Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Plethora (15)

Pneumonia (1)

Falls (1)

Cough (1)

Sepsis (1)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 15
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    Low-Cost Enhancement of Facial Mask Filtration to Prevent Transmission TRANS of COVID-19

    Authors: Hari Bhimaraju; Nitish Nag; Ramesh Jain

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166637 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    The use of face masks is recommended worldwide to reduce the spread of COVID-19. A plethora HP of facial coverings and respirators, both commercial and homemade, pervade the market, but the true filtration capabilities of many homemade measures against the virus are unclear and continue to be unexplored. In this work, we compare the efficacy of the following masks in keeping out particulate matter below 2.5 microns: N95 respirators, surgical masks, cloth masks, cloth masks with activated carbon air filters, cloth masks with HVAC air filters, lightly starch-enhanced cloth masks, and heavily-starched cloth masks. The experiments utilize an inhalation system and aerosol chamber to simulate a masked individual respiring aerosolized air. COVID-19 disproportionately affects people in low-income communities, who often lack the resources to acquire appropriate personal protective equipment and tend to lack the flexibility to shelter in place due to their public-facing occupations. This work tests low-cost enhancements to homemade masks to assist these communities in making better masks to reduce viral transmission TRANS. Experimental results demonstrate that the filtration efficacy of cloth masks with either a light or heavy starch can approach the performance SERO of much costlier masks. This discovery supports the idea of low-cost enhancements to reduce transmission TRANS and protect individuals from contracting COVID-19.

    A machine learning explanation of the pathogen-immune relationship of SARS-CoV-2 and machine learning models of prognostic biomarkers to predict asymptomatic TRANS or symptomatic infections MESHD

    Authors: Eric Luellen

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20162867 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Asymptomatic TRANS people infected during the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic have outnumbered symptomatic people by an approximate ratio of 4:1 with little understanding to date as to why; therefore, they have been impossible to identify in advance. Moreover, studies indicate that most asymptomatic TRANS virus-positive patients are infectious, thereby creating a new public health danger via a plethora HP of "silent spreaders." This data science study identified four novel discoveries that may significantly impact our understanding of the pathogen-immune relationship: (1) Spearman rho correlation coefficients and associated P-values identified 34 of 53 common immune factors have statistically significant associations with SARS-CoV-2 morbidity, their direction (+/-) and strength to inform research and therapies; (2) five machine learning algorithms were applied to 74 observations of these 33 immunological variables and identified three models of prognostic biomarkers that can classify and predict who will be asymptomatic TRANS or symptomatic if infected with 94.8% to 100% accuracy; (3) a random forest of 200 decision trees ordinally ranked the 33 statistically significant independent predictor variables by their relative importance in predicting SARS-CoV-2 symptoms; and, (4) three different decision-tree algorithms separately identified and validated three immunological biomarkers and levels that nearly always differentiate asymptomatic TRANS patients: SCGF-Beta; (> 127637), IL-16 (> 45), and M-CSF (> 57). The first potentially important implication of these findings is they suggest that SCGF-Beta; could be a viable biomarker for prognoses, screenings, and triaging people exposed to SARS-CoV-2, which could be a valuable tool at the point-of-care for managing and preventing outbreaks. It may be able to predict who will get sick or not, and who has a probability of living or dying. A second potentially important implication is the results suggest SCGF-Beta; may be a viable therapeutic for SARS-Cov-2.

    A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocol Examining the Clinical Characteristics and Epidemiological Features of Olfactory Dysfunction in Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19)

    Authors: Rosemond Qian-Xiu Tan; Wai Tak Victor Li; Wing-Zi Shum; Sheung Chit Chu; Hang-Long Li; Yat-Fung Shea; Tom Wai-Hin Chung

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-46723/v1 Date: 2020-07-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundThe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused recurring and major outbreaks in multiple human populations around the world. The plethora HP of clinical manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been described extensively, of which COVID-19-related olfactory dysfunction (OD) has been recognised as an important and common symptom of COVID-19 infection MESHD. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed articles, which described clinical data of smell disturbances and OD in COVID-19 patients.MethodsThis research protocol has been prospectively registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; CRD42020196202). Accordingly, PubMed (MEDLINE) articles published from 1st January 2020 to 10th June 2020 will be searched using the following keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCoV, or novel coronavirus. Systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and the Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Articles will be screened according to the pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included articles will be reviewed in full; data including patient demographics, clinical characteristics of COVID-19-related OD, methods of olfactory assessment, and relevant clinical outcomes will be extracted. Statistical analyses will be performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 3.DiscussionThis systematic review and meta-analysis will exclusively evaluate OD as a symptom of COVID-19 infection MESHD. We aim to collate and synthesise all available clinical evidence regarding COVID-19-related OD. A comprehensive search strategy and screening process will be used to ensure that all relevant clinical data are included for statistical analysis and representation. The outcome of this study will improve our understanding of the symptomatology and clinical characteristics of COVID-19-related OD and serves to identify knowledge gaps in its disease MESHD process, which will guide future research regarding this specific neurosensory impairment.Systematic Review registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020196202

