Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Diarrhea (127)

Fever (80)

Cough (77)

Fatigue (38)

Pneumonia (32)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 31 - 40 records in total 127
    records per page




    The Way a General Hospital Treated COVID-19 in Shenzhen, China & the Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of its Confirmed Patients

    Authors: Yang Zhou; Le Yang; Quanzhen Tang; Zhongrui Ruan; Minqiang Huang; Ming Han; Wei Han; Jian Lu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40540/v1 Date: 2020-07-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives: To discuss the prevention and containment of COVID-19 at a general hospital in Shenzhen China; to analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of its confirmed patients, which is intended to provide a model for other hospitals in COVID-19 management.Methods: The General Hospital of Shenzhen University sets up 4 medical zones relative to the COVID-19 prevention and containment. In so doing, the suspected patients classified into different kind of ward receive different treatment (Classified and Separated Treatment). The epidemiological distribution and clinical characteristics of 28 confirmed cases TRANS in the hospital were analyzed.Results: There are no medical personnel infected cases, no cross-infection MESHD among the patients in the hospital, and no misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis of COVID-19. The majority of cases in the group is from 15 to 60 years old, 25 cases had a definite travel TRANS history or close contact TRANS history in the epidemic area, and parents TRANS and spouses of the confirmed patients are the main contact groups. Fever HP Fever MESHD and respiratory symptoms have a high proportion, 4 diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD and 4 asymptomatic TRANS cases. Additionally, the decrease of lymphocyte is observed in 8 cases. Chest CT scan shows viral pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in 14 cases,All patients were confirmed by nucleic acid tests.Conclusions: Classified and Separated Treatment facilitates management of COVID-19 in the general hospital. Relative to suspected patients in the general hospital, diagnosis matters more than treatment. Epidemiological history, lymphocyte count, and chest CT scan play an important role as the indicator in early diagnosis of COVID-19.

    Prolonged nucleic acid conversion and false-negative RT-PCR results in Indonesian patients with COVID-19: A case series

    Authors: Ika Trisnawati; Riat Al Khair; Aditya Rifqi Fauzi; Gunadi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39961/v1 Date: 2020-07-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Prolonged nucleic acid conversion and false-negative results of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) might occur in some patients with COVID-19 rather than recurrence of infection MESHD. Here, we reported four cases of COVID-19 with prolonged nucleic acid conversion and false-negative results of RT-PCR in our institution.Case presentation: Case 1: A 36-year-old- male TRANS patient complained of coughing HP up phlegm one week before admission. His chest X-rays showed mild pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in the right lung. His swab test was confirmed positive for SARS-Cov-2. Besides the last two consecutive negative results, he also had negative results of RT-PCR twice (the 6th and 8th tests) from a total of 11 swab tests. Case 2: A 54-year-old- male TRANS patient complained of shortness of breath MESHD that worsened with activity. He had a comorbidity of diabetes MESHD. His chest X-rays showed inhomogeneous opacity on bilateral paracardial and lateral aspects. His swab test was confirmed positive for SARS-Cov-2. Besides the last two consecutive negative results, he also had negative results of RT-PCR once (the 5th test) from a total of 8 swab tests. Case 3: A 47-year-old man presented with complaints of fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, sore throat, and diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD. He had comorbidities of asthma HP asthma MESHD and heart rhythm disorders MESHD. His chest X-rays showed bilateral pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. His swab test was confirmed positive for SARS-Cov-2. Besides the last two consecutive negative results, he also showed negative results of RT-PCR twice (the 4th and 6th tests) from a total of 11 swab tests. Case 4: A 56-year-old- female TRANS complained of lethargy HP lethargy MESHD and diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD. She has a history of hyperthyroidism HP hyperthyroidism MESHD. His chest X-rays showed bilateral pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. She was confirmed positive for SARS-Cov-2. Besides the last two consecutive negative results, she also had negative results of RT-PCR twice (the 2nd and 10th tests) from a total of 14 swab tests.Conclusions: Our cases further confirmed TRANS the occurrence of prolonged nucleic acid conversion and the possibility of false negative results of RT-PCR in patients with COVID-19 instead of recurrence of infection MESHD. These findings might have an implication on the management of patients with COVID-19 who have already clinically and radiologically recovered, particularly related to subsequent spreading of the infection MESHD in the community.

