Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Fever (654)

Cough (439)

Disease (327)

Infections (327)

Coronavirus Infections (217)


Human Phenotype

Fever (664)

Cough (437)

Pneumonia (167)

Fatigue (152)

Dyspnea (92)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 271 - 280 records in total 664
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    Type I and Type III IFN Restrict SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD of Human Airway Epithelial Cultures

    Authors: Abigail Vanderheiden; Philipp Ralfs; Tatiana Chirkova; Amit A Upadhyay; Matthew G Zimmerman; Shamika Bedoya; Hadj Aoued; Gregory K Tharp; Kathryn Pellegrini; Anice C Lowen; Vineet D. Menachery; Larry J Anderson; Arash Grakoui; Steven E. Bosinger; Mehul S Suthar

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.105437 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: bioRxiv

    The newly emerged human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has caused a pandemic of respiratory illness. The innate immune response is critical for protection against Coronaviruses. However, little is known about the interplay between the innate immune system and SARS-CoV-2. Here, we modeled SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD using primary human airway epithelial (pHAE) cultures, which are maintained in an air-liquid interface. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infects and replicates in pHAE cultures and is directionally released on the apical, but not basolateral surface. Transcriptional profiling studies found that infected pHAE cultures had a molecular signature dominated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine induction, including IL-6, TNF, CXCL8. We also identified NF-{kappa}B and ATF4 transcription factors as key drivers of this pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Surprisingly, we observed a complete lack of a type I or III IFN induction during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Pre-treatment or post-treatment with type I and III IFNs dramatically reduced virus replication in pHAE cultures and this corresponded with an upregulation of antiviral effector genes. Our findings demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 induces a strong pro-inflammatory cytokine response yet blocks the production of type I and III IFNs. Further, SARS-CoV-2 is sensitive to the effects of type I and III IFNs, demonstrating their potential utility as therapeutic options to treat COVID-19 patients. IMPORTANCEThe current pandemic of respiratory illness, COVID-19, is caused by a recently emerged coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2. This virus infects airway and lung cells causing fever MESHD fever HP, dry cough MESHD cough HP, and shortness of breath. Severe cases of COVID-19 can result in lung damage, low blood SERO oxygen levels, and even death MESHD. As there are currently no vaccines or antivirals approved for use in humans, studies of the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are urgently needed. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of primary human airway epithelial cultures induces a strong pro-inflammatory cytokine response yet blocks the production of type I and III IFNs. Further, SARS-CoV-2 is sensitive to the effects of type I and III IFNs, demonstrating their potential utility as therapeutic options to treat COVID-19 patients.

    Incidental 18F-FDG PET/CT finding of COVID-1 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in asymptomatic TRANS patient diagnosed with lung abscess MESHD lung abscess HP metastasis

    Authors: Antoni Mestre-Fusco; Mònica Velasco-Nuño; Montserrat Negre-Busó; Núria Ferran; Sergi Juanpere; Antoni Rubió

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30437/v1 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    A 66-year-old male TRANS patient, with chronic respiratory disease MESHD and right colon resection in March 2017 for colon low-grade adenocarcinoma MESHD was assessed for recurrence MESHD suggested by elevated levels of tumor marker and no evidence of oncological disease MESHD by CT scan. 18F-FDG PET/CT showed bilateral multiple peripheral FDG-avid foci that matched with a peripheral predominant ground-glass opacities (GGOs) observed in lower lobes and multiple FDG-positive enlarged lymph nodes were also identified in the mediastinum. Patient was hospitalized in March 14th 2020, one day after PET/CT scan, with cough MESHD cough HP, wheezing HP and fever MESHD fever HP, and was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs. A first SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in March 15th resulted as negative and patient was treated with antibiotic therapy lead to an improvement of respiratory symptoms. PET/CT scan was interpreted as a pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP foci. A deteriorating patient condition was observed, with respiratory symptomatology progression, fatigue MESHD fatigue HP and D-Dimer elevation and a new RT-PCR resulted positive. A week after PET/CT scan, hospitalization in intensive care unit was necessary for rapidly disease progression MESHD and severe respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD and patient died four days later.

