Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Diarrhea (105)

Fever (68)

Cough (64)

Infections (57)

Disease (50)


Human Phenotype

Diarrhea (105)

Fever (68)

Cough (64)

Fatigue (34)

Pneumonia (27)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 105
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    Clinical and intestinal histopathological findings in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 patients with hematochezia HP

    Authors: Margaret Cho; Weiguo Liu; Sophie Balzora; Yvelisse Suarez; Deepthi Hoskoppal; Neil D Theise; Wenqing Cao; Suparna A Sarkar

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164558 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of SARS-CoV2/COVID-19 in the form of anorexia MESHD anorexia HP, nausea MESHD nausea, vomiting HP, vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP are usually preceeded by respiratory manifestations and are associated with a poor prognosis. Hematochezia HP is an uncommon clinical presentation of COVID-19 disease MESHD and we hypothesize that older patients with significant comorbidites ( obesity MESHD obesity HP and cardiovascular) and prolonged hospitalization are suspectible to ischemic injury to the bowel. We reviewed the clinical course, key laboratory data including acute phase reactants, drug/medication history in two elderly TRANS male TRANS patients admitted for COVID-19 respiratory failure HP. Both patients had a complicated clinical course and suffered from hematochezia HP and acute blood SERO loss anemia MESHD anemia HP requiring blood SERO transfusion around day 40 of their hospitalization. Colonoscopic impressions were correlated with the histopathological findings in the colonic biopies and changes compatible with ischemia MESHD to nonspecific acute inflammation MESHD, edema MESHD edema HP and increased eosinophils in the lamina propria were noted.Both patients were on anticoagulants, multiple antibiotics and antifungal agents due to respiratory infections MESHD at the time of lower GI bleeding. Hematochezia HP resolved spontaneously with supportive care. Both patients eventually recovered and were discharged. Elderly TRANS patients with significant comorbid conditions are uniquely at risk for ischemic injury to the bowel. Hypoxic conditions due to COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and respiratory failure HP, compounded by preexisting cardiovascular complications, and/or cytokine storm orchestrated by the viral infection MESHD leading to alteration in coagulation profile and/or drug/medication injury can be difficult to distinguish in these critically ill patients. Presentation of hematochezia HP may further increase the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 patients, and prompt consultation and management by gastroenterology is therefore warranted.

    Ontology-based annotation and analysis of COVID-19 phenotypes

    Authors: Yang Wang; Fengwei Zhang; Hong Yu; Xianwei Ye; Yongqun He

    id:2008.02241v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: arXiv

    The epidemic of COVID-19 has caused an unpredictable and devastated disaster to the public health in different territories around the world. Common phenotypes include fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, shortness of breath, and chills MESHD chills HP. With more cases investigated, other clinical phenotypes are gradually recognized, for example, loss of smell, and loss of tastes. Compared with discharged or cured patients, severe or died patients often have one or more comorbidities, such as hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease MESHD. In this study, we systematically collected and analyzed COVID-19-related clinical phenotypes from 70 articles. The commonly occurring 17 phenotypes were classified into different groups based on the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). Based on the HP classification, we systematically analyze three nervous phenotypes (loss of smell, loss of taste, and headache MESHD headache HP) and four abdominal phenotypes ( nausea MESHD nausea, vomiting HP, vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP, and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP) identified in patients, and found that patients from Europe and USA turned to have higher nervous phenotypes and abdominal phenotypes than patients from Asia. A total of 23 comorbidities were found to commonly exist among COVID-19 patients. Patients with these comorbidities such as diabetes and kidney failure had worse outcomes compared with those without these comorbidities.