    Symptomatology of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) - Lessons from A Meta-Analysis Across 13 Countries

    Authors: Champika Saman Kumara Gamakaranage; Dineshani Hettiarachchi; Dileepa Ediriweera; Saroj Jayasinghe

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39412/v1 Date: 2020-07-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in varying clinical manifestations and mortality rates. There is no consensus on the symptomatology that would guide researchers and clinicians.Objective: The objective of the study was to identify symptoms and their frequencies of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 with a meta-analysis of studies from several countries. Data sources: A systematic review using PubMed and Google Scholar data sources and reference tracing TRANS were used to identify 7176 relevant articles. Eligibility criteria: Suitable articles were selected manually with selection criteria and 14 original articles included for meta-analysis. Data abstraction analysis: PRISMA guideline was used for abstracting data. Then a table was generated by feeding it with numbers and proportions of each symptom described in original studies. A meta-analysis was carried out using random effect models on each symptom separately across the studies and their prevalence SERO rates and 95% confident intervals calculated.Results: We identified 14 relevant scientific papers, either cross-sectional or cohort studies and analyzed. There were 2,660 cases of COVID-19. he majority were from China (n=2,439, 91.7%) and remainder from the Netherlands, Italy, Korea and India and one article from Europe. There was a total of 32 symptoms (i.e. present in >50% of patients):  fever MESHD (79.56%, 95% CI: 72.17-86.09%), malaise (63.3%, 95% CI: 53.1 – 73.0%), cough HP (56.7. %, 95% CI: 48.6 - 64.6 %) and cold (55.6%, 95% CI: 45.2 – 65.7%). Symptoms of intermediate incidence (5-49%) were; anosmia HP anosmia MESHD, sneezing HP, ocular pain HP ocular pain MESHD, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, sputum production, arthralgia HP arthralgia MESHD, tachypnea HP tachypnea MESHD, palpitation HP, headache HP headache MESHD, chest tightness HP chest tightness MESHD, shortness of breath MESHD, chills HP, myalgia HP myalgia MESHD, sore throat, anorexia HP anorexia MESHD, weakness MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, rhinorrhea HP rhinorrhea MESHD, dizziness MESHD, nausea HP nausea MESHD, altered level of consciousness, vomiting HP vomiting MESHD and abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD. Rare symptoms (<5% of patients) were: tonsil swelling, haemoptysis, conjunctival injection, lymphadenopathy HP lymphadenopathy MESHD and rash MESHD were uncommon symptoms of coronavirus disease MESHD (<5%).Conclusion and implications of key findings: We found (25/32) symptoms to be present in =>5% of cases which could be considered as “typical” symptoms of COVID-19. The list of symptoms we identified are different from those documents released by the WHO, CDC, NHS, Chinese CDC, Institute Pasteur and Mayo Clinic. The compiled list would be useful for future researchers to document a comprehensive picture of the illness.

    Symptomatology of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) - Lessons from a meta-analysis across 13 countries

    Authors: Champika Saman Kumara Gamakaranage; Dineshani Hettiarachchi; Dileepa Ediriweera; Saroj Jayasinghe

