Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Confusion (33)

Pneumonia (4)

Anxiety (2)

Cough (2)

Dyspnea (2)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 33
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    Level of Knowledge, Attitude and Perception About COVID-19 Pandemic and Infection MESHD Control: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Veterinarians in Nigeria

    Authors: Olubukola Adenubi; Oluwawemimo Adebowale; Abimbola Oloye; Noah Bankole; Hezekiah Adesokan; Oladotun Fadipe; Patience Ayo-Ajayi; Adebayo Akinloye

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0337.v1 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: Preprints.org

    Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) has caused mankind serious confusion MESHD confusion HP, economic havoc and psychological distress. This study evaluated the level of knowledge, attitude and perception about COVID-19 pandemic, infection MESHD control and impact among veterinarians in Nigeria. A cross-sectional online survey was used to collect data from consenting respondents during implementation of lockdown in the country (April 23 - May 31, 2020). Purposive and chain referral sampling techniques were used to recruit 368 respondents from various sectors of the profession. The proportion of respondents surveyed 197/368 (53.5 %) were from the public sector, 35.3 % from private sector, 1.1 % were unemployed and 0.8 % retired. Majority of the respondents were males TRANS (72.8 %), within 30 – 39 years (39.7 %) and had 1 – 10 years work experience. Respondents displayed good level of knowledge about COVID-19 (72.4 % ± 9.9 %, range 44.1-91.2 %), with information mostly derived from TV/Radio (81.5%) and social media (81.0 %). The overall attitude level was poor and various determinants for good attitude among respondents were if they were above 60 years (p = 0.013), possessed postgraduate qualification ( p = 0.031), worked over 30 years post DVM (p = 0.001), had household members between 5 and 10 (p = 0.012), and were resident in states on total lockdown (p = 0.024). There was no correlation between the knowledge level score and respondents’ attitude towards the pandemic (p = 0.12). With increasing rate of COVID-19 transmission TRANS, research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies, policies and effective risk mitigations to reduce the pandemic’s adverse impacts.

    'Trained immunity' from Mycobacterium spp. exposure or BCG vaccination and COVID-19 outcomes

    Authors: Samer Singh; Rajendra P. Maurya; Rakesh K. Singh

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20151308 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    Protective variables for COVID-19 are unknown. 'Trained immunity' of the populace as a result of BCG policy implementation and coverage had been suggested to be one of the factors responsible for the differential impact of COVID-19 on different countries. Several trials are underway to evaluate the potential protective role of BCG vaccination in COVID-19. However, the lack of clarity on the use of appropriate controls concerning 'trained immunity' has been a cause of concern leading to more confusion MESHD confusion HP as exemplified by a recently concluded trial in Israel that failed to find any correlation. Whereas, when we analyze the COVID-19 data of European countries without any mandatory BCG vaccination policy but with similar age TRANS distribution, comparable confounding variables, and the stage of the pandemic, the prevalence SERO of Mycobacterium spp.(including BCG vaccine) exposure of the populations is consistently negatively correlated with COVID-19 infections MESHD per million population at all the time points evaluated [r(20): -0.5511 to -0.6338; p-value: 0.0118 to 0.0027]. The results indicate that the on-going and future studies evaluating the effect of BCG vaccination on COVID-19 outcomes should consider the inclusion of 'controls' for underlying 'trained immunity' prevalence SERO or that resulting from the intervention (BCG vaccine) in such trials to arrive at more dependable conclusions.

    COVID-19 Classification in X-ray Chest images using a New Convolutional Neural Network: CNN-COVID

    Authors: Pedro Moises de Sousa; Marianne Modesto; Gabrielle Macedo Pereira; Carlos Alberto da Costa Junior; Luis Vinicius de Moura; Christian Mattjie; Pedro Cunha Carneiro; Ana Maria Marques da Silva; Ana Claudia Patrocinio

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40913/v1 Date: 2020-07-09 Source: ResearchSquare

    PurposeAs COVID-19 causes lung inflamation and lesions, several scientists have worked on seeking a computer model able to identify medical images of patients with this disease MESHD and improve triage. Chest x-ray and computed tomography images are remarkably like images from patients with other lung diseases MESHD, which makes it hard to diagnose, and that is why there was an urge to seek a computer model. Thus, this paper proposes a computer model able to classify x-ray images of patients as with the new coronavirus. Chest x-ray exams were chosen for this study over computed tomography scans because they are low cost, results are obtained quickly, and x-ray equipment availability is higher in regions impacted with the disease MESHD.MethodsA new CNN network, CNN-COVID, was developed to classify chest images as with and without COVID. This article collected images of patients with and without COVID-19 from Covid-19 image data collection and ChestXray14 banks. To assess the network’s accuracy, 10 training sessions and tests were done using CNN-COVID. A confusion MESHD confusion HP matrix was generated to assess the performance SERO of the model and calculate the following metrics: sensitivity SERO (Se), specificity (Sp), and F1 score. Besides, the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and the Areas Under the Curve (AUCs) were used for assessment.ResultsThe following values were obtained: AUC = 0.9720, Se = 98%, and Sp = 96% for the validation set. A total of 10 tests were executed and the average was 0.9787, the lowest result being 0.9740 and the highest, 0.9870.ConclusionsThe results proved that the CNN-COVID model is a promising tool to help physicians classify chest images with pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, considering pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP caused by COVID-19 and pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP due to other causes.