    Treatment of sepsis MESHD sepsis HP-related Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD with Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide

    Authors: Jihad G. Youssef; Sami Said; George Youssef; Matthew J. Javitt; Jonathan C Javitt

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52237/v1 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: To assess the clinical safety and possible effectiveness of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in the treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD (ARDS) related to sepsisMethods: Under FDA Investigational New Drug clearance, 8 patients with ARDS related to sepsis MESHD sepsis HP were treated with 50 pmole/kg/hr – 100 pmole/kg/hr of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide by intravenous infusion for 12 hours. All patients were on mechanical ventilation and full telemetery.Results: No drug-related serious adverse events were seen. Hypotension was seen in association with two infusions and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP in association with one, but did not necessitate cessation of therapy. Bigeminy was seen in association with one infusion without sequelae. Seven of eight patients demonstrated a successful course during intensive care and were successfully removed from mechanical ventilation and discharged from intensive care. The eighth patient succumbed to purulent secretions in the lungs. Of those who were discharged from the ICU, six demonstrated successful 30 day survival. The seventh died from a cerebral infract at day 30, deemed unrelated to treatment with VIP. Serum levels of Tumor Necrosis MESHD Factor α were obtained in 6 patients at baseline and 24 hours and were seen to decrease with treatment in five patients.Conclusions: Initial clinical results of treatment with VIP in patients with ARDS demonstrated a safety profile consistent with previous studies in normal volunteers. The successful clinical course seen in 7 of 8 patients in the setting of an expected 50% survival may suggest that VIP shows promise in the treatment of other infectious conditions that damage the pulmonary epithelium, particularly COVID-19.Registration: This clinical trial was registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov under NCT00004494. Trial was registered before the first patient was enrolled.

    Children TRANS with COVID-19 like symptoms in Italian Pediatric Surgeries: the dark side of the coin

    Authors: Gianfranco Trapani; Vassilios Fanos; Enrico Bertino; Giulia Maiocco; Osama Al Jamal; Michele Fiore; VIncenzo Bembo; Domenico Careddu; Lando Barberio; Luisella Zanino; Giuseppe Verlato

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20149757 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS are nonspecific and shared with other common acute viral illnesses ( fever MESHD fever HP, respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms, and cutaneous signs), thus making clinical differential diagnosis tricky. In Italy, first line management of pediatric care is handed over to Primary Care Pediatricians (PCPs), who were not allowed to directly perform diagnostic tests during the recent COVID-19 outbreak. Without a confirmatory diagnosis, PCPs could only collect information on ''COVID-19 like symptoms'' rather than identify typical COVID-19 symptoms. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 like symptoms in outpatient children TRANS, during Italian lockdown. To provide PCPs a risk score to be used in clinical practice during the differential diagnosis process. METHODS: A survey was submitted to 50 PCPs (assisting 47,500 children TRANS) from 7 different Italian regions between the 4th of March and the 23rd of May 2020 (total and partial lockdown period). COVID-19 like symptoms in the assisted children TRANS were recorded, as well as presence of confirmed/suspected cases in children TRANS's families, which was taken as proxy of COVID-19. Multivariable logistic regression was accomplished to estimate the risk of having suspected/ confirmed cases TRANS in families, considering symptoms as potential determinants. RESULTS: 2,300 children TRANS (4.8% of overall survey population) fell HP ill with COVID-19 like symptoms, 3.1% and 1.7% during total and partial lockdown period respectively. The concurrent presence of fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, cough MESHD cough HP, and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP in children TRANS, in absence of sore throat/ earache MESHD and abnormal skin signs, represents the maximum risk level of having a suspected/ confirmed case TRANS of COVID-19 at home. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of children TRANS presenting COVID-19 like symptoms at home has been remarkable also during the total lockdown period. The present study identified a pattern of symptoms which could help, in a cost-effective perspective, PCPs in daily clinical practice to define priorities in addressing children TRANS to the proper diagnostic procedure.