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39412/v2 Date: 2020-07-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in varying clinical manifestations and mortality rates. There is no consensus on the symptomatology that would guide researchers and clinicians. Objective: The objective was to identify symptoms and their frequencies of COVID-19 with a meta-analysis of studies from several countries. Data sources: A systematic review using PubMed and Google Scholar data sources and reference tracing TRANS were used to identify 7176 articles. Eligibility criteria: Suitable articles were selected manually with selection criteria and 14 original articles included in meta-analysis. Data abstraction and analysis: PRISMA guidelines, used for data abstraction and a table was generated by feeding it with numbers and proportions of each symptom described. A meta-analysis was carried out using random effect models on each symptom separately across the studies and their prevalence SERO rates and 95% confident intervals were calculated.Results: Selected 14 studies, either cross-sectional or cohort studies are analyzed. There were 2,660 confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19. The majority were from China (n=2,439, 91.7%) and remainder from the Netherlands, Italy, Korea and India and one article from Europe. There was a total of 32 symptoms identified from the meta-analysis and additional 7 symptoms were identified from reference searching. The most common symptoms were ( prevalence SERO >50%): fever HP fever MESHD (79.56%, 95% CI: 72.17-86.09%), malaise (63.3%, 95% CI: 53.1 – 73.0%), cough HP (56.7. %, 95% CI: 48.6 - 64.6 %) and cold (55.6%, 95% CI: 45.2 – 65.7%). Symptoms of intermediate incidence (5-49%) were; anosmia HP anosmia MESHD, sneezing HP, ocular pain HP ocular pain MESHD, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, sputum production, arthralgia HP arthralgia MESHD, tachypnea HP tachypnea MESHD, palpitation HP, headache HP headache MESHD, chest tightness HP chest tightness MESHD, shortness of breath MESHD, chills HP, myalgia HP myalgia MESHD, sore throat, anorexia HP anorexia MESHD, weakness MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, rhinorrhea HP rhinorrhea MESHD, dizziness MESHD, nausea HP nausea MESHD, altered level of consciousness, vomiting HP vomiting MESHD and abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD. Rare symptoms (<5%): tonsil swelling MESHD, haemoptysis, conjunctival injection, lymphadenopathy HP lymphadenopathy MESHD and rash MESHD. Conclusion and implications of key findings: We found (25/32, from meta-analysis) symptoms to be present in =>5% of cases which could be considered as “typical” symptoms of COVID-19. The list of symptoms we identified is different from those documents released by the WHO, CDC, NHS, Chinese CDC, Institute Pasteur and Mayo Clinic. The compiled list would be useful for future researchers to document a comprehensive picture of the illness.  

    Isolation and Characterization of Coronavirus and Rotavirus Associated With Calves, in Central Part of Oromia MESHD, Ethiopia

    Authors: Umer Seid Geletu; Fufa Dawo Bari; Munera Ahmednur Usmael; Asamino Tesfaye

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39022/v1 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus and Rotavirus are most commonly associated etiologies for calves’ diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD resulting in loss of productivity and economy of farmers. However, various facets of diarrheal disease MESHD caused by coronavirus and rotavirus MESHD in calves in Ethiopia are inadequately understood.  A cross sectional study was conducted with the aim of isolation and molecular characterization of coronavirus and rotavirus from calves in central part of Oromia MESHD (Bishoftu, Sebata, Holeta and Addis Ababa), Ethiopia from November 2018 to May 2019. The four study areas were purposively selected and fecal samples were collected by simple random sampling for diagnosis of coronavirus and rotavirus infection MESHD by using antigen detection Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay SERO (Ag- ELISA SERO) kit. In addition, this study was carried out to have insight in prevalence SERO and associated risk factors of coronavirus and rotavirus infection MESHD in calves. Result: During the study 83 diarrheic and 162 non-diarrheic fecal samples collected from calves less than 4 weeks of age TRANS were screened for coronavirus and rotavirus MESHD. Of the 83 diarrheic samples, 1 sample (1.2%) was positive for coronavirus antigen (Ag) and 6 samples (7.2%) were found to be positive for rotavirus antigen (Ag) by Ag- ELISA SERO. All the non-diarrheic samples were negative for both coronavirus and rotavirus Ag. The overall prevalence SERO of coronavirus and rotavirus infection MESHD in calves were estimated as 0.4% (1/245) and 2.45% (6/245) respectively. All samples (7) of ELISA SERO test positive of both coronavirus and rotavirus MESHD were propagated in Madin Darby bovine kidney cells (MDBK). After 3 subsequent passages, progressive cytopathic effect (CPE) i.e. rounding, detachment as well as destruction of mono-layer cell of five sample (1 sample of coronavirus and 4 sample of rotavirus MESHD) (71.4%) were observed. At the molecular stage, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was used to determine the presence of coronavirus and rotavirus nucleic acid by using specific primers. The 5 samples that were coronavirus and rotavirus antigen positive by ELISA SERO and develop CPE on cell culture were also positive on RT-PCR technique. Infection prevalence SERO peaked have been obtained at 1st and 2nd weeks of age TRANS in male TRANS calves. Conclusion: Diarrheal disease MESHD caused by coronavirus and rotavirus MESHD has a great health problem in calves that interrupts production benefits with reduced weight gain MESHD and increased mortality, and its potential for zoonotic spread. So the present findings show coronavirus and rotavirus infection MESHD in calves in Ethiopia that needs to be addressed by practicing early colostrums feeding in newborn calves, using vaccine, or improving livestock management.