    Abnormal immunity of non-survivors with COVID-19: predictors for mortality

    Authors: Zhao yang; Nie hanxiang; Hu ke; Wu xiaojun; Zhang yunting; Wang mengmei; Wang tao; Zheng zhishui; Li xiaochen; Zeng shaolin

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30424/v1 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread all over the world. The specific information about immunity of non-survivors with COVID-19 is scarce. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and abnormal immunity of the confirmed COVID-19 non-survivors.Methods In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 125 patients with COVID-19 who were died between Jan, 13 and Mar 4, 2020 from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University. 414 randomly recruited patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were discharged from the same hospital during the same period served as control. Demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and chest computed tomograph results at admission, and treatment were collected. The immunity-related risk factors associated with in-hospital death MESHD were detected.Results Non-survivors were older than survivors. More than half of non-survivors was male TRANS. Nearly half of the patients had chronic medical illness. The common signs and symptoms MESHD at admission of non-survivors were fever MESHD fever HP. Non-survivors had higher white blood SERO cell (WBC) count, more elevated neutrophil count, lower lymphocytes and platelete count, raised concentration of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP) than survivors. The levels of CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD19+ T cells, and CD16+56+T cells were significantly decreased in non-survivors when compared with survivors. The concentrations of immunoglobulins (Ig) G, IgA and IgE were increased, whereas the levels of complement proteins (C)3 and C4 were decreased in non-survivors when compared with survivors. Non-survivors presented lower levels of oximetry saturation at rest and lactate. Old age TRANS, comorbidity of malignant tumour, neutrophilia HP, lymphocytopenia, low CD4+ T cells, decreased C3, and low oximetry saturation were the risk factors of death MESHD in patients with confirmed COVID-19. The frequency of CD4+ T cells positively correlated with the numbers of lymphocytes and the level of oximetry saturation, whereas CD4+ T cells were negatively correlated with age TRANS and the numbers of neutrophils.Conclusion Abnormal cellular immunity and humoral immunity were considerable in non-survivors with COVID-19. Neutrophilia HP, lymphocytopenia, low CD4+ T cells, and decreased C3 were the immunity-related risk factors predicting mortality of patients with COVID-19.

    Early warning signs for severe patients with Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 and its epidemical significance

    Authors: Hong Ji; Qigang Dai; Hui Jin; Ke Xu; Jing Ai; Xinyu Fang; Naiyang Shi; Haodi Huang; Ying Wu; Zhihang Peng; Jianli Hu; Liguo Zhu; Ming Wu; Changjun Bao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30070/v1 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Since December 2019 coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China. However, early warning signs for severe patients with COVID-19 were not fully known.Methods Information on admission was collected through a standard questionnaire. We described the epidemiological characteristics of the patients with COVID-19, analyzed the risk factors associated with severe illness, and estimated the key epidemiologic time-delay distributions.Results A total of 631 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were identified. The proportion of severe cases was 8.4%. The epidemic of COVID-19 experienced four stages: sporadic phase, exponential growth phase, peak plateau phase, and declining phase. The proportion of severe cases was significantly different in four stages and 13 municipal prefectures (P < 0.001). Factors including elderly TRANS more than 65years(yrs) old, underlying medical conditions, fever MESHD fever HP patient whose highest temperature beyond 39.0℃, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, and lymphocytopenia(< 1.0 × 109/L) could possibly become the early warning signs for severe patients of COVID-19. In contrast, earlier visit to the clinic could reduce the severe risk. Besides, the viral load may be a potentially useful marker associated with disease MESHD severity of COVID-19 infection MESHD.Conclusions The epidemic experienced four stages with obviously areas difference. People aged TRANS beyond 65 yrs or underlying medical conditions once appear symptoms like fever MESHD fever HP beyond 39.0℃ and/or dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP should immediately visit health care.

