Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Pneumonia (420)

Infections (212)

Disease (188)

Coronavirus Infections (118)

Death (104)

Human Phenotype


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    The emergence of COVID-19 in Indonesia: analysis of predictors of infection MESHD and mortality using independent and clustered data approaches

    Authors: Erlina Burhan; Ari Fahrial Syam; Ahmad Jabir Rahyussalim; Prasenohadi Prasenohadi; Navy G Lolong Wulung; Agus Dwi Susanto; I Gede Ketut Sajinadiyasa; Dewi Puspitorini; Dewi Lestari; Indah Suci Widyahening; Vivi Setiawaty; Dwiana Ocviyanti; Kartika Qonita Putri; Aswin Guntara; Davrina Rianda; Anuraj H Shankar; Rina Agustina

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20147942 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background: Analyses of correlates of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD or mortality have usually assessed individual predictors. This study aimed to determine if patterns of combined predictors may better identify risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD and mortality. Methods: For the period of March 2nd to 10th 2020, the first 9 days of the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia, we selected all 18 confirmed cases TRANS, of which 6 died, and all 60 suspected cases, of which 1 died; and 28 putatively negative patients with pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and no travel TRANS history. We recorded data for travel TRANS, contact history, symptoms, haematology, comorbidities, and chest x-ray. Hierarchical cluster analyses (HCA) and principal component analyses (PCA) identified cluster and covariance patterns for symptoms or haematology which were analysed with other predictors of infection MESHD or mortality using logistic regression. Results: For univariate analyses, no significant association with infection MESHD was seen for fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, dyspnoea, headache MESHD headache HP, runny nose, sore throat, gastrointestinal complaints (GIC), or haematology. A PCA symptom component for fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, and GIC tended to increase risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD (OR 3.41; 95% CI 1.06 - 14; p=0.06), and a haematology component with elevated monocytes decreased risk (OR 0.26; 0.07 - 0.79; 0.027). Multivariate analysis revealed that an HCA cluster of 3-5 symptoms, typically fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, headache MESHD headache HP, runny nose, sore throat but little dyspnoea and no GIC tended to reduce risk (aOR 0.048; <0.001 - 0.52; 0.056). In univariate analyses for death MESHD, an HCA cluster of cough MESHD cough HP, fever MESHD fever HP and dyspnoea had increased risk (OR 5.75; 1.06 - 31.3, 0.043), but no other individual predictor, cluster or component was associated. Other significant predictors of infection MESHD were age TRANS >= 45, international travel TRANS, contact with COVID-19 patient, and pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Diabetes and history of contact were associated with higher mortality. Conclusions: Cluster groups and co-variance patterns may be stronger correlates of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD than individual predictors. Comorbidities may warrant careful attention as would COVID-19 exposure levels.

    No Excess Mortality of COVID-19 in Japan until April, 2020

    Authors: Junko Kurita; Tamie Sugawara; Yoshiyuki Sugishita; Yasushi Ohkusa

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20143164 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background: As of the end of June, 2020, the COVID-19 outbreak exhibited its highest peak on April 3. Nevertheless, no remarkable excess mortality attributable to COVID-19 has been observed. Object: We sought to quantify excess mortality in April using the National Institute of Infectious Diseases MESHD (NIID) model. Method: We applied the NIID model to deaths MESHD of all causes from 1987 up through April, 2020. Results: Results show no significant excess mortality in March or April, 2020, when the COVID-19 outbreak affected Japan most. Discussion and Conclusion: Because changes in application rule of the International Classification of Diseases MESHD in 2017 affected the number of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP deaths MESHD drastically, we were unable to use pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP deaths MESHD to estimate excess mortality. it might be important to continue to monitor excess mortality of COVID-19 carefully after May 2020.

    Decreased serum SERO levels of inflammaging marker miR-146a are associated with clinical response to tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Jacopo Sabbatinelli; Angelica Giuliani; Giulia Matacchione; Silvia Latini; Noemi Laprovitera; Giovanni Pomponio; Alessia Ferrarini; Silvia Svegliati Baroni; Marianna Pavani; Marco Moretti; Armando Gabrielli; Antonio Domenico Procopio; Manuela Ferracin; Massimiliano Bonafè; Fabiola Olivieri

