Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Hospital Admission Rates, Length of Stay and In-hospital Mortality for Common Acute Care Conditions in COVID-19 vs. Pre-COVID-19 Era

    Authors: Adeel A Butt; Anand B Kartha; Naseer A Masoodi; Aftab M Azad; Nidal A Asaad; Mohamad U Alhomsi; Huda A Saleh; Roberto Bertollini; Abdul-Badi Abou-Samra

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20167890 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background Impact of COVID-19 upon acute care admission rates and patterns are unknown. We sought to determine the change in rates and types of admissions to tertiary and specialty care hospitals in the COVID-19 era compared with pre-COVID-19 era. Methods Acute care admissions to the largest tertiary care referral hospital, designated national referral centers for cardiac, cancer and maternity hospital in the State of Qatar during March 2020 (COVID-19 era) and January 2020 and March 2019 (pre-COVID-19 era) were compared. We calculated total admissions, and admissions for eight specific acute care conditions, in-hospital mortality rate and length of stay at each hospital. Results A total of 18,889 hospital admissions were recorded. A sharp decline ranging from 9%-75% was observed in overall admissions. A decline in both elective and non-elective surgeries was observed. A decline of 9%-58% was observed in admissions for acute appendicitis MESHD, acute coronary syndrome MESHD, stroke MESHD stroke HP, bone fractures MESHD bone fractures HP, cancer and live births, while an increase in admissions due to respiratory tract infections MESHD respiratory tract infections HP was observed. Overall length of stay was shorter in the COVID-19 period possibly suggesting lesser overall disease MESHD severity, with no significant change in in-hospital mortality. Unadjusted mortality rate for Qatar showed marginal increase in the COVID-19 period. Conclusions We observed a sharp decline in acute care hospital admissions, with a significant decline in admissions due to seven out of eight acute care conditions. This decline was associated with a shorter length of stay, but not associated with a change in in-hospital mortality rate.

    Association of Diabetes and Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19: A Propensity Score Matched Analyses from a French Retrospective Cohort

    Authors: Willy Sutter; Baptiste Duceau; Aurélie Carlier; Antonin Trimaille; Thibaut Pommier; Oriane Weizman; Joffrey Cellier; Laura Geneste; Vassili Panagides; Wassima Marsou; Antoine Deney; Sabir Attou; Thomas Delmotte; Sophie Ribeyrolles; Pascale Chemaly; Clément Karsenty; Gauthier Giordano; Alexandre Gautier; Corentin Chaumont; Pierre Guilleminot; Audrey Sagnard; Julie Pastier; maxime Vignac; delphine Mika; Charles Fauvel; Théo Pezel; Ariel Cohen; Guillaume Bonnet; Ronan Roussel; Louis POTIER

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-51775/v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: To compare the clinical outcomes between patients with and without diabetes admitted to hospital with COVID-19.Methods: Retrospective multicentre cohort study from 24 academic tertiary medical centres in France including 2851 patients (675 with diabetes) hospitalised for COVID-19 between February 26 and April 20, 2020. A propensity score matching method (1:1 matching including patient characteristics, medical history, vital signs, and laboratory results) was used to compare patients with and without diabetes (n=603 in each group). The primary outcome was admission to intensive care unit (ICU) or in-hospital death MESHD. Results: Patients with diabetes were older (71 ± 13 vs. 65 ± 18 years; p<0.001), were less often female TRANS (38% vs. 44%; p<0.001) and more likely to have comorbidities: hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (79% vs 42%; p<0.001), coronary heart disease MESHD (23% vs 9%; p<0.001), stroke MESHD stroke HP (13% vs 8%; p<0.001), heart failure MESHD (17% vs 9%; p<0.001), chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD (26% vs 10%; p<0.001), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP (7% vs 5%; p<0.05). The primary outcome occurred in 584 (36.4%) patients with diabetes compared to 246 (26.8%) in those without diabetes (p<0.001). After propensity score matching, the risk of primary outcome was similar in patients with and without diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16, 95%CI 0.95-1.41, p=0.14) and was 1.29 (95%CI 0.97 – 1.69) for in-hospital mortality, 1.26 (95%CI 0.93 – 1.72) for mortality without transfer in ICU, and 1.14 (95%CI 0.88 – 1.47) for transfer to ICU.Conclusions: In this retrospective cohort of patients hospitalised for COVID-19, diabetes was not significantly associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 severe outcomes after propensity score matching.Trial registration NCT04344327

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD and Stroke MESHD Stroke HP: Coincident or Causal?