    Risk of Transmission TRANS of infection MESHD to Healthcare Workers delivering Supportive Care for Coronavirus Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP;A Rapid GRADE Review

    Authors: TK Luqman Arafath; Sandeep S Jubbal; Elakkat D Gireesh; Jyothi Margapuri; Hanumantha Rao Jogu; Hitesh Patni; Tyler Thompson; Arsh Patel; Amirahwaty Abdulla; Suma Menon; Sudheer Penupolu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.06.20146712 Date: 2020-07-08 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Background: Avenues of treatment currently implemented for Covid-19 pandemic are largely supportive in nature. Non -availability of an effective antiviral treatment makes supportive care for acute hypoxic respiratory failure HP is the most crucial intervention. Highly contagious nature of Covid-19 had created stress and confusion MESHD confusion HP among front line Health Care Workers (HCWs) regarding infectious risk of supportive interventions and best preventive strategies. Purpose: To analyze and summarize key evidence from published literature exploring the risk of transmission TRANS of Covid-19 related to common supportive care interventions in hospitalized patients and effectiveness of currently used preventive measures in hospital setting. Data Sources: Curated Covid-19 literature from NCBI Computational Biology Branch ,Embase and Ovid till May 20,2020.Longitudinal and reference search till June 28,2020 Study Selection: Studies pertaining to risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD to HCWs providing standard supportive care of hospitalized Covid-19 mainly focusing on respiratory support interventions.Indirect studies from SARS,MERS or other ARDS pathology caused by infectious agents based on reference tracking and snow ball search . Clinical, Healthy volunteer and mechanistic studies were included. Two authors independently screened studies for traditional respiratory supportive-care ( Hypoxia MESHD management, ventilatory support and pulmonary toileting) related transmission TRANS of viral or bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP to HCWs. Data Extraction: Two authors (TK and SP) independently screened articles and verified for consensus. Quality of studies and level of evidence was assessed using Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) , Newcastle - Ottawa quality assessment Scale for observational studies and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system for grading evidence. Data Synthesis: 21 studies were eligible for inclusion. In 11 mechanistic studies, 7 were manikin based,1 was in the setting of GNB pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP ,2 were healthy volunteer study and 1 was heterogenous setting.Out of 10 clinical studies ,5 were case controlled and 6 were cohort studies. Risk of corona virus transmission TRANS was significantly high in HCWs performing or assisting endotracheal intubation or contact with respiratory secretion.(Moderate certainty evidence, GRADE B) Safety of nebulization treatment in corona virus pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients are questionable(Low certainty evidence, GRADE C).Very low certainty evidence exist for risk of transmission TRANS with conventional HFNC (GRADE D) and NIV (GRADE D),CPR (GRADE D),Bag and mask ventilation(GRADE D).Moderate certainty evidence exist for protective effect of wearing a multilayered mask, gown , eye protection and formal training for PPE use (GRADE B).Low certainty evidence exist for transmission risk TRANS with bag and mask ventilation, suctioning before and after intubation and prolonged exposure (GRADE C).Certainty of evidence for wearing gloves,post exposure hand washing and wearing N 95 mask is low(GRADE C). Limitations: This study was limited to articles with English abstract. Highly dynamic nature of body of literature related to Covid-19, frequent updates were necessary even during preparation of manuscript and longitudinal search was continued even after finalizing initial search. Due to the heterogeneity and broad nature of the search protocol, quantitative comparisons regarding the effectiveness of included management strategies could not be performed. Direct evidence was limited due to poor quality and non-comparative nature of available Covid-19 reporting. Conclusions: Major risk factors for transmission TRANS of corona virus infection MESHD were, performing or assisting endotracheal intubation and contact with respiratory secretion. Risk of transmission TRANS with HFNC or NIV can be significantly decreased by helmet interface, modified exhalation circuit or placing a properly fitting face mask over patient interface of HFNC. Evidence for risk of transmission TRANS with CPR, suctioning before or after intubation or bag and mask ventilation of very low certainty. Significant protective factors are Formal training for PPE use, consistently wearing mask, gown and eye protection. Primary Funding Source: None Disclosure: None of the authors have any conflict of interest to disclose.

