of Tested), 220 were admitted in the hospital (22% of COVID-19 positive), and 77 had a severe outcome (35% of Inpatient). Consistent with previous studies, males TRANS and individuals older than 65 years old had increased risk of inpatient admission. Notably, individuals self-identifying as Hispanic or Latino constituted an increasing percentage of COVID-19 patients as disease MESHD severity escalated, comprising 24% of those testing positive, but 40% of those with a severe outcome, a disparity that remained after correcting for medical co-morbidities. Cardiovascular disease MESHD, hypertension, and renal MESHD hypertension HP disease MESHD were premorbid risk factors present before SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing associated with COVID-19 susceptibility. Less well-established risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility included pre-existing dementia MESHD dementia HP (odds ratio (OR) 5.2 [3.2-8.3], p=2.6 x 10-10), mental health conditions (depression OR 2.1 [1.6-2.8], p=1.1 x 10-6) and vitamin D deficiency MESHD (OR 1.8 [1.4-2.2], p=5.7 x 10-6). Renal diseases MESHD including end-stage renal disease MESHD and anemia MESHD anemia HP due to chronic renal disease MESHD were the predominant premorbid risk factors for COVID-19 inpatient admission. Other less established risk factors for COVID-19 inpatient admission included previous renal transplant (OR 9.7 [2.8-39], p=3.2x10-4) and disorders of the immune system (OR 6.0 [2.3, 16], p=2.7x10-4). Prior use of oral steroid medications was associated with decreased COVID-19 positive testing risk (OR 0.61 [0.45, 0.81], p=4.3x10-4), but increased inpatient admission risk (OR 4.5 [2.3, 8.9], p=1.8x10-5). We did not observe that prior use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers increased the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, being admitted to the hospital, or having a severe outcome. This study involving direct EHR extraction identified known and less well-established demographics, and prior diagnoses and medications as risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility and inpatient admission. Knowledge of these risk factors including marked ethnic disparities observed in disease MESHD severity should guide government policies, identify at-risk populations, inform clinical decision making, and prioritize future COVID-19 research.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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