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Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 39
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    The Association of HScore Parameters with Severe COVID-19: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Elham Roshandel; Mohammad Hossein Kazemi; Bentolhoda Kuhestani Dehaghi; Hossein Bonakchi; Sayeh Parkhideh; Mahshid Mehdizadeh; Abbas Hajifathali

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-54490/v1 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Several reports associated the severe Coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 (sCOVID-19) with secondary-haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) and proposed the HScore table for sCOVID-19 patients. We conducted a meta-analysis to found the possible association of HScore parameters with severity in COVID-19 patients. Systematic search was performed in Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, and Cochrane databases using all HScore and COVID-19 keywords. The records were screened based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Random/fixed-effect models were employed. The pooled mean differences were estimated for continuous parameters. The pooled odds-ratio was estimated for fever MESHD fever HP. Eighteen studies met the criteria and included in the meta-analysis (2459 patients). Significant higher levels of leukocyte, neutrophil, aspartate-transaminase (AST), ferritin, and fibrinogen, as well as lower level of lymphocyte, platelet, and hemoglobin were found in sCOVID-19 patients compared to non-severe ones. Fever MESHD Fever HP was nearly associated with 2 times increased odds of sCOVID-19 (p-value = 0.051). Lymphopenia MESHD Lymphopenia HP, thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP, hypohemoglobinemia, hyperferritinemia, high levels of AST, and fever MESHD fever HP are common features of both sCOVID-19 and HLH. However, leukocytosis MESHD leukocytosis HP, neutrophilia HP, and hyperfibrinogenemia HP found in sCOVID-19 contrast with HScore. Conclusively, HScore parameters could be risk factors for the severity of COVID-19. However, some parameters’ roles are contradictory, suggesting further investigation and a new way of HScore interpretation for sCOVID-19 patients.

    Suspected Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia HP Thrombocytopenia MESHD in a COVID-19 Patient on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support: A Case Report.

    Authors: Xuan T. Phan; Tuan Huu Nguyen; Tung T. Tran; Thu-Hien T. Huynh; Thuy-Ha T. Hoang; Vinh-Chau V. Nguyen; Thao N. T. Pham

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50546/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support can be life-saving in critically ill COVID-19 patients. However, there are many complications associated with this procedure, including Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia HP thrombocytopenia MESHD (HIT.) Despite its rarity in ECMO cases, HIT can lead to devastating consequences and is difficult to manage.Case presentation: In this report, we present a case of a COVID-19 patient on ECMO support who was diagnosed with HIT and required intensive treatment. Initially, the patient showed no remarkable sign of thrombosis MESHD and HIT was only suspected due to newly-developed thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP and oxygenator dysfunction. Regarding his treatment, since there was no recommended replacement to heparin available to us at the time of diagnosis, we decided to use Rivaroxaban temporarily. No adverse events were recorded during that period. The patient was able to make a full recovery.Conclusion: HIT may jeopardize patient’s care during ECMO. As COVID-19 may bring about a surge in the number of patients requiring ECMO support, we need consented guidance to optimize treatment in this specific situation.

    Increased number of pulmonary megakaryocytes in COVID-19 patients with diffuse alveolar damage. An autopsy study with clinical correlation and review of the literature.

    Authors: Mariel F. Valdivia-Mazeyra; Clara Salas; Jesús M. Nieves-Alonso; Luz Martín-Fragueiro; Carmen Bárcena; Patricia Muñoz-Hernández; Karen Villar-Zarra; Javier Martín-López; Fernando Ramasco-Rueda; Javier Fraga; José A. Jiménez-Heffernan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-49093/v1 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    Megakaryocytes are normally present in the lung where they play a role in platelet homeostasis. The latter are well known to participate in the pathogenesis of lung damage, particularly in acute lung injury MESHD. Although megakaryocytes are usually not mentioned as a characteristic histopathologic finding associated to acute pulmonary injury, a few studies point out that their number is increased in the lungs of patients with diffuse alveolar damage. In this autopsy study we have observed a relevant number of pulmonary megakaryocytes in COVID-19 patients dying with acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD. We have studied pulmonary tissue samples of 18 patients most of which died after prolonged disease MESHD and use of mechanical ventilation. Most samples showed fibroproliferative or fibrotic diffuse alveolar damage and an increased number of megakaryocytes. In six, thrombi of the pulmonary microcirculation were seen. We compare our findings with previous published autopsy reports, mainly focusing on the description of megakaryocytes. Our patients showed abnormal coagulation parameters with high levels of fibrinogen, D-dimers and variable thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP. Since the lung is considered an active site of megakariopoiesis, a prothrombotic status leading to platelet activation, aggregation and consumption may trigger a compensatory pulmonary response. An increased number of pulmonary megakaryocytes suggests and supports a relation with the thrombotic events so often seen in COVID-19. Regardless of its etiology, future studies of patients dying with acute pulmonary injury should include pulmonary megakaryocytes as a histologic variable of interest.