    The competing risk between in-hospital mortality and recovery: A pitfall in COVID-19 survival analysis research

    Authors: Abderrahim Oulhaj; Luai A. Ahmed; Juergen Prattes; Abubaker Suliman; Ahmed Alsuwaidi; Rami H. Al-Rifai; Harald Sourij; Ingrid Van Keilegom

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20151472 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background A plethora HP of studies on COVID-19 investigating mortality and recovery have used the Cox Proportional Hazards (Cox PH) model without taking into account the presence of competing risks. We investigate, through extensive simulations, the bias in estimating the hazard ratio (HR) and the absolute risk reduction (ARR) of death MESHD when competing risks are ignored, and suggest an alternative method. Methods We simulated a fictive clinical trial on COVID-19 mimicking studies investigating interventions such as Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, or convalescent plasma SERO. The outcome is time from randomization until death MESHD. Six scenarios for the effect of treatment on death MESHD and recovery were considered. The HR and the 28-day ARR of death MESHD were estimated using the Cox PH and the Fine and Gray (FG) models. Estimates were then compared with the true values, and the magnitude of misestimation was quantified. Results The Cox PH model misestimated the true HR and the 28-day ARR of death MESHD in the majority of scenarios. The magnitude of misestimation increased when recovery was faster and/or chance of recovery was higher. In some scenarios, this model has shown a harmful treatment effect when it was beneficial. Estimates obtained from the FG model were all consistent and showed no misestimation or changes in direction. Conclusion There is a substantial risk of misleading results in COVID-19 research if recovery and death MESHD due to COVID-19 are not considered as competing risk events. We strongly recommend the use of a competing risk approach to re-analyze relevant published data that have used the Cox PH model. Keywords COVID-19, competing risk, in-hospital mortality, survival analysis, recovery

    Cardiometabolic traits, sepsis MESHD sepsis HP and severe covid-19 with respiratory failure HP: a Mendelian randomization investigation

    Authors: Ponsford J Mark; Apostolos Gkatzionis; Venexia Walker; Andrew Grant; Robyn E Wootton; Luke S P Moore; Segun Fatumo; Amy Mason; Verena Zuber; Cristen Willer; Humaira Rasheed; Ben Brumpton; Kristian Hveem; Jan Kristian Damas; Neil M Davies; Bjorn Olav Asvold; Erik Solligard; Simon Jones; Stephen Burgess; Tormod Rogne; Dipender Gill

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.18.20134676 Date: 2020-06-20 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To investigate whether there is a causal effect of cardiometabolic traits on risk of sepsis MESHD sepsis HP and severe covid-19. Design: Mendelian randomisation analysis. Setting: UK Biobank and HUNT study population-based cohorts for risk of sepsis MESHD sepsis HP, and genome-wide association study summary data for risk of severe covid-19 with respiratory failure HP. Participants: 12,455 sepsis MESHD sepsis HP cases (519,885 controls) and 1,610 severe covid-19 with respiratory failure HP cases (2,205 controls). Exposure: Genetic variants that proxy body mass index (BMI), lipid traits, systolic blood SERO pressure, lifetime smoking score, and type 2 diabetes liability - derived from studies considering between 188,577 to 898,130 participants. Main outcome measures: Risk of sepsis MESHD sepsis HP and severe covid-19 with respiratory failure HP. Results: Higher genetically proxied BMI and lifetime smoking score were associated with increased risk of sepsis MESHD sepsis HP in both UK Biobank (BMI: odds ratio 1.38 per standard deviation increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27 to 1.51; smoking: odds ratio 2.81 per standard deviation increase, 95% CI 2.09-3.79) and HUNT (BMI: 1.41, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.69; smoking: 1.93, 95% CI 1.02-3.64). Higher genetically proxied BMI and lifetime smoking score were also associated with increased risk of severe covid-19, although with wider confidence intervals (BMI: 1.75, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.57; smoking: 3.94, 95% CI 1.13 to 13.75). There was limited evidence to support associations of genetically proxied lipid traits, systolic blood SERO pressure or type 2 diabetes liability with risk of sepsis MESHD sepsis HP or severe covid-19. Similar findings were generally obtained when using Mendelian randomization methods that are more robust to the inclusion of pleiotropic variants, although the precision of estimates was reduced. Conclusions: Our findings support a causal effect of elevated BMI and smoking on risk of sepsis MESHD sepsis HP and severe covid-19. Clinical and public health interventions targeting obesity MESHD obesity HP and smoking are likely to reduce sepsis MESHD sepsis HP and covid-19 related morbidity, along with the plethora HP of other health-related outcomes that these traits adversely affect.