    Choosing a growth curve to model the Covid-19 outbreak

    Authors: Emiro A. Molina-Cuevas

    id:2007.03779v1 Date: 2020-07-07 Source: arXiv

    The Richards family models comprise a well-known set of models with useful parameters to describe several aspects of disease MESHD outbreaks. Some of these models have been used to study the current Covid-19 pandemic. However, there seems to be confusion MESHD confusion HP regarding the discrimination among competing models. In this paper a detailed application of Akaikes information approach is used to discern among models using data from The European Union, The United States and The United Kingdom. We argue that the epidemiological characteristics derived from competing models should be examined to complement the selection strategy, and the implicit properties of the models contrasted with the available data. Detailed analytical expressions of the epidemiological characteristics implied by the selected parametrizations are also offered.

    What the reproductive number TRANS R_0 TRANS can and cannot tell us about COVID-19 dynamics

    Authors: Clara L. Shaw; David A. Kennedy

    id:2006.14676v1 Date: 2020-06-25 Source: arXiv

    The reproductive number TRANS R_0 TRANS (and its value after initial disease MESHD emergence R) has long been used to predict the likelihood of pathogen invasion, to gauge the potential severity of an epidemic, and to set policy around interventions. However, often ignored complexities have generated confusion MESHD confusion HP around use of the metric. This is particularly apparent with the emergent pandemic virus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. We address some of these misconceptions, namely, how R changes over time, varies over space, and relates to epidemic size by referencing the mathematical definition of R and examples from the current pandemic. We hope that a better appreciation of the uses, nuances, and limitations of R facilitates a better understanding of epidemic spread, epidemic severity, and the effects of interventions in the context of SARS-CoV-2.

    More than privacy: Australians' concerns and misconceptions about the COVIDSafe App: a short report

    Authors: Rae Thomas; Zoe Michaleff; Hannah Greenwood; Eman Abukmail; Paul Glasziou

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.09.20126110 Date: 2020-06-09 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Timely and effective contact tracing TRANS is an essential public health role to curb the transmission TRANS of COVID-19. App- based contact TRANS tracing TRANS has the potential to optimise the resources of overstretched public health departments. However, its efficiency is dependent on wide-spread adoption. We aimed to identify the proportion of people who had downloaded the Australian Government COVIDSafe app and examine the reasons why some did not. Method: An online national survey with representative quotas for age TRANS and gender TRANS was conducted between May 8 and May 11 2020. Participants were excluded if they were a healthcare professional or had been tested for COVID-19. Results: Of the 1802 potential participants contacted, 289 were excluded, 13 declined, and 1500 participated in the survey (response rate 83%). Of survey participants, 37% had downloaded the COVIDSafe app, 19% intended to, 28% refused, and 16% were undecided. Equally proportioned reasons for not downloading the app included privacy (25%) and technical concerns (24%). Other reasons included a belief that social distancing was sufficient and the app is unnecessary (16%), distrust in the Government (11%), and apathy HP (11%). In addition, COVIDSafe knowledge varied with confusion MESHD confusion HP about its purpose and capabilities. Conclusion: For the COVIDSafe app to be accepted by the public and used correctly, public health messages need to address the concerns of its citizens, specifically in regards to privacy, data storage, and technical capabilities. Understanding the specific barriers preventing the uptake of tracing TRANS apps provides the opportunity to design targeted communication strategies aimed at strengthening public health initiatives such as download and correct use.

    Bipallidal Lesions in a COVID-19 Patient: A Case Report and Brief Review of Literature