    Authors: Melanie Walker; Christopher C. Young; Malveeka Sharma; Michael R Levitt; David L Tirschwell; - WWAMI Stroke Investigators

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.17.20156463 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD described in isolated case reports and single institutions do not accurately reflect the clinical spectrum of disease MESHD across all geographies in a global pandemic. Data collected during peak of the Covid-19 pandemic from stroke MESHD stroke HP centers in five states reveal few similarities to what has recently been published. Given the diversity in phenotype, we caution policymakers and health care providers when considering cerebrovascular complications from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Risk Factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization: COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Authors: Jean Y. Ko; Melissa L. Danielson; Machell Town; Gordana Derado; Kurt J. Greenland; Pam Daily Kirley; Nisha B. Alden; Kimberly Yousey-Hindes; Evan J. Anderson; Patricia A. Ryan; Sue Kim; Ruth Lynfield; Salina M. Torres; Grant R. Barney; Nancy M. Bennett; Melissa Sutton; H. Keipp Talbot; Mary Hill; Aron J. Hall; Alicia M. Fry; Shikha Garg; Lindsay Kim; - COVID-NET Investigation Group

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20161810 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Identification of risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization is needed to guide prevention and clinical care. Objective: To examine if age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions is independently associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: 70 counties within 12 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) and a population-based sample of non-hospitalized adults TRANS residing in the COVID-NET catchment area from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Participants: U.S. community-dwelling adults TRANS ([≥]18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, March 1- June 23, 2020. Measurements: Adjusted rate ratios (aRR) of hospitalization by age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity and underlying medical conditions ( hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, coronary artery disease MESHD, history of stroke MESHD stroke HP, diabetes, obesity MESHD obesity HP [BMI [≥]30 kg/m2], severe obesity MESHD obesity HP [BMI[≥]40 kg/m2], chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, asthma MESHD asthma HP, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP). Results: Our sample included 5,416 adults TRANS with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Adults TRANS with (versus without) severe obesity MESHD obesity HP (aRR:4.4; 95%CI: 3.4, 5.7), chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD (aRR:4.0; 95%CI: 3.0, 5.2), diabetes (aRR:3.2; 95%CI: 2.5, 4.1), obesity MESHD obesity HP (aRR:2.9; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.5), hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (aRR:2.8; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.4), and asthma MESHD asthma HP (aRR:1.4; 95%CI: 1.1, 1.7) had higher rates of hospitalization, after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, and race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for the presence of an individual underlying medical condition, higher hospitalization rates were observed for adults TRANS [≥]65 years, 45-64 years (versus 18-44 years), males TRANS (versus females TRANS), and non-Hispanic black and other race/ethnicities (versus non-Hispanic whites). Limitations: Interim analysis limited to hospitalizations with underlying medical condition data. Conclusion: Our findings elucidate groups with higher hospitalization risk that may benefit from targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.

    Comorbidities associated with regional variations in COVID-19 mortality revealed by population-level analysis

    Authors: Hongxing Yang; Fei Zhong

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20158105 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), has developed into a global health crisis. Understanding the risk factors for poor outcomes of COVID-19 is thus important for successful management and control of the pandemic. However, the progress and severity of the epidemic across different regions show great differentiations. We hypothesized the origination of these differences are based on location-dependent variations in underlying population-wide health factors. Disease MESHD prevalence SERO or incidence data of states and counties of the United States were collected for a group of chronic diseases MESHD, including hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes, obesity MESHD obesity HP, stroke MESHD stroke HP, coronary heart disease MESHD, heart failure MESHD, physical inactivation, and common cancers (e.g., lung, colorectal, stomach, kidney and renal). Correlation and regression analysis identified the prevalence SERO of heart failure MESHD as a significant positive factor for region-level COVID-19 mortality. Similarly, the incidence of gastric cancer and thyroid cancer were also identified as significant factors contributing to regional variation in COVID-19 mortality. To explore the implications of these results, we re-analyzed the RNA-seq data for stomach adenocarcinoma MESHD (STAD) and colon carcinoma MESHD carcinoma HP (COAD) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We found that expression of genes in the immune response pathways were more severely disturbed in STAD than in COAD, implicating higher probability for STAD patients or individuals with precancerous chronic stomach diseases MESHD to develop cytokine storm once infected with COVID-19. Taken together, we conclude that location variations in particular chronic diseases MESHD and cancers contribute significantly to the regional variations in COVID-19 mortality.