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20151365 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background. Current COVID-19 pandemic poses an unprecedented threat to global health and healthcare systems. At least in western countries, the most amount of the death MESHD toll is accounted by old people affected by age TRANS-related diseases MESHD. In this regard, we proposed that COVID-19 severity may be tightly related to inflammaging, i.e. the age TRANS-related onset of inflammation MESHD, which is responsible for age TRANS-related diseases MESHD. It has been reported that systemic hyper- inflammation MESHD may turn to be detrimental in COVID-19 patients. Objective. Here, we exploited a recently closed clinical trial (NCT04315480) on the anti-IL-6 drug tocilizumab to assess whether microRNAs regulating inflammaging can be assessed as biomarkers of drug response and outcome. Methods. Serum SERO levels of miR-146a-5p, -21-5p, and -126-3p were quantified by RT-PCR and Droplet Digital PCR by two independent laboratories on 30 patients with virologically confirmed COVID-19, characterized by multifocal interstitial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP confirmed by CT-scan and requiring oxygen therapy, and 29 age TRANS- and gender TRANS-matched healthy control subjects. COVID-19 patients were treated with a single-dose intravenous infusion of 8 mg/kg tocilizumab and categorized into responders and non-responders. Results. We showed that COVID-19 patients who did not respond to tocilizumab have lower serum SERO levels of miR-146a-5p after the treatment (p=0.007). Moreover, among non-responders, those with the lowest serum SERO levels of miR-146a-5p experienced the most adverse outcome (p=0.008). Conclusion. Our data show that blood SERO-based biomarkers, such as miR-146a-5p, can provide a molecular link between inflammaging and COVID-19 clinical course, thus allowing to enlarge the drug armory against this worldwide health threat.

    SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the lungs of human ACE2 transgenic mice causes severe inflammation MESHD, immune cell infiltration, and compromised respiratory function

    Authors: Emma S Winkler; Adam L Bailey; Natasha M Kafai; Sharmila Nair; Broc T McCune; Jinsheng Yu; Julie M Fox; Rita E Chen; James T Earnest; Shamus P Keeler; Jon H Ritter; Liang-I Kang; Sarah Dort; Annette Robichaud; Richard Head; Michael J Holtzman; Michael S Diamond

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.196188 Date: 2020-07-10

    ABSTRACTSevere Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and has spread worldwide resulting in the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although animal models have been evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, none have recapitulated the severe lung disease MESHD phenotypes seen in hospitalized human cases. Here, we evaluate heterozygous transgenic mice expressing the human ACE2 receptor driven by the epithelial cell cytokeratin-18 gene promoter (K18-hACE2) as a model of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Intranasal inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 mice results in high levels of viral infection MESHD in lung tissues with additional spread to other organs. Remarkably, a decline in pulmonary function, as measured by static and dynamic tests of respiratory capacity, occurs 4 days after peak viral titer and correlates with an inflammatory response marked by infiltration into the lung of monocytes, neutrophils, and activated T cells resulting in pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Cytokine profiling and RNA sequencing analysis of SARS-CoV-2-infected lung tissues show a massively upregulated innate immune response with prominent signatures of NF-kB-dependent, type I and II interferon signaling, and leukocyte activation pathways. Thus, the K18-hACE2 model of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD recapitulates many features of severe COVID-19 infection MESHD in humans and can be used to define the mechanistic basis of lung disease MESHD and test immune and antiviral-based countermeasures.Competing Interest StatementM. S. Diamond is a consultant for Inbios, Eli Lilly, Vir Biotechnology, NGM Biopharmaceuticals, and on the Scientific Advisory Board of Moderna. The Diamond laboratory has received funding under sponsored research agreements from Moderna, Vir Biotechnology, and Emergent BioSolutions. S. Dort and A.Robichaud are employed by SCIREQ Inc., a commercial entity having commercial interest in a subject area related to the content of this article. SCIREQ Inc. is an emka TECHNOLOGIES company. M. Holtzman is a member of the DSMB for AstroZeneca and founder of NuPeak Therapeutics.View Full Text

    Discriminating Mild from Critical COVID-19 by Innate and Adaptive Immune Single-cell Profiling of Bronchoalveolar Lavages

    Authors: Els Wauters; Pierre Van Mol; Abhishek D. Garg; Sander Jansen; Yannick Van Herck; Lore Vanderbeke; Ayse Bassez; Bram Boeckx; Bert Malengier-Devlies; Anna Timmerman; Thomas Van Brussel; Tina Van Buyten; Rogier Schepers; Elisabeth Heylen; Dieter Dauwe; Christophe Dooms; Jan Gunst; Greet Hermans; Philippe Meersseman; Dries Testelmans; Jonas Yserbyt; Patrick Matthys; Sabine Tejpar; - CONTAGIOUS collaborators; Johan Neyts; Joost Wauters; Junbin Qian; Diether Lambrechts