    Authors: Sudhat Ashok; Kalyan Shastri; L. Beryl Guterman; Lee R. Guterman

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-34525/v1 Date: 2020-06-09 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundAltered mentation in COVID-19 patients can be a function of any number of metabolic abnormalities associated with the infection MESHD. Here we present the case of an encephalopathic COVID-19 patient with bilateral globus pallidus lesions. While imaging abnormalities involving basal ganglia have been reported in encephalitis MESHD encephalitis HP caused by neuroinvasive flaviviruses, the bipallidal lesions noted here likely resulted from hypoxic-ischemic brain injury MESHD.Case PresentationA 51-year-old African American woman was found unresponsive at home by her fiancé. She had been complaining of shortness of breath and cough MESHD cough HP for three days. She is a former smoker with past medical history of hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, nephropathy HP, and bipolar disorder. Upon examination, she was alert but nonverbal, following commands inconsistently, and unable to move extremities against gravity. After several minutes, she was able to state her name but kept repeating it in response to all questions. Chest radiograph revealed bilateral lung infiltrates. CT of the head showed hypodensities in bilateral globus pallidi. A non-contrast MRI of the brain showed symmetric restricted diffusion and FLAIR hyperintense signal changes in bilateral globus pallidi. Abnormal SWI signal seen in bilateral globus pallidi likely represents mineralization or hemosiderin. There were no striatal or thalamic lesions. Major intracranial arteries were widely patent.The patient later tested positive for 2019-nCoV using real-time PCR assay, and was transferred to our COVID-19 designated hospital campus. Thereafter, she had waxing and waning mentation. Repeat CT imaging 11 days after the first scan demonstrated resolution of the bipallidal hypodensities. The patient was recently discharged to a subacute rehab facility but is still experiencing confusion MESHD confusion HP.ConclusionsAs we come across neurological manifestations of COVID-19, we believe neuroimaging is likely to play an important role in establishing if central nervous system involvement is invariably due to indirect mechanisms such as metabolic or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury MESHD or if direct neuroinvasive disease MESHD is a possibility, as with certain viruses.

    Knowledge and Awareness-based Survey of COVID-19 within the Eye Care Profession in Nepal: Misinformation is Hiding the Truth.

    Authors: Sandip Das Sanyam; Sanjay Kumar Sah; Pankaj Chaudhary; Jeremy J Hoffman

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.06.20123505 Date: 2020-06-08 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Background: Nepal is currently under lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic with misinformation circulating on social media. This study aimed to analyse the knowledge and awareness of COVID-19 amongst eye care professionals in Nepal. Methodology: We invited 600 participants from 12 ophthalmic centres across Nepal to complete a qualitative, anonymous online survey. Results: Of the 600 eye care professionals invited, 310 (51%) participated in the survey. The symptoms of COVID-19 were known to 94%, whilst only 49% were aware of disease MESHD transmission TRANS. 98% of participants recognised the World Health Organization (WHO) awareness message, yet 41% of participants felt that consumption of hot drinks helps to destroy the virus. 41% disagreed that PPE should be mandatory for eye care practitioners. Conclusion: There is still considerable scope to improve the knowledge of COVID-19 amongst ophthalmic professionals in Nepal. Opinion is also split on measures to prevent transmission TRANS, with misinformation potentially fuelling confusion MESHD confusion HP.

    Drug-Drug interactions between COVID-19 treatments and antipsychotics drugs: integrated evidence from 4 databases and a systematic review

    Authors: Beatriz Oda Plasencia-Garcia; Gonzalo Rodriguez-Menendez; Maria Isabel Rico-Rangel; Ana Rubio-Garcia; Jaime Torello-Iserte; Benedicto Crespo-Facorro

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.20122416 Date: 2020-06-08 Source: medRxiv

    Relevance: Management of symptoms like anxiety HP, delirium MESHD delirium HP and agitation HP cannot be neglected in COVID-19 patients. Antipsychotics are usually used for the pharmacological management of delirium MESHD delirium HP, and confusion MESHD confusion HP and behavioral disturbances. The selection of concomitant COVID-19 medications and antipsychotics should be evidence-based and closely monitored Objective: To systematically review evidence-based available on drug-drug interactions between COVID-19 treatments and antipsychotics. Evidence Review: Three databases were consulted: (a) Lexicomp Drug Interactions, (b) Micromedex Solutions Drugs Interactions, (c) Liverpool Drug Interaction Group for COVID-19 therapies. To acquire more information on QT prolongation and TdP, the CredibleMeds QTDrugs List was searched. Based on the information collected, the authors made a recommendation agreed to by consensus. In addition, a systematic review was conducted to find the clinical outcomes of drug-drug interactions between COVID-19 treatments and antipsychotics Results: The main interaction between COVID-19 drugs and antipsychotics are the risk of QT prolongation and TdP, and CYP interactions. Remdesivir, favipiravir, baricinitib, and anakinra can be used concomitantly with antipsychotics with no risk of drug-drug interaction (except for hematological risk with clozapine and baricinitib). Tocilizumab is rather safe to use in combination with antipsychotics, although it can restore the activity of CYP3A4 and therefore its substrate metabolism may increase. The most demanding COVID-19 treatments for co-administration with antipsychotics are chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin (all prolong QT interval HP) and lopinavir / ritonavir (CYP interaction and risk of QT prolongation). Conclusions: We urge to development of evidence-based guidelines that can help clinicians decide the safest treatment combination and monitoring necessary for each particular patient. The selection of concomitant COVID-19 medications and antipsychotics should be evidence-based and closely monitored.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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