    Development of a Predictive Score for COVID-19 Diagnosis based on Demographics and Symptoms in Patients Attended at a Dedicated Screening Unit

    Authors: Alexandre P Zavascki; Marcelo B Gazzana; Joao Pedro Bidart; Patricia S Fernandes; Aline Galiotto; Cristiane T Kawski; Luiz A Nasi; Diego R Falci

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20101931 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The diagnosis of COVID-19 based on clinical evaluation is difficult because symptoms often overlap with other respiratory diseases MESHD. A clinical score predictive of COVID-19 based on readily assessed variables may be useful in settings with restricted or no access to molecular diagnostic tests. Methods: A score based on demographics and symptoms was developed in a cross-sectional study including patients attended in a dedicated COVID-19 screening unit. A backward stepwise logistic regression model was constructed and values for each variable were assigned according to their {beta} coefficient values in the final model. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed and its area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Results: A total of 464 patients were included: 98 (21.1%) COVID-19 and 366 (78.9%) non-COVID-19 patients. The score included variables independently associated with COVID-19 in the final model: age TRANS equal or above 60 years (2 points), fever MESHD fever HP (2), dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP (1), fatigue MESHD fatigue HP (1 point) and coryza (-1). Score values were significantly higher in COVID-19 than non-COVID-19 patients: median (Interquartile Range), 3 (2-4), and 1 (0-2), respectively; P<0.001. The score had an AUC of 0.80 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.76-0.86). The specificity of scores equal or greater than 4 and 5 points were 90.4 (95%CI, 87.0-93.3) and 96.2 (95%CI, 93.7-97.9), respectively. Conclusions: This preliminary score based on patients symptoms is a feasible tool that may be useful in setting with restricted or no access to molecular tests in a pandemic period, owing to the high specificity. Further studies are required to validate the score in other populations.

    Clinical features of COVID-19 patients in one designated medical institutions in Chengdu, China

    Authors: Gui Zhou; Yun-Hui Tan; Jiang-Cuo Luo; Yi-Xiao Lu; Jing Feng; Juan Li; Yun-Mei Yang; Long Chen; Jian-Ping Zhang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30405/v1 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics of patients infected with the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) responsible for coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-2019).METHODS: Data were collected from 20 patients admitted to the Pidu District People’s Hospital in Chengdu from January 26, 2020 to March 1, 2020 with laboratory-confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD. Clinical data were collected using the World Health Organization (WHO) nCoV CASE RECORDFORM Version 1.2 28JAN2020, which includes parameters such as: temperature, epidemiological characteristics, social network, history of exposure, and incubation period TRANS. If information was unclear, the team reviewed the original data and contacted TRANS patients directly if necessary.RESULTS: The median age TRANS of the 20 COVID-19 infected patients studied was 42.5 years. In this cohort, four patients became severely ill and one deteriorated rapidly during treatment. This patient was transferred to another medical center with an intensive care unit (ICU) for treatment. This patient died after admission to the ICU. Two of the twenty patients remained positive SARS-Cov-2 more than three weeks, and they were quarantined in a medical facility without medication. According to our analysis, all of the studied cases were infected by human-to-human transmission TRANS due to the lack of protective measures; transmission TRANS through contact within families requires confirmation. The most common symptoms at onset TRANS of illness were fever MESHD fever HP in 13 (65%) patients, cough MESHD cough HP in 9 (45%), headache MESHD headache HP in 3 (15%), fatigue MESHD fatigue HP in 6 (30%), diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP in 3 (15%), and abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP in 2 (10%). Six patients (30%) developed shortness of breath upon admission. The median time from exposure to onset of illness was6.5 days (interquartile range 3.25–9 days), and from the onset of symptoms TRANS to first hospital admission was 3.5 (1.25–7) days.CONCLUSION: Compared with patients infected with SARS-Cov-2 in Wuhan (up to the end of February 2020), the symptoms of patients in one hospital in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, were relatively mild and patients were discharged from the hospital after only a short stay. However, the fasting blood SERO glucose of the infected individuals was found to be slightly elevated because of the state of emergency MESHD. The dynamic changes in lymphocyte levels can predict disease MESHD status of COVID-19. They are also suggestive of changes in mean platelet volume during disease progression MESHD. This suggests that the patients had mild cases of COVID-19. However, because there is no effective drug treatment for COVID-19, it is important to detect and identify severe cases from mild cases early.