    Compassionate Use of Opaganib For Patients with Severe COVID-19

    Authors: Ramzi Kurd; Eli Ben-Chetrit; Hani Karameh; Maskit Bar-Meir

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.20.20099010 Date: 2020-06-23 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Opaganib is a selective sphingosine-kinase (SK)-2 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties. Methods. We provided opaganib on a compassionate-use basis to patients with severe COVID-19. Patients who required oxygen support via high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) were offered the treatment. For comparison, we used a control group with same-sex, same-severity patients. Results. Seven patients received at least one dose of opaganib since April 2, 2020. One patient, who received both hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, developed diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD and all his medications were stopped. This was the only adverse effect possibly related to opaganib. A second patient was weaned of oxygen and discharged after receiving two doses of opaganib. Therefore, five patients were included in this analysis. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between cases and controls. Patients treated with opaganib had significantly faster increase in lymphocyte count. All other clinical outcomes had a non-statistically significant trend in favor of the treatment group: median time to weaning from HFNC was 10 and 15 days in cases vs. controls (HR= 0.3, 95% CI: 0.07-1.7, p=0.2) ,time to ambient air was 13 vs.14.5 days (HR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.15-1.5), none of the cases required mechanical ventilation compared with 33% of controls. Conclusion. In this small cohort of severe COVID-19 patients, opaganib was safe and well tolerated with improvement in both clinical and laboratory parameters in all treated patients. The efficacy of opaganib for COVID-19 infection MESHD should be further tested in randomized placebo-controlled trials.

    Analysis of the Primary Presenting Symptoms and Hematological Findings of COVID-19 Patients in Bangladesh

    Authors: Abu Taiub Mohammed Mohiuddin Chowdhury; Md Rezaul Karim; H.M. Hamidullah Mehedi; Mohammad Shahbaz; Md Wazed Chowdhury; Guo Dan; Shuixiang He

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0275.v1 Date: 2020-06-21 Source: Preprints.org

    Objective: SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD or COVID-19 is a global pandemic. From the time of identification to till, multiple clinical symptoms and parameters have been identified by the researchers of various countries and regions regarding the diagnosis and presentations of COVID-19 disease. In this manuscript, we investigated the primary symptoms and basic hematological presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among the Bangladeshi patients. Methodology: We have collected the disease history of mild to moderate degree of COVID-19 patients; hematological MESHD and biochemical on admission reports of moderate degree COVID-19 patients. All of them were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR in different institutes in Bangladesh. Results: According to this study though COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh commonly presented with fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, shortness of breath MESHD, and sore throat, but symptoms like myalgia HP myalgia MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, skin rash HP skin rash MESHD, headache HP headache MESHD, Abdominal pain HP Abdominal pain MESHD/cramp, nausea, vomiting HP nausea, vomiting MESHD vomiting MESHD, restlessness HP, and a higher temperature of >1000F have a greater presentation rate and more frequent than other published studies. CRP and Prothrombin time was found to increase in all the patients. Serum SERO ferritin, ESR, SGPT, and D-Dimer were found increased among 53.85%, 80.43, 44%, and 25% patients respectively. 17.39% of the patients had leukocytosis HP leukocytosis MESHD and neutrophilia HP. 28.26% of patients presented with lymphocytopenia MESHD. 62.52% of patients had mild erythrocytopenia. Conclusion: Despite some similarities, our study has evaluated a different expression in presenting symptoms in the case of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh. CRP, Prothrombin time, serum SERO ferritin, ESR, SGPT, D-Dimer, erythrocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia MESHD can be initial diagnostic hematological findings and assessment for prognosis COVID-19 disease. Also, gender TRANS variations have a different scenario of clinical and laboratory appearance in this region.