    The Outcome of COVID-19 Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction MESHD Myocardial Infarction HP

    Authors: Hassan Altamimi; Yasser Alahmad; Fadi Khazal; Mowahib Elhassan; Hajar AlBinali; Abdulrahman Arabi; Awad AlQahtani; Nidal Asaad; Mohammed Al-Hijji; Tahir Hamid; Ihsan Rafie; Ali S. Omrani; Saad AlKaabi; Abdullatif Alkhal; Muna AlMalslmani; Mohammed Ali; Murad Alkhani; Mariam AlNesf; Salem Abu Jalala; Salaheddine Arafa; Reem ElSousy; Omar AlTamimi; Ezzeldine Soaly; Charbel Abi khalil; Jassim Al Suwaidi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20156349 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly expanding global pandemic resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 patients may present with acute myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP (AMI). The aim of this study is to conduct detailed analysis on patients with AMI and COVID-19. Methods We included all patients admitted with AMI and actively known or found to be COVID-19 positive by PCR between the 4th February 2020 and the 11th June 2020 in the State of Qatar. Patients were divided into ST-elevation myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP (STEMI) and Non-STE (NSTEMI). Results There were 68 patients (67 men and 1 woman) admitted between the 4th of February 2020 and the 11th of June 2020 with AMI and COVID-19. The mean age TRANS was 49.1, 46 patients had STEMI and 22 had NSTEMI. 38% had diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP, 31% had hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, 16% were smokers, 13% had dyslipidemia, and 14.7% had prior cardiovascular disease MESHD. Chest pain MESHD Chest pain HP and dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP were the presenting symptoms in 90% and 12% of patients respectively. Fever MESHD Fever HP (15%) and cough MESHD cough HP (15%) were the most common COVID-19 symptoms, while the majority had no viral symptoms. Thirty-nine (33 STEMI and 6 NSTEMI) patients underwent coronary angiography, 38 of them had significant coronary disease MESHD. Overall in-hospital MACE was low; 1 patient developed stroke MESHD stroke HP and 2 died. Conclusion Contrary to previous small reports, overall in-hospital adverse events were low in this largest cohort of COVID-19 patients presenting with AMI. We hypothesize patient profile including younger age TRANS contributed to these findings. Further studies are required to confirm this observation.

    COVID-19 and Ischemic Stroke HP Stroke MESHD

    Authors: Amira Sidig; Khabab Abbasher; Hussien Abbasher; Radi Tofaha Alhusseini; Mohamed Elsayed; Mohammed Abbasher; Sufian Khalid M. N; Khalid Hajnoor; Mohammed Malekaldar; Mutaz F. Digna; Abbasher Hussien; Omer Eladil A. Hamid

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-49338/v1 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19 disease MESHD. It was identified in December 2019 and rapidly evolved into a pandemic. During the outbreak of COVID-19, researches demonstrated its effect on many systems, including the nervous system. In our clinic, we have reported an impact of SARS-CoV-2, causing the ischaemic stroke MESHD stroke HP.Case Report: A 62-year-old Sudanese male TRANS with some comorbidities brought to the A&E with fever MESHD fever HP, chest symptoms, and acute evolving left-sided hemiplegia MESHD hemiplegia HP power grade 0/5 MRCS with left upper motor neuron facial palsy HP. Investigations: CT brain: right middle cerebral artery MCA infarction MESHD. CT- chest: bilateral ground-glass appearance. COVID-19 Test was positive. elevated D-dimer and C-reactive protein.Discussion: A retrospective study of data from the COVID-19 outbreak in China showed that the incidence of stroke MESHD stroke HP among hospitalized patients was approximately 5%. The fact that COVID-19 is an acute inflammatory condition associated with an increased incidence of fatty plaques formation, injury of the vascular wall, and hypercoagulability HP, causing brain infarct can be a reasonable hypothesis.ConclusionPatients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of thrombo-embolization, leading to arterial and venous cerebrovascular accident. This case report enhances the importance of further studies to clarify the relationship between stroke MESHD stroke HP and COVID-19.

    Mechanical Thrombectomy of Large Vessel Occlusions in COVID-19 Related Stroke MESHD Stroke HP: Endovascular and Clinical Outcomes

    Authors: Anas S. Al-Smadi; Srishti Abrol; Ali Luqman; Parthasarathi Chamiraju; Hani Abujudeh

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-49068/v1 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background and PurposeStroke is a drastic complication and a poor prognostic marker of COVID-19 disease MESHD which emphasizes the importance of early identification and management of this complication. In this case series, we describe our experience of mechanical thrombectomy of large vessel occlusions (LVO) in patients with COVID-19.MethodsWe performed a retrospective study of a series of confirmed COVID-19 patients who underwent endovascular thrombectomy for acute cerebrovascular ischemic disease MESHD with large vessel occlusion. Patient demographics, presentations, lab values, angiographic and clinical outcomes were also reviewed.ResultsThree COVID-19 patients with large vessel occlusion who underwent endovascular thrombectomy were identified in our multi-center institution. Two patients had respiratory symptoms prior presentation and one patient presented initially with clinical deficits. Two patients had anterior circulation occlusion in the middle cerebral artery territory vs one had posterior circulation occlusion in the basilar artery. There was good angiographic outcome post thrombectomy in all patients, however poor clinical outcomes noted with no significant improvement in neurological manifestations in comparison with baseline at presentation.  All patients developed critically severe symptoms during hospitalization requiring intubation and one patient died of COVID-19 related respiratory failure HP.ConclusionIn this small case series, we noted worse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 related LVO stroke MESHD stroke HP despite effective thrombectomy, which may be related to the underlying COVID-19 disease MESHD and/or the nature of clot in these patients.