    Pathogenesis clue from early clinical presentation of 300 hospitalized COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Feng Yu; Xuemei Deng; Li Ni; Wei Li; Ping Yan; Mian Huang; Xiongbiao Wang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-44006/v1 Date: 2020-07-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    The global spread of COVID-19 has been lasted more than half a year. Except for the gene sequence and virus structure of SARS-CoV-2, its clinical characteristics, pathological mechanism and corresponding measures have not been fully revealed. Objective: To speculate the possible pathological mechanism from the early clinical manifestations of the patients with COVID-19. Methods: The onset symptoms TRANS, laboratory examination and CT findings on admission of 300 cases in two wards of Wuhan Third Hospital from January 28 to March 15 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: There was no difference in incidence between men and women, but women were hospitalized later after onset. Upper respiratory symptoms and sputum were seldom. The incidence of fever MESHD fever HP was 71%. Blood SERO lymphocytes count decreased significantly on admission, which was related to the severity of the disease MESHD. In the moderate type of patients, who without hypoxia MESHD, thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP occurred in 12.37%, CRP rose in 64.43 %, BUN elevated in 20.62 %, creatinine rose in 17.53 %, D-dimer elevated in 74.74%, creatine kinase and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase elevated in 45.36% and 54.12% patients respectively. The early CT showed a small amount of infiltration in the subpleural, the lateral zone of the lung and thickening of the interlobular septum. About 5 days later, infiltration had been worse in a part of the patients, and the affected lung was negatively correlated with the lymphocyte count. Conclusion: There was no gender TRANS difference in patients with SARS-CoV-2 invasion. Alveolar cells and T lymphocytes maybe main targets of the virus and apoptosis maybe primary pathogenesis. The virus entering the lung maybe transmitted through lymph or blood SERO channels, rather than direct diffused in the respiratory tract. Early damage of multiple organs maybe caused by immune response. 

    COVID-19 and Cancer: A Comparative Case Series

    Authors: seied Asadollah Mousavi; Tahereh Rostami; Azadeh kiumarsi; soroush Rad; mohammadreza Rostami; Fatemeh Motamedi; Alireza Gandomi-Mohammadabadi; Amirhossein Mirhosseini

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-41710/v1 Date: 2020-07-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundCancer patients, with an incidence of more than 18 million new cases per year, may constitute a significant portion of the COVID-19 infected population. In the pandemic situation,  these patients are considered highly vulnerable to infectious complications due to their immunocompromised state.Material & MethodsIn this retrospective case series, the documents of solid cancer patients infected by SARS-CoV-2, hospitalized in Shariati hospital (a tertiary care referral center designated for COVID-19 patients, affiliated by Tehran University of Medical Sciences) between 20 February and 20 April 2020, were evaluated. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on a positive real-time fluorescence reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids from nasal and/or pharyngeal specimens and/or features of chest CT scan highly suggestive for SARS-CoV-2.ResultsAmong 33 patients with solid cancer, 11 patients had a positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 and 22 patients had highly suggestive chest CT scan findings in favor of SARS-CoV-2 but negative RT-PCR . The mean age TRANS of the patients was 63.9 years, and 54.5% of the patients were males TRANS. Age and sex of the patients did not correlate with mortality. There was no difference in COVID-19 symptoms, lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP between survived and un-survived cancer patients. However, LDH level was significantly higher (7170±2077 vs. 932.3±324.7, P-value=0.016) and also serum SERO albumin was significantly lower in un-survived group (3.6±0.5 vs. 2.9±0.6 p-value=0.03). Among 16 patients with stage IV cancer, thirteen patients died, which was significantly higher compared to stage I-III cancer patients (81.3% vs. 18.8% P-value= <0.001).  In terms of developing complications, sepsis MESHD sepsis HP, invasive ventilation and mortality was significantly higher in patients who received cytotoxic chemotherapy within the last 14 days. There was no significant difference between the two groups of positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR regarding their sex, age TRANS, cancer type, mean Hemoglobin concentration, Platelet count, lymphocyte count, serum SERO albumin level, ESR and CRP titer or other laboratory findings and also in terms of clinical symptoms and coexisting.ConclusionIn this study, we showed that the mortality rate among cancer patients affected by COVID-19 was higher than general population and this rate has a significant correlation with factors such as the stage of the disease MESHD, the type of cancer, the activity of cancer and finally receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy within 14 days before diagnosis of COVID-19. We also showed that the outcome of cancer patients with positive RT-PCR for COVID-19 similar to those with negative RT-PCR with highly suggestive chest CT scan findings.