    The influence of comorbidity on the severity of COVID-19 disease: systematic review and analysis

    Authors: Nazar Zaki; Elfadil Abdalla Mohamed; Sahar Ibrahim; Gulfaraz Khan

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.18.20134478 Date: 2020-06-20 Source: medRxiv

    A novel form of coronavirus disease MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly across the world. This disease, originating in Wuhan, China, has become a global pandemic. What risk factors influence the severity of the disease is of considerable importance. This research is intended to offer a systematic review/meta-analysis for assessing how common clinical conditions and comorbidities correlate with COVID-19. The meta-analysis incorporated seven studies covering 4101 COVID-19 patients from Chinese hospitals who had their diagnosis confirmed through laboratory testing. The findings demonstrate that the most common comorbidities with the disease were COPD MESHD (2.53%, OR 3.24 [95% CI: 1.99-4.45], p< 0.0006), cardiovascular disease MESHD (10.76%, OR 2.89 [95% CI: 1.90-4.40], p <0.0001), coronary heart disease MESHD (5.52%, OR 2.97 [95% CI: 1.99-4.45], p <0.0001), diabetes MESHD (11.34%, OR 2.27, [95% CI: 1.46-3.53], p = 0.0003), and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (22.07%, OR 2.43 [95% CI: 1.71-3.45], p <0.0001). No significant associations were found for disease severity with the comorbidities of kidney disease MESHD, liver disease MESHD, or cancer MESHD. The most frequently exhibited clinical symptoms were fever HP fever MESHD (74.52%, OR 1.37, 95% CI: 1.01-1.86, p = 0.04), cough HP (62.15%, OR 1.25, 95% CI: 0.97-1.60, p = 0.0823), myalgia HP myalgia MESHD/ fatigue HP fatigue MESHD (38.77%, OR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.11-1.55, p = 0.0018), dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD (33.9%, OR 3.61, 95% CI: 2.57-5.06, p = <0.0001), respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD/ARDS (20.6%, OR 11.46, 95% CI: 3.24-40.56, p = 0.0002), diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD (11.21%) and chest tightness HP chest tightness MESHD/ pain HP (16.82%, OR 2.17, 95% CI: 1.40-3.36, p = 0.0006). Meta-analysis also revealed that neither the duration of the incubation period TRANS nor current smoking status associated with disease severity.

    The influence of comorbidity on the severity of COVID-19 disease: A systematic review and analysis