    A Qualitative Exploration of COVID-19 through Self-reported Experiences via Digital Media

    Authors: Michael Opeoluwa Ogunlana; Pragashnie Govender

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-36563/v1 Date: 2020-06-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Research imperatives around COVID-19 require an embrace of its complexity by the inclusion of multi-dimensional perspectives such as lived experiences of persons diagnosed with the disease MESHD. This study documents the symptom trends and timelines of COVID-19 as self-reported by individuals in addition to the psychosocial sequelae associated with a positive COVID-19 diagnosis.Methods: This study followed an explorative qualitative design and included curated online dairies and interviews of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19. Judgemental convenient sampling was used to access 28 self-reports via digital media between 05 March and 05 April 2020. Demographic details were extracted where possible and included a diversity of cases. Data were analysed thematically using inductive reasoning.Results: Reports revealed a plethora HP of symptoms associated with the pulmonary system like shortness of breath and cough MESHD cough HP while another group of symptoms shows extra-pulmonary affectations. The lived experience of these individuals as analysed from their self-reports generated five emergent themes followed after analysis which included (i) the variability of the severity and presentation of the disease MESHD, (ii) the 3F (fright, fight or flight) response, (iii) moral obligation and personal agency, (iv) voicing vulnerabilities and harnessing hope, (v) silencing stigma.Conclusions: COVID-19 presents with biopsychosocial affectation on the person. A multidimensional approach is required from all concerned to mitigate its effects.

    Pushing beyond specifications: Evaluation of linearity and clinical performance SERO of a fully automated SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay for reliable quantification in blood SERO and other materials outside recommendations

    Authors: Dominik Nörz; André Frontzek; Ulrich Eigner; Lisa Oestereich; Nicole Fischer; Martin Aepfelbacher; Susanne Pfefferle; Marc Lütgehetmann

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.28.20115469 Date: 2020-05-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic presents a unique challenge to diagnostic laboratories. There are preliminary studies correlating qRT-PCR results from different materials to clinical outcomes, yet, comparability is limited due to the plethora HP of different assays used for diagnostics. In this study we evaluate clinical performance SERO and linear range for the SARS-CoV-2 IVD (cobas6800/8800 system, a fully automated sample-to-result platform) in different clinically relevant matrix materials outside official specifications. Methods: Assay performance SERO was assessed in human plasma SERO, BAL/BL and transport medium following chemical inactivation. For analytical evaluation, respective matrix materials were spiked with SARS-CoV-2 RNA in ten-fold dilution series. The efficacy of chemical inactivation by guanidine hydrochloride solution was confirmed in cell culture infectivity experiments. For correlation, a total of 235 predetermined clinical samples including respiratory swabs, plasma SERO and BAL/BL were subjected to the SARS-CoV-2 IVD test and results were compared. Results: The SARS-CoV-2 IVD showed excellent linearity over five to seven log steps depending on matrix material. Chemical inactivation resulted in a reduction in plaque forming units of at least 3.5 log steps, while having no significant impact on assay performance SERO. Inter-run consistency from three different testing sites demonstrated excellent comparability of RT-PCR results (maximum deviation was 1.53 CT). Clinical evaluation for respiratory swabs showed very good agreement with the comparator assay (Positive agreement 95.7%, negative agreement 98.9%). Conclusion: The SARS-CoV-2 IVD test for the cobas6800/8800 systems offers excellent linear range and inter-run consistency for quantification of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in different matrices outside official specifications.

    Socioeconomic disparities in subway use and COVID-19 outcomes in New York City

    Authors: Karla Therese L. Sy; Micaela E. Martinez; Benjamin Rader; Laura F. White