    Pathogenesis Clues from the Early Clinical Presentation of 300 Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Feng Yu; Xuemei Deng; Li Ni; Wei Li; Ping Yan; Mian Huang; xiongbiao wang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-42484/v1 Date: 2020-07-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The global spread of the 2019 coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) has lasted more than half a year. Except for the gene sequence and viral structure of SARS-CoV-2, its clinical characteristics, pathological mechanisms and corresponding measures have not been fully revealed. We aimed to speculate about the possible pathological mechanism from the early clinical manifestations of patients with COVID-19. Methods: The onset symptoms TRANS, laboratory examinations and CT findings on admission of 300 patients in two wards of Wuhan Third Hospital from January 28 to March 15 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: There was no difference in incidence between men and women, but women were hospitalized later after onset. Upper respiratory symptoms and sputum were rare. The incidence of fever MESHD fever HP was 71%. Blood SERO lymphocyte counts were decreased significantly on admission and were related to the severity of the disease MESHD. In moderate patients without hypoxia MESHD, thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP occurred in 12.37%, CRP rose in 64.43%, BUN was elevated in 20.62%, creatinine rose in 17.53%, D-dimer was elevated in 74.74%, and creatine kinase and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase were elevated in 45.36% and 54.12% of patients, respectively. Early CT showed a small amount of infiltration in the subpleural and lateral zones of the lung and thickening of the interlobular septum. Approximately 5 days later, infiltration was worse in some of the patients, and the proportion of involvement of the affected lung was negatively correlated with the lymphocyte count. Conclusions: There was no sex difference in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Alveolar cells and T lymphocytes may be the main targets of the virus, and apoptosis may be the primary mechanism of pathogenesis. The virus entering the lung may be transmitted through lymph or blood SERO vessels rather than directly dispersing through the respiratory tract. Early damage to multiple organs may be caused by the immune response. 

    COVID-19: The Rollercoaster of Fibrin(ogen), D-dimer, von Willebrand Factor, P-selectin and Their Interactions with Endothelial Cells, Platelets and Erythrocytes

    Authors: Corlia Grobler; Jhade Bredenkamp; Mireille Grobbelaar; Sipho Maphumulo; Jaco Laubscher; Janami Steenkamp; Douglas Kell; Etheresia Pretorius

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0142.v1 Date: 2020-07-08 Source: preprints.org

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19)-induced infection MESHD is strongly associated with various coagulopathies that may result in either bleeding and thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP or hypercoagulation and thrombosis MESHD. Thrombotic and bleeding or thrombotic pathologies are significant accompaniments to acute respiratory syndrome MESHD and lung complications in COVID-19. Thrombotic events and bleeding, often occurs in subjects with weak multiple risk factors and co-morbidities. Of particular interest are the various circulating inflammatory coagulation biomarkers involved directly in clotting, with specific focus on fibrin(ogen), D-dimer, P-selectin and von Willebrand Factor (vWF). Central to activity of these biomarkers are their receptors and signaling pathways on endothelial cells, platelets and erythrocytes. In this review, we discuss vascular implications of COVID-19, and relate this to circulating biomarker, endothelial, erythrocyte and platelet dysfunction. During the progression of the disease MESHD, these markers may either be within healthy levels, upregulated or eventually depleted. Most significant is that patients need to be treated early in the disease progression MESHD, when high levels of vWF, P-selectin and fibrinogen are present with still low levels of D-dimer. Progression to vWF and fibrinogen depletion with high D-dimer levels and even higher P-selectin levels, followed by the cytokine storm, will be indicative of a poor prognosis. We conclude by looking at point-of-care devises and methodologies in COVID-19 management and suggest that a personalized medicine approach should be considered in the treatment of patients.