    Authors: Nazar Zaki; Elfadil Abdalla Mohamed; Sahar Ibrahim; Gulfaraz Khan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-37127/v2 Date: 2020-06-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: A novel form of coronavirus disease MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly across the world. What risk factors influence the severity of the disease is of considerable importance.Aim: This research offers a systematic review and meta-analysis of the correlation between common clinical conditions and comorbidities and the severity of COVID-19.Methodology: Two independent researchers searched Europe PMC, Google Scholar, and PubMed databases for articles related to influence comorbidities have on the progress of the disease. A search engine was also created to screen a further 59,000 articles in COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19). Random-effects modeling was used to pool 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and odds ratios (ORs). The significance of all comorbidities and clinical conditions to the severity of the disease was evaluated by employing machine-learning techniques. Publication bias was assessed by using funnel-plots and Egger’s test. Heterogeneity was tested using I2.Results: The meta-analysis incorporated 12 studies spanning 4,101 confirmed COVID-19 patients who were admitted to Chinese hospitals. The prevalence SERO of the most commonly associated co-morbidities and their corresponding odds ratio for disease severity were as follows: coronary heart disease MESHD (OR 2.97 [CI: 1.99-4.45], p < 0.0001), cancer MESHD (OR 2.65 [CI: 1.12-6.29], p < 0.03), cardiovascular disease MESHD (OR 2.89 [CI: 1.90-4.40], p < 0.0001), COPD MESHD (OR 3.24 [CI: 1.66-6.32], p = 0.0), and kidney disease MESHD (OR 2.2.4 [CI: 1.01-4.99], p = 0.05) with low or moderate level of heterogeneity. The most frequently exhibited clinical symptoms were fever HP fever MESHD (OR 1.37 [CI: 1.01-1.86], p = 0.04), myalgia HP myalgia MESHD/ fatigue HP fatigue MESHD (OR 1.31 [CI: 1.11-1.55], p = 0.0018), and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD (OR 3.61, [CI: 2.57-5.06], p = <0.0001). No significant associations between disease severity and liver disease MESHD, smoking habits, and other clinical conditions, such as a cough HP, respiratory/ARDS, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD or chest tightness HP chest tightness MESHD/ pain HP pain MESHD were found. The meta-analysis also revealed that the incubation period TRANS was positively associated with disease severity. Conclusion: Existing comorbidities, including COPD, cardiovascular disease MESHD, and coronary heart disease MESHD, increase the severity of COVID-19. Some studies found a statistically significant association between comorbidities such as diabetes MESHD and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and disease severity. However, these studies may be biased due to substantial heterogeneity. 

    The influence of comorbidity on the severity of COVID-19 disease: A scoping review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Nazar Zaki; Elfadil Abdalla Mohamed; Sahar Ibrahim; Gulfaraz Khan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-37127/v3 Date: 2020-06-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: A novel form of coronavirus disease MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly across the world. What risk factors influence the severity of the disease is of considerable importance. Objectives: This research offers a systematic review and meta-analysis of the correlation between common clinical conditions and comorbidities and the severity of COVID-19. Methodology: Two independent researchers searched Europe PMC, Google Scholar, and PubMed databases for articles related to influence comorbidities have on the progress of the disease. A search engine was also created to screen a further 59,000 articles in COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19). Random-effects modeling was used to pool 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and odds ratios (ORs). The significance of all comorbidities and clinical conditions to the severity of the disease was evaluated by employing machine-learning techniques. Publication bias was assessed by using funnel-plots and Egger’s-test. Heterogeneity was tested using I2. Results: The meta-analysis incorporated 12 studies spanning 4,101 confirmed COVID-19 patients who were admitted to Chinese hospitals. The prevalence SERO of the most commonly associated co-morbidities and their corresponding odds ratio for disease severity were as follows: coronary heart disease (OR 2.97 [CI: 1.99-4.45], p < 0.0001), cancer (OR 2.65 [CI: 1.12-6.29], p < 0.03), cardiovascular disease (OR 2.89 [CI: 1.90-4.40], p < 0.0001), COPD (OR 3.24 [CI: 1.66-6.32], p = 0.0), and kidney disease (OR 2.2.4 [CI: 1.01-4.99], p = 0.05) with low or moderate level of heterogeneity. The most frequently exhibited clinical symptoms recorded during the course of admission were fever HP (OR 1.37 [CI: 1.01-1.86], p = 0.04), myalgia HP/ fatigue HP (OR 1.31 [CI: 1.11-1.55], p = 0.0018), and dyspnea HP (OR 3.61, [CI: 2.57-5.06], p = <0.0001). No significant associations between disease severity and liver disease, smoking habits, and other clinical conditions, such as a cough HP, respiratory/ARDS, diarrhea HP or chest tightness HP/ pain HP were found. The meta-analysis also revealed that the incubation period TRANS was positively associated with disease severity. Conclusion: Existing comorbidities, including COPD, cardiovascular disease, and coronary heart disease, increase the severity of COVID-19. Some studies found a statistically significant association between comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension HP and disease severity. However, these studies may be biased due to substantial heterogeneity.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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