    Clinical characteristics of neonates with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review

    Authors: Yuan Hu; Jing Xiong; Yuan Shi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50795/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    This study aimed to summarize the existing literature on severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in newborns to clarify the clinical features and outcomes of neonates with COVID-19. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, and VIP databases from January 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020. The references of relevant studies were also searched. A descriptive summary was organized by aspects of clinical presentations (symptoms, laboratory examinations, and imaging) and outcomes. We identified 14 studies reporting 18 newborns with COVID-19. The most common clinical manifestations were fever MESHD fever HP (62.5%), shortness of breath (50.0%), diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP/ vomiting MESHD vomiting HP/feeding intolerance(43.8%), cough MESHD cough HP (37.5%), dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP (25.0%), and nasal congestion/runny nose/ sneeze MESHD sneeze HP(25.0%). Atypical symptoms included jaundice MESHD jaundice HP and convulsion. Lymphocyte numbers decreased in 5 cases, and radiographic findings were likely to show pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. All newborns recovered and discharged from the hospital, and there was no death MESHD.Conclusion: Clinical symptoms of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are atypical, most of them are mild. Up to now, the prognosis of newborns is good, and there is no death MESHD. Intrauterine vertical transmission TRANS is possible, but confirmed evidence is still lacking. The Long-term follow-up of potential influences of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on neonates need further exploration.

    Rapid host response to an infection MESHD with Coronavirus. Study of transcriptional responses with Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea MESHD Diarrhea HP Virus

    Authors: Wei Hou; Fei Liu; Wim H.M. van der Poel; Marcel M Hulst

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.224576 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: bioRxiv

    The transcriptional response in Vero cells (ATCC(R) CCL-81) infected with the coronavirus Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea MESHD Diarrhea HP Virus (PEDV) was measured by RNAseq analysis 4 and 6 hours after infection MESHD. Differential expressed genes (DEGs) in PEDV infected cells were compared to DEGs responding in Vero cells infected with Mammalian Orthoreovirus (MRV). Functional analysis of MRV and PEDV DEGs showed that MRV increased the expression level of several cytokines and chemokines (e.g. IL6, CXCL10, IL1A, CXCL8 [alias IL8]) and antiviral genes (e.g. IFI44, IFIT1, MX1, OASL), whereas for PEDV no enhanced expression was observed for these "hallmark" antiviral and immune effector genes. Pathway and Gene Ontology "enrichment analysis" revealed that PEDV infection MESHD did not stimulate expression of genes able to activate an acquired immune response, whereas MRV did so within 6h. Instead, PEDV down-regulated the expression of a set of zinc finger proteins with putative antiviral activity and enhanced the expression of the transmembrane serine protease gene TMPRSS13 (alias MSPL) to support its own infection MESHD by virus-cell membrane fusion (Shi et al, 2017, Viruses, 9(5):114). PEDV also down-regulated expression of Ectodysplasin A, a cytokine of the TNF-family able to activate the canonical NFKB-pathway responsible for transcription of inflammatory genes like IL1B, TNF, CXCL8 and PTGS2. The only 2 cytokine genes found up-regulated by PEDV were Cardiotrophin-1, an IL6-type cytokine with pleiotropic functions on different tissues and types of cells, and Endothelin 2, a neuroactive peptide with vasoconstrictive properties. Furthermore, by comprehensive datamining in biological and chemical databases and consulting related literature we identified sets of PEDV-response genes with potential to influence i) the metabolism of biogenic amines (e.g. histamine), ii) the formation of cilia and "synaptic clefts" between cells, iii) epithelial mucus production, iv) platelets activation, and v) physiological processes in the body regulated by androgenic hormones (like blood SERO pressure, salt/water balance and energy homeostasis). The information in this study describing a "very early" response of epithelial cells to an infection MESHD with a coronavirus may provide pharmacologists, immunological and medical specialists additional insights in the underlying mechanisms of coronavirus associated severe clinical symptoms including those induced by SARS-CoV-2. This may help them to fine-tune therapeutic treatments and apply specific approved drugs to treat COVID-19 patients.