    Exploring alternative medicine options for the prevention or treatment of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19)- A systematic scoping review

    Authors: Amrita Nandan; Santosh Tiwari; Vishwas Sharma

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20101352 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Symptoms include fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, shortness of breath, muscle pain MESHD pain HP, pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, and multi-organ failure. The infection MESHD spreads from one person to another via respiratory droplets. Alternative medicine (AMs) viz., Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Unani, and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), are being promoted for the prevention of COVID-19. The aim of this systematic scoping review was to identify and summarize the scientific evidences promoting the use of AMs for the prevention of COVID-19. Methods: A comprehensive search of electronic search engines (PubMed and Web of Science) was performed. In addition, freewheeling searches of the government health ministries and government websites was done to retrieve the available information. Records available until 12th March 2020 were considered. Reports proposing the use of AMs for prevention or treatment of COVID-19 across all countries were included. Screening (primary and secondary) of the records and data extraction from the eligible studies were done by a single reviewer followed by a random quality check (10%) by the second reviewer. Results: Overall, 8 records (7 from China and 1 from India) exploring the use of AMs for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 were identified. Different medicines were explored by different AM systems. Conclusions: Several AMs options are proposed for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19. However, their efficacy and safety still needs scientific validation through rigorous randomized controlled trials. This review may help inform decisions about the importance of research and development of AMs for COVID-19 prevention and treatment.

    Clinical research and factors associated with prolonged duration of viral shedding in patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Di Tian; Lin Wang; Xiankun Wang; Ziruo Ge; Shuping Cui; Yanli Xu; Rui Song; Meihua Song; Bing Han; Wei Zhang; Dawei Tan; Xingang Li; Yang Zhou; Sujuan Zhang; Li Yang; Peipei Meng; Le Sun; Xingwang Li; Zhihai Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-29818/v1 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Towards the end of December 2019, the Wuhan health commission declared an outbreak of clusters of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in patients. Sequencing indicated that this disease MESHD (COVID-19) was caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The outbreak of COVID-19 is currently still underway.Methods We recruited 75 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients admitted to the Center of Infectious Disease MESHD division 2 of Beijing Ditan Hospital from Jan 20 to Mar 20, 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, radiological features, laboratory data were analyzed.Results Of the 75 patients, 42(56%) patients were male TRANS and 33(44%) patients were female TRANS. The mean age TRANS of all patients was 41.5 ± 19.4 years. Male TRANS patients were more likely to become severe. There were 9 family clusters accounted for 44 patients. Patients classified as being severe had a higher frequency of fever MESHD fever HP upon admission than patients classified as moderate cases. For moderate patients, the median duration of viral shedding was 25(9.5, 42) days (range 1–63 days) from the first positive nucleic acid test compared to 14(9, 21.25) days (range 2–62 days) for severe cases. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.041). Cox regression analyses indicated that disease MESHD status and CRP were the factors that affect the duration of viral shedding. Virus clearance was significantly faster in severe patients compared to moderate patients(p = 0.011), and patients with CRP range in 2–10 times higher than upper limit of normal value had longer duration of viral shedding(p = 0.012). CRP and CD4 + T lymphocyte was negative correlated, and the relationship between CRP and CD4 + T lymphocyte was statistically significant (P = 0.003), with a correlation coefficient of -0.564. During the second week following the onset of illness, severe cases had higher WBC, NEU and CRP, but lower LYM, MON and EOS as compared with moderate cases (all P < 0.05). Severe cases still had lower lymphocyte counts and higher CRP than moderate cases in the third week.Conclusions Viral clearance was significantly prolonged in moderate patients, and those CRP in 2–10 times higher than upper limit of normal value. Immune response may affect the duration of viral shedding. Severe cases had a persistence lower lymphocyte count and higher CRP than moderate cases.