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.196519 Date: 2020-07-10

    ABSTRACTHow innate and adaptive lung immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 synchronize during COVID-19 pneumonitis and regulate disease MESHD severity is poorly established. To address this, we applied single-cell profiling to bronchoalveolar lavages from 44 patients with mild or critical COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP as control. Viral RNA-tracking delineated the infection MESHD phenotype to epithelial cells, but positioned mainly neutrophils at the forefront of viral clearance activity during COVID-19. In mild disease MESHD, neutrophils could execute their antiviral function in an immunologically ‘controlled’ fashion, regulated by fully-differentiated T-helper-17 (TH17)-cells, as well as T-helper-1 (TH1)-cells, CD8+ resident-memory (TRM) and partially-exhausted (TEX) T-cells with good effector functions. This was paralleled by ‘orderly’ phagocytic disposal of dead/stressed cells by fully-differentiated macrophages, otherwise characterized by anti-inflammatory and antigen-presenting characteristics, hence facilitating lung tissue repair. In critical disease MESHD, CD4+ TH1- and CD8+ TEX-cells were characterized by inflammation MESHD-associated stress and metabolic exhaustion, while CD4+ TH17- and CD8+ TRM-cells failed to differentiate. Consequently, T-cell effector function was largely impaired thereby possibly facilitating excessive neutrophil-based inflammation MESHD. This was accompanied by impaired monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation, with monocytes exhibiting an ATP-purinergic signalling-inflammasome footprint, thereby enabling COVID-19 associated fibrosis MESHD and worsening disease MESHD severity. Our work represents a major resource for understanding the lung-localised immunity and inflammation MESHD landscape during COVID-19.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.View Full Text

    Replication-competent vesicular stomatitis MESHD stomatitis HP virus vaccine vector protects against SARS-CoV-2-mediated pathogenesis

    Authors: James Brett Case; Paul Rothlauf; Rita E. Chen; Natasha Kafai; Julie M. Fox; Swathi Shrihari; Broc T. McCune; Ian B. Harvey; Brittany Smith; Shamus Keeler; Louis-Marie Bloyet; Emma S Winkler; Michael J. Holtzman; Daved H. Fremont; Sean P. J. Whelan; Michael S. Diamond

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.196386 Date: 2020-07-10

    SUMMARYSevere acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused millions of human infections MESHD and hundreds of thousands of deaths MESHD. Accordingly, an effective vaccine is of critical importance in mitigating coronavirus induced disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and curtailing the pandemic. We developed a replication-competent vesicular stomatitis MESHD stomatitis HP virus (VSV)-based vaccine by introducing a modified form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike gene in place of the native glycoprotein gene (VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2). Immunization of mice with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 elicits high titers of antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 SERO infection MESHD and target the receptor binding domain that engages human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Upon challenge with a human isolate of SARS-CoV-2, mice expressing human ACE2 and immunized with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 show profoundly reduced viral infection MESHD and inflammation MESHD in the lung indicating protection against pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Finally, passive transfer of sera from VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2-immunized animals protects naïve mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These data support development of VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 as an attenuated, replication-competent vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.Competing Interest StatementM.S.D. is a consultant for Inbios, Eli Lilly, Vir Biotechnology, NGM Biopharmaceuticals, and on the Scientific Advisory Board of Moderna. M.J.H. is a member of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board for AstroZeneca and founder of NuPeak Therapeutics. The Diamond laboratory has received funding under sponsored research agreements from Moderna, Vir Biotechnology, and Emergent BioSolutions. The Whelan laboratory has received funding under sponsored research agreements from Vir Biotechnology. S.P.J.W. and P.W.R. have filed a disclosure with Washington University for the recombinant VSV.View Full Text

    Risk of Transmission TRANS of infection MESHD to Healthcare Workers delivering Supportive Care for Coronavirus Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP;A Rapid GRADE Review

    Authors: TK Luqman Arafath; Sandeep S Jubbal; Elakkat D Gireesh; Jyothi Margapuri; Hanumantha Rao Jogu; Hitesh Patni; Tyler Thompson; Arsh Patel; Amirahwaty Abdulla; Suma Menon; Sudheer Penupolu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.06.20146712 Date: 2020-07-08

