Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Fever (266)

Cough (178)

Infections (135)

Disease (127)

Coronavirus Infections (77)


Human Phenotype

Fever (273)

Cough (178)

Fatigue (64)

Pneumonia (63)

Hypertension (35)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    The emergence of COVID-19 in Indonesia: analysis of predictors of infection MESHD and mortality using independent and clustered data approaches

    Authors: Erlina Burhan; Ari Fahrial Syam; Ahmad Jabir Rahyussalim; Prasenohadi Prasenohadi; Navy G Lolong Wulung; Agus Dwi Susanto; I Gede Ketut Sajinadiyasa; Dewi Puspitorini; Dewi Lestari; Indah Suci Widyahening; Vivi Setiawaty; Dwiana Ocviyanti; Kartika Qonita Putri; Aswin Guntara; Davrina Rianda; Anuraj H Shankar; Rina Agustina

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20147942 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background: Analyses of correlates of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD or mortality have usually assessed individual predictors. This study aimed to determine if patterns of combined predictors may better identify risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD and mortality. Methods: For the period of March 2nd to 10th 2020, the first 9 days of the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia, we selected all 18 confirmed cases TRANS, of which 6 died, and all 60 suspected cases, of which 1 died; and 28 putatively negative patients with pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and no travel TRANS history. We recorded data for travel TRANS, contact history, symptoms, haematology, comorbidities, and chest x-ray. Hierarchical cluster analyses (HCA) and principal component analyses (PCA) identified cluster and covariance patterns for symptoms or haematology which were analysed with other predictors of infection MESHD or mortality using logistic regression. Results: For univariate analyses, no significant association with infection MESHD was seen for fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, dyspnoea, headache MESHD headache HP, runny nose, sore throat, gastrointestinal complaints (GIC), or haematology. A PCA symptom component for fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, and GIC tended to increase risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD (OR 3.41; 95% CI 1.06 - 14; p=0.06), and a haematology component with elevated monocytes decreased risk (OR 0.26; 0.07 - 0.79; 0.027). Multivariate analysis revealed that an HCA cluster of 3-5 symptoms, typically fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, headache MESHD headache HP, runny nose, sore throat but little dyspnoea and no GIC tended to reduce risk (aOR 0.048; <0.001 - 0.52; 0.056). In univariate analyses for death MESHD, an HCA cluster of cough MESHD cough HP, fever MESHD fever HP and dyspnoea had increased risk (OR 5.75; 1.06 - 31.3, 0.043), but no other individual predictor, cluster or component was associated. Other significant predictors of infection MESHD were age TRANS >= 45, international travel TRANS, contact with COVID-19 patient, and pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Diabetes and history of contact were associated with higher mortality. Conclusions: Cluster groups and co-variance patterns may be stronger correlates of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD than individual predictors. Comorbidities may warrant careful attention as would COVID-19 exposure levels.

    Diagnostic value of skin manifestation MESHD of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Veronique Bataille; Alessia Visconti; Niccolo' Rossi; Benjamin Murray; Abigail Bournot; Jonathan Wolf; Sebastien Ourselin; Claire Steves; Timothy Spector; Mario Falchi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150656 Date: 2020-07-11

    SARS-CoV-2 causes multiple immune-related reactions at various stages of the disease MESHD. The wide variety of skin presentations has delayed linking these to the virus. Previous studies had attempted to look at the prevalence SERO and timing of SARS-COV-2 rashes but were based on mostly hospitalized severe cases and had little follow up. Using data collected on a subset of 336,847 eligible UK users of the COVID Symptom Study app, we observed that 8.8% of the swab positive cases (total: 2,021 subjects) reported either a body rash or an acral rash, compared to 5.4% of those with a negative swab test (total: 25,136). Together, these two skin presentations showed an odds ratio (OR) of 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41-1.96) for being swab positive. Skin rashes HP were also predictive in the larger untested group of symptomatic app users (N=54,652), as 8.2% of those who had reported at least one classical COVID-19 symptom, i.e., fever MESHD fever HP, persistent cough MESHD cough HP, and/or anosmia HP, also reported a rash. Data from an independent online survey of 11,546 respondents with a rash showed that in 17% of swab positive cases, the rash was the initial presentation. Furthermore, in 21%, the rash was the only clinical sign. Skin rashes HP cluster with other COVID-19 symptoms, are predictive of a positive swab test and occur in a significant number of cases, either alone or before other classical symptoms. Recognising rashes is important in identifying new and earlier COVID-19 cases.