    A High Content Screen for Mucin-1-Reducing Compounds Identifies Fostamatinib as a Candidate for Rapid Repurposing for Acute Lung Injury MESHD during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Maria Malimova; Abhigyan Satyam; Michelle Melanson; Brian T. Chamberlain; Seth L. Alper; Jean Santos; Juan Gutierrez; Ayshwarya Subramanian; Elizabeth Grinkevich; Estefania Reyes Bricio; Abbe Clark; Rebecca Thompson; Jamie Marshall; Juan Lorenzo Pablo; Julie Roignot; Maheswarareddy Emani; Matthew Racette; Valeria Padovano; Stephen P. McAdoo; Frederick W.K. Tam; Lucienne Ronco; Florence Wagner; George C. Tsokos; Jillian L. Shaw

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.30.180380 Date: 2020-06-30 Source: bioRxiv

    Drug repurposing is the only method capable of delivering treatments on the shortened time-scale required for patients afflicted with lung disease MESHD arising from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Mucin-1 (MUC1), a membrane-bound molecule expressed on the apical surfaces of most mucosal epithelial cells, is a biochemical marker whose elevated levels predict the development of acute lung injury MESHD (ALI) and respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS), and correlate with poor clinical outcomes. In response to the pandemic spread of SARS-CoV-2, we took advantage of a high content screen of 3,713 compounds at different stages of clinical development to identify FDA-approved compounds that reduce MUC1 protein abundance. Our screen identified Fostamatinib (R788), an inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) approved for the treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP, as a repurposing candidate for the treatment of ALI. In vivo, Fostamatinib reduced MUC1 abundance in lung epithelial cells in a mouse model of ALI. In vitro, SYK inhibition by Fostamatinib promoted MUC1 removal from the cell surface. Our work reveals Fostamatinib as a repurposing drug candidate for ALI and provides the rationale for rapidly standing up clinical trials to test Fostamatinib efficacy in patients with COVID-19 lung injury MESHD.

    Monocyte CD169 expression as a biomarker in the early diagnosis of COVID-19

    Authors: Anne-Sophie Bedin; Alain Makinson; Marie-Christine Picot; Franck Mennechet; Fabrice Malergue; Amandine Pisoni; Esperance Nyiramigisha; Lise Montagnier; Karine Bollore; Segolene Debiesse; David Morquin; Penelope Bourgoin; Nicolas Veyrenche; Constance Renault; Vincent Foulongne; Bret Caroline; Bourdin Arnaud; Vincent Le Moing; Philippe Van de Perre; Edouard TUAILLON

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.28.20141556 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: medRxiv

    We assessed the expression of the cell adhesion molecule Sialoadhesin (CD169), a type I interferon-inducible receptor, on monocytes (mCD169) in 53 adult TRANS patients admitted to the hospital during the COVID-19 outbreak for a suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. mCD169 was strongly overexpressed in 30 out of 32 (93.7%) confirmed COVID-19 cases, compared to three out of 21 (14.3%) patients for whom the diagnosis of COVID-19 was finally ruled out. mCD169 was associated with the plasma SERO interferon alpha level and thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP. mCD169 testing may be helpful for the rapid triage of suspected COVID-19 patients during an outbreak.

    Factors Associated with Hospitalization and Disease MESHD Severity in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Population of COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Angelico Mendy; Senu Apewokin; Anjanette A Wells; Ardythe L Morrow

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.25.20137323 Date: 2020-06-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) first identified in Wuhan in December 2019 became a pandemic within a few months of its discovery. The impact of COVID-19 is due to both its rapid spread and its severity, but the determinants of severity have not been fully delineated. Objective: Identify factors associated with hospitalization and disease MESHD severity in a racially and ethnically diverse cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: We analyzed data from COVID-19 patients diagnosed at the University of Cincinnati health system from March 13, 2020 to May 31, 2020. Severe COVID-19 was defined as admission to intensive care unit or death MESHD. Logistic regression modeling adjusted for covariates was used to identify the factors associated with hospitalization and severe COVID-19. Results: Among the 689 COVID-19 patients included in our study, 29.2% were non-Hispanic White, 25.5% were non-Hispanic Black, 32.5% were Hispanic, and 12.8% were of other race/ethnicity. About 31.3% of patients were hospitalized and 13.2% had severe disease MESHD. In adjusted analyses, the sociodemographic factors associated with hospitalization and/or disease MESHD severity included older age TRANS, non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity (compared to non-Hispanic White), and smoking. The following comorbidities: diabetes, hypercholesterolemia MESHD hypercholesterolemia HP, asthma MESHD asthma HP, COPD, chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, cardiovascular diseases MESHD, osteoarthritis MESHD osteoarthritis HP, and vitamin D deficiency MESHD were associated with hospitalization and/or disease MESHD severity. Hematological disorders such as anemia MESHD anemia HP, coagulation disorders, and thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP were associated with both hospitalization and disease MESHD severity. Conclusion: This study confirms race and ethnicity as predictors of severe COVID-19. It also finds clinical risk factors for hospitalization and severe COVID-19 not previously identified such a vitamin D deficiency MESHD, hypercholesterolemia MESHD hypercholesterolemia HP, osteoarthritis MESHD osteoarthritis HP, and anemia MESHD anemia HP.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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