    Place and causes of acute cardiovascular mortality during the COVID19 pandemic: retrospective cohort study of 580,972 deaths MESHD in England and Wales, 2014 to 2020

    Authors: Jianhua Wu; Mamas Mamas; Mohamed Mohamed; Chun Shing Kwok; Chris Roebuck; Ben Humberstone; Tom Denwood; Tom Luescher; Mark De Belder; John Deanfield; Chris Gale

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20153734 Date: 2020-07-16 Source: medRxiv

    Importance. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a decline in admissions with cardiovascular (CV) emergencies MESHD. The fatal consequences of this are unknown. Objectives - To describe the place and causes of acute CV death MESHD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design - Retrospective nationwide cohort. Setting - England and Wales. Participants - All adult TRANS ( age TRANS [≥]18 years) acute CV deaths MESHD (n=580,972) between 1st January 2014 and 2nd June 2020. Exposure - The COVID-19 pandemic (defined as from the onset of the first COVID-19 death MESHD in England on 2nd March 2020). Main outcomes - Place (hospital, care home, home) and acute CV events directly contributing to death MESHD as stated on the first part of the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death MESHD. Results - After 2nd March 2020, there were 22,820 acute CV deaths MESHD of which 5.7% related to COVID-19, and an excess acute CV mortality of 1752 (+8%) compared with the expected daily deaths MESHD in the same period. Deaths MESHD in the community accounted for nearly half of all deaths MESHD during this period. Care homes had the greatest increase in excess acute CV deaths MESHD (1065, +40%), followed by deaths MESHD at home (1728, +34%) and in hospital (57, +0%). The most frequent cause of acute CV death MESHD during this period was stroke MESHD stroke HP (8,290, 36.3%), followed by acute coronary syndrome MESHD (ACS) (5,532, 24.2%), heart failure MESHD (5,280, 23.1%), pulmonary embolism MESHD pulmonary embolism HP (2,067, 9.1%) and cardiac arrest HP (1,037, 4.5%). Deep vein thrombosis MESHD had the greatest increase in cause of excess acute CV death MESHD (18, +25%), followed pulmonary embolism MESHD pulmonary embolism HP (340, +19%) and stroke MESHD stroke HP (782, +10%). The greatest cause of excess CV death MESHD in care homes was stroke MESHD stroke HP (700, +48%), compared with cardiac arrest HP (80, +56%) at home, and pulmonary embolism MESHD pulmonary embolism HP (126, +14%) and cardiogenic shock MESHD cardiogenic shock HP (41, +14%) in hospital. Conclusions and relevance - The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an inflation in acute CV deaths MESHD above that expected for the time of year, nearly half of which occurred in the community. The most common cause of acute CV death MESHD was stroke MESHD stroke HP followed by acute coronary syndrome MESHD and heart failure MESHD. This is key information to optimise messaging to the public and enable health resource planning.

    COVID-19: Role of the Inflammasome

    Authors: Claudio G. Gallo; Sirio Fiorino; Giovanni Posabella; Donato Antonacci; Antonio Tropeano; Emanuele Pausini; Carlotta Pausini; Tommaso Guarniero; Marco Zancanaro

    id:202007.0246/v1 Date: 2020-07-12 Source: Preprints.org

    Covid-19 disease MESHD is caused by SARS Cov-2 virus. Despite its high transmissibility TRANS, the CFR (Case Fatality Rate) of COVID-19 seems to be lower than the SARS (9,5%) and MERS (34,4%) ones93 , but higher than the influenza one (0-1%)94,95 . The disease is asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS or paucisymptomatic in most of the patients, although in few cases it can be characterized by serious complications. The main causes of hospitalization in intensive care are represented by ALI ( Acute Lung Injury MESHD), ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD), cardiovascular problems and coagulopathies (diffuse thrombosis MESHD, microthrombosis, embolisms MESHD, myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP, arrhytmias, heart failure MESHD, stroke MESHD stroke HP)96-98, acute nephropathy99,100 and encephalopathies101. The virus presence in the vascular wall can cause endotheliitis, which triggers the process of diffuse coagulation that can lead to a worsening of the systemic inflammation MESHD. The exaggerated inflammatory response seems to be connected with the development of ARDS, MOF ( Multiple Organ Failure MESHD) and coagulopathies102-107.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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