    Using simulation to assess the potential effectiveness of implementing screening at national borders during international outbreaks of influenza, SARS, Ebola virus disease MESHD and COVID-19

    Authors: Declan Bays; Emma Bennett; Thomas Finnie

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150664 Date: 2020-07-11

    The effectiveness of screening travellers for signs of infection MESHD during times of international disease MESHD outbreak is contentious, especially as the reduction of the risk of disease MESHD importation can be very small. Border screening typically consists of arriving individuals being thermally scanned for signs of fever MESHD fever HP and/or completing a survey to declare any possible symptoms, and while more thorough testing typically exists, these would generally prove more disruptive to deploy. In this paper, we utilise epidemiological data and Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the potential success rate of deploying border screening for a range of diseases MESHD (including the current COVID-19 pandemic) in varying outbreak scenarios. We negate the issue of testing precision by assuming a perfect test is used; our outputs then represent the best-case scenario. We then use these outputs to briefly explore the types of scenarios where the implementation of border screening could prove most effective. Our models only considers screening implemented at airports, due to air travel TRANS being the predominant method of international travel TRANS. Primary results showed that in the best-case scenario, screening has the potential to detect 46.4%, 12.9% and 4.0% of travellers infected with influenza, SARS and ebola respectively, while screening for COVID-19 could potentially detect 12.0% of infected travellers. We compare our results to those already in the published literature.

    Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD: case series in Sinaloa

    Authors: Giordano Perez Gaxiola; Rosalino Flores Rocha; Julio Cesar Valadez Vidarte; Melissa Hernandez Alcaraz; Gilberto Herrera Mendoza; Miguel Alejandro Del Real Lugo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20146332 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus may affect both adults TRANS and children TRANS. Although the disease MESHD, named COVID-19, has a lower prevalence SERO in infancy and has been described as mild, the clinical characteristics may vary and there is a possibility of complications. Objectives: To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pediatric cases confirmed TRANS in the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, during the first three months of the pandemic, and of children TRANS admitted with COVID-19 to a secondary hospital. Methods: This case series includes all patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection confirmed TRANS confirmed by PCR testing, identified in the state epidemiological surveillance system between March 1 and May 31, 2020. Confirmed patients admitted to the Sinaloa Pediatric Hospital (HPS) during the same dates are also described. Results: Fifty one children TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 were included, 10 of the admitted to HPS. The median age TRANS was 10 years. The more frequent symptoms were fever MESHD fever HP (78%), cough MESHD cough HP (67%) and headache MESHD headache HP (57%). Most cases were mild or asymptomatic TRANS. Three patients with comorbidities died. Only 4 of 10 patients identified in HPS had been admitted with the diagnosis of possible COVID-19. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS was mostly mild or asymptomatic TRANS, but with a wide range of clinical presentations.