    Clinical presentations, laboratory and radiological findings, and treatments for 11,028 COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Carlos K.H. Wong; Janet Y. Wong; Eric H.M. Tang; Chi Ho Au; Abraham K. Wai

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30388/v1 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the comorbidities, symptoms, clinical characteristics and treatment of COVID-19 patients.Method: Epidemiological studies published in 2020 (from January-March) on the clinical presentation, laboratory findings and treatments of COVID-19 patients were identified from PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase databases. Studies published in English by 27th March, 2020 with original data were included. A random-effects model was used to aggregate estimates across eligible studies and produce meta-analytic estimates. Primary outcomes included comorbidities of COVID-19 patients, their symptoms presented on hospital admission, laboratory results and radiological outcomes, and pharmacological and in-patient treatments.Results: 77 studies were included in this meta-analysis, accounting for a total of 11,028 COVID- 19 patients in multiple countries. The most common comorbidities were hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (18.1%, 95%CI: 15.4-20.8%). The most frequently identified symptoms were fever MESHD fever HP (72.4%, 95%CI: 67.2-77.7%) and cough MESHD cough HP (55.5%, 95%CI: 50.7-60.3%). For pharmacological treatment, 63.9% (95%CI: 52.5-75.3%), 62.4% (95%CI: 47.9-76.8%) and 29.7% (95%CI: 21.8-37.6%) of patients were given antibiotics, antiviral, and corticosteroid, respectively. Notably, 62.6% (95%CI: 39.9- 85.4%) and 20.2% (95%CI: 14.6-25.9%) of in-patients received oxygen therapy and non- invasive mechanical ventilation, respectively.Conclusions: This meta-analysis informed healthcare providers about the timely status of characteristics and treatments of COVID-19 patients across different countries.PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42020176589

    Cancer Patient Management Strategy in a Cancer Center of Zhejiang, China During the COVID-19 Pandemic 

    Authors: Song-xiao Xu; Xiang-dong Cheng; Zhi-wen Pan; Qian Song; Yi-hong Wang; Juan Xiong; Yong-yi Chen; Fan Fan; Jing Zhu; Wan-ying Wu; Xue-ying Deng; Yan-pin Yu; Xiao-hong Xu; Wen-hu Chen; Tao Zhu; Yang Yu; Kai-zhong Liu; Guo-liang Shao; Ming Chen; En-yan Yu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30259/v2 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Due to the increased risk of viral infection and the severe HP infection MESHD and the severe shortage of medical resources during the pandemic of COVID-19, most hospitals in the epidemic areas significantly reduced non- emergency MESHD admissions and services, if not closed. As a result, it has been difficult to treat cancer patients on time, which adversely affects their prognosis. To address this problem, cancer centers must develop a strategic plan to manage both inpatients and outpatients during the pandemic, provide them with the necessary treatment, and at the same time prevent the spread of the virus among patients, visitors and medical staff. Methods: Based upon the epidemic situation in Zhejiang Province, China, the number of running non- emergency MESHD medical wards in the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital was gradually increased in a controlled manner. All staff of the hospital received COVID-19 preventive training and was provided with three different levels of protection according to the risks of their services. Only patients without a known history of SARS-CoV-2 contact were eligible to schedule an appointment. Body temperature was measured on all patients upon their arrival at the hospital. Chest CT image, blood SERO cell counting and travel TRANS/contact history were investigated in patients with fever MESHD fever HP. Respiratory tract samples, such as sputum and throat swabs, from all patients, including those clinically suspected of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, were collected for nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2 before treatment.Results: A total of 3697 inpatients and 416 outpatients seeking cancer treatment were enrolled from February 1 to April 3, 2020, in compliance with the hospital’s infection MESHD-control interventions. The clinicopathological parameters of the patients were summarized herein. 4237 samples from 4101 patients produced negative RNA testing results. Four clinically suspected patients all presented negative RNA test results and were excluded from the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD through follow-up retesting and monitoring. Seven patients with only N-gene positive results were retested, followed by CT scan and SARS-CoV-2 contact history investigation. All of them were finally diagnosed as non-infected patients. There was one outpatient who was confirmed positive by virus RNA test and then followed up. She might be an asymptomatic laboratory- confirmed case TRANS. During the study period, there was no SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among staff, patients and escorts of patients in the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital.Conclusion: This study suggested our infection MESHD-control interventions, including viral nucleic acid test, could be used as a reliable method to screen cancer patients in the area with moderate COVID-19 prevalence SERO. Cancer may not be a high-risk factor of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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