    CCOFEE-GI Study: Colombian COVID19 First Experience in Gastroentrology. Characterization of digestive manifestations in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at a highly complex institution in Bogota D.C., Colombia

    Authors: ALEJANDRO CONCHA-MEJIA; REINALDO ANDRES RINCON-SANCHEZ

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20161604 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has posed an important threat to the human health, healthcare systems, economy, and structure of societies. In Colombia, the first case was diagnosed on March 6, 2020 , with exponential progressive growth, and there were >200,000 confirmed cases TRANS as of July 20, 2020, in this cross-sectional, analytical, and observational study, we focused on the demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical characteristics of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD at a highly complex institution in Latinamerica, with special emphasis on gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods: Demographic and clinical data were collected, results related to the outcomes such as hospitalization time, admission to ICU, need for orotracheal intubation, and death MESHD were also included. Statistical analyses were conducted using Stata software V.15. Results: We included 72 patients RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 (34 women and 38 men) with age TRANS 47.5 17.7 years; 17 (23.6%) presented at least one of the gastrointestinal symptoms ( nausea MESHD nausea/vomiting HP/ vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP, and/or diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP). 13 (76.47%) presented with diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP, 29.41% with nausea MESHD nausea/vomiting HP/ vomiting MESHD, and five (29.41%) with abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP. Diarrhea MESHD Diarrhea HP in 18.06% of all those infected with SARS-CoV-2 at the time of consultation, which was the most common digestive symptom. No significant differences were observed in requirement for endotracheal intubation, hospitalization, ICU admission, and fatal outcome between the NGIS and GIS groups (p:0.671, 0.483, 1,000, and 1,000). Conclusion: In our study, patients with gastrointestinal symptoms had no significant differences in disease MESHD severity, admission to ICU or death MESHD compared to those who did not have such symptoms.

    Safety of Hydroxychloroquine among Outpatient Clinical Trial Participants for COVID-19

    Authors: SARAH, M M LOFGREN; Melanie R Nicol; Ananta S Bangdiwala; Katelyn A Pastick; Elizabeth C Okafor; Caleb P Skipper; Matthew F Pullen; Nicole W Engen; Mahsa Abassi; Darlisha A Williams; Alanna A Nascene; Margaret L Axelrod; Sylvian A Lother; Lauren J MacKenzie; Glen Drobot; Nicole Marten; Matthew P Cheng; Ryan Zarychanshi; Ilan S Schwartz; Michael Silverman; Zain Chagla; Lauren E Kelley; Emily G McDonald; Todd C Lee; Katherine Huppler Hullsiek; David R Boulware; Radha Rajasingham

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.16.20155531 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Use of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially in combination with azithromycin, has raised safety concerns. Here, we report safety data from three outpatient randomized clinical trials. Methods: We conducted three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigating hydroxychloroquine as pre-exposure prophylaxis, post-exposure prophylaxis and early treatment for COVID-19. We excluded individuals with contraindications to hydroxychloroquine. We collected side effects and serious adverse events. We report descriptive analyses of our findings. Results: We enrolled 2,795 participants. The median age TRANS of research participants was 40 (IQR 34-49) years, and 59% (1633/2767) reported no chronic medical conditions. Overall 2,324 (84%) participants reported side effect data, and 638 (27%) reported at least one medication side effect. Side effects were reported in 29% with daily, 36% with twice weekly, 31% with once weekly hydroxychloroquine compared to 19% with placebo. The most common side effects were upset stomach or nausea MESHD nausea HP (25% with daily, 18% with twice weekly, 16% with weekly, vs. 10% for placebo), followed by diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP, vomiting MESHD vomiting HP, or abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP (23% for daily, 16% twice weekly, 12% weekly, vs. 6% for placebo). Two individuals were hospitalized for atrial arrhythmias HP, one on placebo and one on twice weekly hydroxychloroquine. No sudden deaths MESHD occurred. Conclusion: Data from three outpatient COVID-19 trials demonstrated that gastrointestinal side effects were common but mild with the use of hydroxychloroquine, while serious side effects were rare. No deaths MESHD occurred related to hydroxychloroquine. Randomized clinical trials can safely investigate whether hydroxychloroquine is efficacious for COVID-19.