    IL-33 expression in response to SARS-CoV-2 correlates with seropositivity in COVID-19 convalescent individuals

    Authors: Michal A Stanczak; David E Sanin; Petya Apostolova; Gabriele Nerz; Dimitrios Lampaki; Maike Hofmann; Daniel Steinmann; Robert Thimme; Gerhard Mittler; Cornelius F Waller; Edward J Pearce; Erika L Pearce

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20148056 Date: 2020-07-10

    Our understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still developing. We investigated seroprevalence SERO and immune responses in subjects professionally exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and their family members TRANS (155 individuals; ages TRANS 5-79 years). Seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein aligned with PCR results that confirmed previous infection MESHD. Anti-spike IgG titers remained high 60 days post- infection MESHD and did not associate with symptoms, but spike-specific IgM did associate with malaise and fever MESHD fever HP. We found limited household transmission TRANS, with children TRANS of infected individuals seldomly seropositive, highlighting professional exposure as the dominant route of infection MESHD in our cohort. We analyzed PBMCs from a subset of seropositive and seronegative adults TRANS. TLR7 agonist- activation revealed an increased population of IL-6+TNF-IL-1{beta}+ monocytes, while SARS-CoV-2 peptide stimulation elicited IL-33, IL-6, IFNa2, and IL-23 expression in seropositive individuals. IL-33 correlated with CD4+ T cell activation in PBMCs from convalescent subjects, and was likely due to T cell-mediated effects on IL-33- producing cells. IL-33 is associated with pulmonary infection MESHD infection and chronic HP and chronic diseases MESHD like asthma MESHD asthma HP and COPD, but its role in COVID-19 is unknown. Analysis of published scRNAseq data of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with mild to severe COVID-19 revealed a population of IL-33-producing cells that increases with disease MESHD. Together these findings show that IL-33 production is linked to SARS-CoV- 2 infection MESHD and warrant further investigation of IL-33 in COVID-19 pathogenesis and immunity.

    The Immunology of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome MESHD in Children TRANS with COVID-19

    Authors: Camila Rosat Consiglio; Nicola Cotugno; Fabian Sardh; Christian Pou; Donato Amodio; Sonia Zicari; Alessandra Ruggiero; Giuseppe Rubens Pascucci; Lucie Rodriguez; Veronica Santilli; Ziyang Tan; Daniel Eriksson; Jun Wang; Tadepally Lakshmikanth; Alessandra Marchesi; Tadepally Lakshmikanth; Andrea Campana; Alberto Villani; Paolo Rossi; - the CACTUS study team; Nils Landegren; Paolo Palma; Petter Brodin

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.08.20148353 Date: 2020-07-10

    SARS-CoV2 infection MESHD is typically very mild and often asymptomatic TRANS in children TRANS. A complication is the rare Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome MESHD in Children TRANS (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19, presenting 4-6 weeks after infection MESHD as high fever MESHD fever HP and organ dysfunction and strongly elevated markers of inflammation MESHD. The pathogenesis is unclear but has overlapping features with Kawasaki disease MESHD suggestive of vasculitis MESHD vasculitis HP and a likely autoimmune etiology. We apply systems-level analyses of blood SERO immune cells, cytokines and autoantibodies in healthy children TRANS, children TRANS with Kawasaki disease MESHD enrolled prior to COVID-19, children TRANS infected with SARS-CoV2 and children TRANS presenting with MIS-C. We find that the inflammatory response in MIS-C differs from the cytokine storm of severe acute COVID-19, is more similar to Kawasaki disease MESHD, but also differ from this with respect to T-cell subsets, IL-17A and biomarkers associated with arterial damage. Finally, autoantibody profiling suggests endoglin, an endothelial glycoprotein as one of several candidate targets of autoantibodies in MIS-C.