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.28.20115949 Date: 2020-05-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The United States CDC has reported that racial and ethnic disparities in the COVID-19 pandemic may in part be due to socioeconomic disadvantages that require individuals to continue to work outside their home and a lack of paid sick leave. However, data-driven analyses of the socioeconomic determinants of COVID-19 burden are still needed. Using data from New York City (NYC), we aimed to determine how socioeconomic factors impact human mobility and COVID-19 burden. Methods/Summary: New York City has a large amount of heterogeneity in socioeconomic status (SES) and demographics among neighborhoods. We used this heterogeneity to conduct a cross-sectional spatial analysis of the associations between human mobility (i.e., subway ridership), sociodemographic factors, and COVID-19 incidence as of April 26, 2020. We also conducted a secondary analysis of NYC boroughs (which are equivalent to counties in the city) to assess the relationship between the decline in subway use and the time it took for each borough to end the exponential growth period of COVID-19 cases. Findings: Areas with the lower median income, a greater percentage of individuals who identify as non-white and/or Hispanic/Latino, a greater percentage of essential workers, and a greater percentage of healthcare workers had more subway use during the pandemic. The positive associations between subway use and median income, and between subway use and percent non-white and/or Hispanic/Latino do not remain when adjusted for the percent of essential workers. This suggests essential work is what drives subway use in lower SES zip codes and communities of color. Increased subway use was associated with a higher rate of COVID-19 cases per 100,000 population when adjusted for testing effort (aRR=1.11; 95% CI: 1.03 - 1.19), but this association was weaker once we adjusted for median income (aRR=1.06; 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.12). All sociodemographic variables were significantly associated with the rate of positive cases per 100,000 population when adjusting for testing effort (except percent uninsured) and adjusting for both income and testing effort. The risk factor with the strongest association with COVID-19 was the percent of individuals in essential work (aRR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.36 - 1.86). We found that subway use declined prior to any executive order, and there was an estimated 28-day lag between the onset of reduced subway use and the end of the exponential growth period of SARS-CoV-2 within New York City boroughs. Interpretation: Our results suggest that the ability to stay home during the pandemic has been constrained by SES and work circumstances. Poorer neighborhoods are not afforded the same reductions in mobility as their richer counterparts. Furthermore, lower SES neighborhoods have higher disease MESHD burdens, which may be due to inequities in ability to shelter-in-place, and/or due to the plethora HP of other existing health disparities that increase vulnerability to COVID-19. Furthermore, the extended lag time between the dramatic fall HP in subway ridership and the end of the exponential growth phase for COVID-19 cases is important for future policy, because it demonstrates that if there is a resurgence, and stay-at-home orders are re-issued, then cities can expect to wait a month before reported cases will plateau.

    Online Readability of COVID-19 Health Information

    Authors: Amy P Worrall; Mary J Connolly; Aine O'Neill; Murray O'Doherty; Kenneth P Thornton; Cora McNally; Samuel J McConkey; Eoghan de Barra

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30124/v1 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction: The internet is now the first line source of health information for many people worldwide. In the current Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic, health information is being produced, revised, updated and disseminated at an increasingly rapid rate. The general public are faced with a plethora HP of misinformation regarding COVID-19 and the readability of online information has an impact on their understanding of the disease MESHD. The accessibility of online healthcare information relating to COVID-19 is unknown.Methods: The Google® search engine was used to collate the first twenty webpage URLs for three individual searches for ‘COVID’, ‘COVID-19’, and ‘coronavirus’ from Ireland, the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States. The Gunning Fog Index (GFI), Flesch-Kincaid Grade (FKG) Score, Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) score were calculated to assess the readability.Results: There were poor levels of readability webpages reviewed, with only 17.2% of webpages at a universally readable level. There was a significant difference in readability between the different webpages based on their information source (p <0.01). Public Health organisations and Government organisations provided the most readable COVID-19 material, while digital media sources were significantly less readable. There were no significant differences in readability between regions.Conclusion: Much of the general public have relied on online information during the pandemic. Information on COVID-19 should be made more readable, and those writing webpages and information tools should ensure universal accessibility is considered in their production. Governments and healthcare practitioners should have an awareness of the online sources of information available, and ensure that readability of our own productions is at a universally readable level which will increase understanding and adherence to health guidelines.

    Simple ventilators for emergency MESHD use based on Bag-Valve pressing systems: Lessons learned and future steps

    Authors: Enrique Castro-Camus; Jan Ornik; Cornelius Mach; Goretti G Hernandez-Cardoso; Bhushan Savalia; Jochen Taiber; Armando Ruiz-Marquez; Karl Kesper; Srumika Konde; Caroline Sommer; Julian Wiener; David Geisel; Franziska Huppe; Gunter Kraling; Johnny Nguyen; Thomas Wiesmann; Bjorn Beutel; Martin Koch

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.29.20084749 Date: 2020-05-05 Source: medRxiv

    As part of a plethora HP of global efforts to minimize the negative effects of the SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) pandemic, we developed two different mechanisms that, after further development, could potentially be of use in the future in order to increase the capacity of ventilators with low-cost devices based on single-use-bag-valve mask systems. We describe the concept behind the devices and report a characterization of them. Finally, we make a description of the solved and unsolved challenges and propose a series of measures in order to better cope with future contingencies.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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