    Fecal Shedding of SARS-CoV-2 and Its Potential Role in Person-To-Person Transmission TRANS and the Environment-Based Spread of COVID-19

    Authors: Davey Jones; Marcos Quintela Baluja; David Graham; Alexander Corbishley; James McDonald; Shelagh Malham; Luke Hillary; Thomas Connor; William Gaze; Ines Moura; Mark Wilcox; Kata Farkas

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0471.v1 Date: 2020-07-20 Source: preprints.org

    The recent detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in feces has led to speculation that it can be transmitted via the fecal-oral/ocular route. This review aims to critically evaluate the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, the quantity and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in feces and urine, and whether these pose an infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk in sanitary settings, sewage networks, wastewater treatment plants, and the wider environment (e.g. rivers, lakes and marine waters). Overall, severe GI dysfunction is only evident in a small number of COVID-19 cases, with 11 ± 2% exhibiting diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP and 12 ± 3% exhibiting vomiting MESHD vomiting and nausea HP and nausea MESHD. In addition to these cases, SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in feces from some asymptomatic TRANS, mildly- and pre-symptomatic individuals. Fecal shedding of the virus peaks in the symptomatic period and can persist for several weeks, but with declining abundances in the post-symptomatic phase. SARS-CoV-2 RNA is occasionally detected in urine, but reports in fecal samples are more frequent. The abundance of the virus genetic material in both urine (ca. 102-105 gc/ml) and feces (ca. 102-107 gc/ml) is much lower than in nasopharyngeal fluids (ca. 105-1011 gc/ml). There is strong evidence of multiplication of SARS-CoV-2 in the GI tract and infectious virus has occasionally been recovered from both urine and stool samples. The level and infectious capability of SARS-CoV-2 in vomit MESHD vomit HP remain unknown. In comparison to enteric viruses transmitted via the fecal-oral route (e.g. norovirus, adenovirus), the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 being transmitted via feces or urine appears lower due to the lower relative amounts of virus present in feces/urine. The biggest risk of transmission TRANS will occur in clinical and care home settings where secondary handling of people and urine/fecal matter occurs. In addition, while SARS-CoV-2 RNA genetic material can be detected by in wastewater, this signal is greatly reduced by conventional treatment. Our analysis also suggests the likelihood of infection MESHD due to contact with sewage-contaminated water (e.g. swimming, surfing, angling) or food (e.g. salads, shellfish) is extremely low or negligible based on very low predicted abundances and limited environmental survival of SARS-CoV-2. These conclusions are corroborated by the fact that over eight million global cases of COVID-19 have occurred, but exposure to feces or wastewater has never been implicated as a transmission TRANS vector.

    COVID-19 Case Series at UnityPoint Health St. Lukes Hospital in Cedar Rapids, IA

    Authors: Daniel E McGrail; Dianna Edwards

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.17.20156521 Date: 2020-07-19 Source: medRxiv

    A retrospective, descriptive study of all patients tested for SARS-CoV2 on admission for illness to a community hospital in Iowa from 3/21/20 thru 6/14/20 consisted of evaluation as to demographics, presentation and hospital course. Ninety-one patients were SARS-CoV2 PCR+ with 63% being male TRANS and a median age TRANS of 60. Cardiovascular disease MESHD was a significant comorbidity in the PCR+ group. Fever MESHD Fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, nausea MESHD nausea HP, emesis, diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP, headache MESHD headache HP and myalgias MESHD myalgias HP were significantly more common in that group, as was an elevated CRP, LDH, serum SERO ferritin and transaminases. Overall survival of the COVID-19 patients was 88%, 77% in the critically ill, 59% of those mechanically ventilated and 33% of those requiring new dialysis. Survival was 93% in those not receiving any antivirals. Survival of those treated with hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin was 92%, compared to 86% of those treated with hydroxychloroquine alone. The latter two groups were significantly more ill than the untreated group. A transition from an early intubation strategy to aggressive utilization of high flow nasal cannula and noninvasive ventilation(i.e BiPAP) was successful in freeing up ICU resources.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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