    A single-dose live-attenuated YF17D-vectored SARS-CoV2 vaccine candidate

    Authors: Lorena Sanchez Felipe; Thomas Vercruysse; Sapna Sharma; Ji Ma; Viktor Lemmens; Dominique van Looveren; Mahadesh Prasad Arkalagud Javarappa; Robbert Boudewijns; Bert Malengier-Devlies; Suzanne F. Kaptein; Laurens Liesenborghs; Carolien De Keyzer; Lindsey Bervoets; Madina Rasulova; Laura Seldeslachts; Sander Jansen; Michael Bright Yakass; Osbourne Quaye; Li-Hsin Li; Xin Zhang; Sebastiaan ter Horst; Niraj Mishra; Lotte Coelmont; Christopher Cawthorne; Koen Van Laere; Ghislain Opdenakker; Greetje Van de Velde; Birgit Weynand; Dirk E. Teuwen; Patrick Matthys; Johan Neyts; Hendrik Jan Thibaut; Kai Dallmeier

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.08.193045 Date: 2020-07-09

    The explosively expanding COVID-19 pandemic urges the development of safe, efficacious and fast-acting vaccines to quench the unrestrained spread of SARS-CoV-2. Several promising vaccine platforms, developed in recent years, are leveraged for a rapid emergency MESHD response to COVID-191. We employed the live-attenuated yellow fever MESHD fever HP 17D (YF17D) vaccine as a vector to express the prefusion form of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike antigen. In mice, the vaccine candidate, tentatively named YF-S0, induces high levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies SERO and a favorable Th1 cell-mediated immune response. In a stringent hamster SARS-CoV-2 challenge model2, vaccine candidate YF-S0 prevents infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, a single dose confers protection from lung disease MESHD in most vaccinated animals even within 10 days. These results warrant further development of YF-S0 as a potent SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.View Full Text

    Risk Factors Prediction, Clinical Outcomes, and Mortality of COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Roohallah Alizadehsani; Zahra Alizadeh sani; Mohaddeseh Behjati; Zahra Roshanzamir; Sadiq Hussain; Niloofar Abedini; Fereshteh Hasanzadeh; Abbas Khosravi; Afshin Shoeibi; Mohamad Roshanzamir; Pardis Moradnejad; Saeid Nahavandi; Fahime Khozeimeh; Assef Zare; Maryam Panahiazar; U. Rajendra Acharya; Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20148569 Date: 2020-07-09

    Background: Preventing communicable diseases MESHD requires understanding the spread, epidemiology, clinical features, progression, and prognosis of the disease MESHD. Early identification of risk factors and clinical outcomes might help to identify critically ill patients, provide proper treatment and prevent mortality. Methods: We conducted a prospective study in patients with flu-like symptoms referred to the imaging department of a tertiary hospital in IRAN between 3 March 2020 and 8 April 2020. Patients with COVID-19 were followed up to check their health condition after two months. The categorical data between groups were analyzed by Fisher exact test and continuous data by Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test. Findings: 319 patients (mean age TRANS 45.48 years, 177 women) were enrolled. Fever MESHD Fever HP, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, weakness, shivering HP, C-reactive protein (CRP), fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, dry cough MESHD cough HP, anorexia MESHD anorexia HP, anosmia HP, ageusia MESHD, dizziness MESHD, sweating and age TRANS were the most important symptoms of COVID-19 infection MESHD. Traveling TRANS in past three months, asthma MESHD asthma HP, taking corticosteroids, liver disease MESHD, rheumatological disease MESHD, cough MESHD cough HP with sputum, eczema MESHD eczema HP, conjunctivitis MESHD conjunctivitis HP, tobacco use, and chest pain MESHD chest pain HP did not have any relationship with COVID-19. Interpretation: Finding clinical symptoms for early diagnosis of COVID-19 is a critical part of prevention. These symptoms can help in the assessment of disease progression MESHD. To the best of our knowledge, some of the effective features on the mortality due to COVID-19 are investigated for the first time in this research. Funding: None

    Joint Detection of Serum SERO IgM/IgG Antibody SERO is An Important Key to Clinical Diagnosis of SARS-COV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Fang Hu; Xiaoling Shang; Meizhou Chen; Changliang Zhang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20146902 Date: 2020-07-08