    Abstract Background: Avenues of treatment currently implemented for Covid-19 pandemic are largely supportive in nature. Non -availability of an effective antiviral treatment makes supportive care for acute hypoxic respiratory failure HP is the most crucial intervention. Highly contagious nature of Covid-19 had created stress and confusion MESHD confusion HP among front line Health Care Workers (HCWs) regarding infectious risk of supportive interventions and best preventive strategies. Purpose: To analyze and summarize key evidence from published literature exploring the risk of transmission TRANS of Covid-19 related to common supportive care interventions in hospitalized patients and effectiveness of currently used preventive measures in hospital setting. Data Sources: Curated Covid-19 literature from NCBI Computational Biology Branch ,Embase and Ovid till May 20,2020.Longitudinal and reference search till June 28,2020 Study Selection: Studies pertaining to risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD to HCWs providing standard supportive care of hospitalized Covid-19 mainly focusing on respiratory support interventions.Indirect studies from SARS,MERS or other ARDS pathology caused by infectious agents based on reference tracking and snow ball search . Clinical, Healthy volunteer and mechanistic studies were included. Two authors independently screened studies for traditional respiratory supportive-care ( Hypoxia MESHD management, ventilatory support and pulmonary toileting) related transmission TRANS of viral or bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP to HCWs. Data Extraction: Two authors (TK and SP) independently screened articles and verified for consensus. Quality of studies and level of evidence was assessed using Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) , Newcastle - Ottawa quality assessment Scale for observational studies and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system for grading evidence. Data Synthesis: 21 studies were eligible for inclusion. In 11 mechanistic studies, 7 were manikin based,1 was in the setting of GNB pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP ,2 were healthy volunteer study and 1 was heterogenous setting.Out of 10 clinical studies ,5 were case controlled and 6 were cohort studies. Risk of corona virus transmission TRANS was significantly high in HCWs performing or assisting endotracheal intubation or contact with respiratory secretion.(Moderate certainty evidence, GRADE B) Safety of nebulization treatment in corona virus pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients are questionable(Low certainty evidence, GRADE C).Very low certainty evidence exist for risk of transmission TRANS with conventional HFNC (GRADE D) and NIV (GRADE D),CPR (GRADE D),Bag and mask ventilation(GRADE D).Moderate certainty evidence exist for protective effect of wearing a multilayered mask, gown , eye protection and formal training for PPE use (GRADE B).Low certainty evidence exist for transmission risk TRANS with bag and mask ventilation, suctioning before and after intubation and prolonged exposure (GRADE C).Certainty of evidence for wearing gloves,post exposure hand washing and wearing N 95 mask is low(GRADE C). Limitations: This study was limited to articles with English abstract. Highly dynamic nature of body of literature related to Covid-19, frequent updates were necessary even during preparation of manuscript and longitudinal search was continued even after finalizing initial search. Due to the heterogeneity and broad nature of the search protocol, quantitative comparisons regarding the effectiveness of included management strategies could not be performed. Direct evidence was limited due to poor quality and non-comparative nature of available Covid-19 reporting. Conclusions: Major risk factors for transmission TRANS of corona virus infection MESHD were, performing or assisting endotracheal intubation and contact with respiratory secretion. Risk of transmission TRANS with HFNC or NIV can be significantly decreased by helmet interface, modified exhalation circuit or placing a properly fitting face mask over patient interface of HFNC. Evidence for risk of transmission TRANS with CPR, suctioning before or after intubation or bag and mask ventilation of very low certainty. Significant protective factors are Formal training for PPE use, consistently wearing mask, gown and eye protection. Primary Funding Source: None Disclosure: None of the authors have any conflict of interest to disclose.

    Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 Emergence Amidst Community-Acquired Respiratory Viruses

    Authors: Karoline Leuzinger; Tim Roloff; Rainer Gosert; Kirstine Soegaard; Klaudia Naegele; Katharina Rentsch; Roland Bingisser; Christian Nickel; Hans Pargger; Stefano Bassetti; Julia Anna Bielicki; Nina Khanna; Sarah Tschudin Sutter; Andreas Widmer; Vladimira Hinic; Manuel Battegay; Adrian Egli; Hans H Hirsch

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20148163 Date: 2020-07-08

    Background. SARS-CoV-2 emerged in China in December 2019 as new cause of severe viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (CoVID-19) reaching Europe by late January 2020. We validated the WHO-recommended assay and describe the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 and community-acquired respiratory viruses (CARVs). Methods. Naso-oropharyngeal swabs (NOPS) from 7663 individuals were prospectively tested by the Basel-S-gene and the WHO-based E-gene-assay (Roche) using Basel-N-gene-assay for confirmation. CARVs were tested in 2394 NOPS by multiplex-NAT, including 1816 together with SARS-CoV-2. Results. Basel-S-gene and Roche-E-gene-assays were concordant in 7475 cases (97.5%) including 825 (11%) positive samples. In 188 (2.5%) discordant cases, SARS-CoV-2 loads were significantly lower than in concordant positive ones and confirmed in 105 NOPS. Adults TRANS were more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2, while children TRANS were more likely to test CARV-positive. CARV co- infections MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 occurred in 1.8%. SARS-CoV-2 replaced other CARVs within 3 weeks reaching 48% of all detected respiratory viruses followed by rhino/enterovirus (13%), influenzavirus (12%), coronavirus (9%), respiratory syncytial (6%) and metapneumovirus (6%). Conclusions. The differential diagnosis for respiratory infections MESHD was broad during the early pandemic, affecting infection MESHD control and treatment decisions. We discuss the role of pre-existing immunity and competitive CARV replication for the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among adults TRANS and children TRANS.