    Background: This study was aimed to investigate the application of SARS- COV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies SERO in diagnosis of COVID-19 infection MESHD. Method: This study enrolled a total of 178 patients at Huangshi Central Hospital from January to February, 2020. Among them, 68 patients were SARS-COV-2 infected confirmed with nucleic acid test (NAT) and CT imaging. 9 patients were in the suspected group (NAT negative) with fever MESHD fever HP and other respiratory symptoms. 101 patients were in the control group with other diseases MESHD and negative to SARS-COV-2 infection MESHD. After serum samples SERO were collected, SARS-COV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies were tested SERO by chemiluminescence immunoassay SERO (CLIA) for all patients. Results: The specificity of serum SERO IgM and IgG antibodies SERO to SARS-COV-2 were 99.01% (100/101) and 96.04% (97/101) respectively, and the sensitivity SERO were 88.24% (60/68) and 97.06% (66/68) respectively. The combined detection rate of SARS-COV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies SERO were 98.53% (67/68). Conclusion: Combined detection of serum SERO SARS-COV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies SERO had better sensitivity SERO compared with single IgM or IgG test, which can be used as an important diagnostic tool for SARS-COV-2 infection MESHD and a screening tool of potential SARS-COV-2 carriers TRANS in clinics, hospitals and accredited scientific laboratory.

    Reconstructing the global dynamics of under-ascertained COVID-19 cases and infections MESHD

    Authors: Nick Golding; Timothy W Russell; Sam Abbott; Joel Hellewell; Carl A B Pearson; Kevin van Zandvoort; Christopher I Jarvis; Hamish Gibbs; Yang Liu; Rosalind M Eggo; John W Edmunds; Adam J Kucharski

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20148460 Date: 2020-07-08

    Background: Asymptomatic TRANS or subclinical SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD are often unreported, which means that confirmed case TRANS counts may not accurately reflect underlying epidemic dynamics. Understanding the level of ascertainment (the ratio of confirmed symptomatic cases to the true number of symptomatic individuals) and undetected epidemic progression is crucial to informing COVID-19 response planning, including the introduction and relaxation of control measures. Estimating case ascertainment over time allows for accurate estimates of specific outcomes such as seroprevalence SERO, which is essential for planning control measures. Methods: Using reported data on COVID-19 cases and fatalities globally, we estimated the proportion of symptomatic cases (i.e. any person with any of fever MESHD fever HP >= to 37.5C, cough MESHD cough HP, shortness of breath, sudden onset of anosmia HP, ageusia MESHD or dysgeusia MESHD illness) that were reported in 210 countries and territories, given those countries had experienced more than ten deaths MESHD. We used published estimates of the case fatality ratio (CFR) as an assumed baseline. We then calculated the ratio of this baseline CFR to an estimated local delay-adjusted CFR to estimate the level of under-ascertainment in a particular location. We then fit a Bayesian Gaussian process model to estimate the temporal pattern of under-ascertainment. Results: We estimate that, during March 2020, the median percentage of symptomatic cases detected across the 84 countries which experienced more than ten deaths MESHD ranged from 2.38% (Bangladesh) to 99.6% (Chile). Across the ten countries with the highest number of total confirmed cases TRANS as of 6th July 2020, we estimated that the peak number of symptomatic cases ranged from 1.4 times (Chile) to 17.8 times (France) larger than reported. Comparing our model with national and regional seroprevalence SERO data where available, we find that our estimates are consistent with observed values. Finally, we estimated seroprevalence SERO for each country. Despite low case detection in some countries, our results that adjust for this still suggest that all countries have had only a small fraction of their populations infected as of July 2020. Conclusions: We found substantial under-ascertainment of symptomatic cases, particularly at the peak of the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, in many countries. Reported case counts will therefore likely underestimate the rate of outbreak growth initially and underestimate the decline in the later stages of an epidemic. Although there was considerable under-reporting in many locations, our estimates were consistent with emerging serological data, suggesting that the proportion of each country's population infected with SARS-CoV-2 worldwide is generally low.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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