    Early Diagnosis and Clinical Significance of Acute Cardiac Injury - Under the Iceberg: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 619 Non-critically Ill Hospitalized COVID-19 Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP Patients

    Authors: Yang Xie; Sichun Chen; Xueli Wang; Baige Li; Tianlu Zhang; Xingwei He; NingLing Sun; Luyan Wang; Hesong Zeng; Yin Shen

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.06.20147256 Date: 2020-07-07

    Rationale: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) can cause a viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP together with other extrapulmonary complications. Acute cardiac related injury MESHD (ACRI) is common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Objective: To explain the pathological mechanism of ACRI and improve the treatment strategy by retrospectively observing the factors associated with ACRI and factors affecting the prognosis of ACRI with COVID-19 at an early stage. Methods: 619 COVID-19 patients were from Tongji Hospital, Wuhan. T test was used for continuous variables while Chi-square test for categorical factors. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Among the 619 OOS Level-I hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 102 (16.5%) were defined as ACRI (stage-1: 59 cases, stage-2: 43 cases). 50% of ACRI patients developed into severe cases and 25 patients died (CFR=24.5%), 42 times that of non-ACRI patients. Elderly TRANS (OR=2.83, P<0.001) , HTN (OR=2.09, P=0.005), {gamma}-globulin (OR=2.08, P=0.004), TCM (OR=0.55, P=0.017), PLT (OR=2.94, P<0.001) and NLR (OR=2.20, P=0.004) were independently correlated with ACRI. SBP[≥]140, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, DM, smoking history were correlated with ACRI-stage2 only. In the prognostic subgroup analysis of ACRI patients,{gamma}-globulin treatment could prolong LOS. TCM (OR=0.26, P=0.006), SBP[≥]160 (OR= 22.70, P=0.005), male TRANS (OR=2.66, P=0.044) were associated with severe illness while corticosteroids treatment (OR=3.34, P=0.033) and male TRANS (OR=4.303, P=0.008) with death MESHD. Surprisingly, we found the mortality of non- elderly TRANS patients is higher than elderly TRANS (32.4% VS 20.0%, P=0.164), and both IKF and RASI treatment were not correlated with any prognostic indicators including severe, death MESHD and LOS. Conclusion: This study observed that several non-traditional issues were associated with early cardiac injury in COVID-19 while many traditional cardiovascular risk factors were not. Besides elderly TRANS and male TRANS, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP was confirmed to be the most important risk factor.

    Multi-Omics integration analysis of respiratory specimen characterizes baseline molecular determinants associated with COVID-19 diagnosis.

    Authors: Jaswinder Singh Maras; Shvetank Sharma; Adil Rafiq Bhat; Reshu Aggarwal; Ekta Gupta; Shiv K Sarin

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.06.20147082 Date: 2020-07-07

    Abstract: Rapid diagnosis and precise prognostication of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD remains a major challenge. A multi-omic approach was adopted, and in the discovery phase, global proteome/metaproteome/metabolome were analysed in the respiratory specimens of SARS-CoV-2 positive [n=20], negative [n=20], and H1N1 positive [n=5] cases. We identified MX1 (MX Dynamin Like GTPase 1) and WARS (Tryptophan--tRNA ligase) as clues to viral diagnosis and validated in 200 SARS-CoV-2 suspects. MX1 >30pg/ml and WARS >25ng/ml segregated virus positives patients [(AUC=94%CI(0.91-0.97)]. Distinct increase in SARS-CoV-2 induced immune activation, metabolic reprograming and a decrease in oxygen transport, wound healing, fluid regulation, vitamin and steroid metabolism was seen (p<0.05). Multi-omics profiling correlated with viraemia and segregated asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 patients. Additionally, the multiomics approach identified increased respiratory pathogens [Burkholderiales, Klebsiella pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP] and decreased lactobacillus salivarius (FDR<0.05, p<0.05) in COVID-19 specimens. Conclusion: Novel proteins [MX1 and WARS] can rapidly and reliably diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and identify asymptomatic TRANS and mild disease MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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