Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Pneumonia (938)

Infections (439)

Disease (435)

Coronavirus Infections (273)

Death (203)

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (1024)

Fever (166)

Cough (133)

Respiratory distress (78)

Hypertension (59)


    displaying 21 - 30 records in total 1064
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    Point mutation bias in SARS-CoV-2 variants results in increased ability to stimulate inflammatory responses

    Authors: Masato Kosuge; Emi Furusawa-Nishii; Koyu Ito; Yoshiro Saito; Kouetsu Ogasawara

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD induces severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and is the cause of a worldwide pandemic. Coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, have RNA proofreading enzymes in their genomes, resulting in fewer gene mutations than other RNA viruses. Nevertheless, variants of SARS-CoV-2 exist and may induce different symptoms; however, the factors and the impacts of these mutations are not well understood. We found that there is a bias to the mutations occurring in SARS-CoV-2 variants, with disproportionate mutation to uracil (U). These point mutations to U are mainly derived from cytosine (C), which is consistent with the substrate specificity of host RNA editing enzymes, APOBECs. We also found the point mutations which are consistent with other RNA editing enzymes, ADARs. For the C-to-U mutations, the context of the upstream uracil and downstream guanine from mutated position was found to be most prevalent. Further, the degree of increase of U in SARS-CoV-2 variants correlates with enhanced production of cytokines, such as TNF-a and IL-6, in cell lines when compared with stimulation by the ssRNA sequence of the isolated virus in Wuhan. Therefore, RNA editing is a factor for mutation bias in SARS-CoV-2 variants, which affects host inflammatory cytokines production.

    High neutralizing potency of swine glyco-humanized polyclonal antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Bernard Vanhove; Odile Duvaux; Juliette Rousse; Pierre-Joseph Royer; Gwenaelle Evanno; Carine Ciron; Elsa Lheriteau; Laurent Vacher; Nadine Gervois; Romain Oger; Yannick Jacques; Apolline Salama; Roberto Duchi; Andrea Perota; Philippe Delahaut; Matthieu Ledure; Melody Paulus; Ray So; Chris Ka Pun Mok; Roberto Bruzzone; Marc Bouillet; Sophie Brouard; Emanuele Cozzi; Cesare Galli; Dominique Blanchard; Jean-Marie Bach; Jean-Paul Soulillou

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.217158 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: bioRxiv

    Perfusion of convalescent plasma SERO (CP) has demonstrated a potential to improve the pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP induced by SARS-CoV-2, but procurement and standardization of CP are barriers to its wide usage. Heterologous polyclonal antibodies SERO of animal origin have been used to fight against infectious agents and are a possible alternative to the use of CP in SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD. However, heterologous polyclonal antibodies SERO trigger human natural xenogeneic antibody SERO responses particularly directed against animal-type carbohydrate epitopes, mainly the N-glycolyl form of the neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and the Gal alpha1,3-galactose (a-Gal), ultimately forming immune complexes and potentially leading to serum sickness MESHD serum SERO or allergy HP. To circumvent these drawbacks, we engineered animals lacking the cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) and alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) enzymes to produce glyco-humanized polyclonal antibodies SERO (GH-pAb) lacking Neu5Gc and a-Gal epitopes. We also found that these IgG Fc domains fail to interact with human Fc receptors and thereby should confer the safety advantage to avoiding macrophage dependent exacerbated inflammatory responses or elicit antibody SERO-dependent enhancement (ADE), two drawbacks possibly associated with antibody SERO responses against SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we immunized CMAH/GGTA1 double knockout (DKO) pigs with the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD) domain to elicit neutralizing antibodies SERO. Animals rapidly developed hyperimmune sera with end-titers binding dilutions over one to a million and end-titers neutralizing dilutions of 1:10,000. The IgG fraction purified and formulated following clinical Good Manufacturing Practices, named XAV-19, neutralized Spike/ACE-2 interaction at a concentration < 1microgram/mL and inhibited infection MESHD of human cells by SARS-CoV-2 in cytopathic assays. These data and the accumulating safety advantages of using glyco-humanized swine antibodies SERO in humans warrant clinical assessment of XAV-19 to fight against COVID-19.


    Authors: Luis Fernando L Paredes Sr.; Ivan I Ilescas Jr.

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.16.20146704 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: medRxiv

    In late December 2019, a new disease MESHD reported at the time by an unknown pathogen was reported, which was later found to be a new variant of coronavirus, now called SARS-CoV2. This new disease MESHD had a very rapid global spread, causing multiple deaths MESHD in a short time, and which led to putting the entire world on health alert. In patients who have this disease MESHD, they present bilateral opacities in frosted multilobar glass with peripheral distribution. Some authors have suggested the use of ultrasound at the point of care for its early recognition. In this study, we evaluated the findings of lung ultrasound in 25 patients admitted to the General Hospital Dr. Enrique Cabrera, Mexico, with a diagnosis confirmed by RT-PCR of SARS CoV2. This small retrospective study suggests that artifacts like glass rockets with or without the Birolleau variant (White lung), confluent B-lines, thick irregular pleural lines, and variable size (subpleural) consolidations are typical findings of lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. The presence of these findings is useful when evaluating patients with suspected COVID-19. In resource-limited and austere settings where chest radiography, CT, and RT-PCR are not available or the response time is long, lung ultrasound performed by trained personnel can be an aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19.

    Overweight MESHD Overweight HP/ obesity MESHD obesity HP as the potentially most important lifestyle factor associated with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19

    Authors: Vanessa Sacco; Barbara Rauch; Christina Gar; Stefanie Haschka; Anne L Potzel; Stefanie Kern-Matschilles; Friederike Banning; Irina Benz; Mandy Meisel; Jochen Seissler; Andreas Lechner

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20161042 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Objective The occurrence of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP separates severe cases of COVID-19 from the majority of cases with mild disease MESHD. However, the factors determining whether or not pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP develops remain to be fully uncovered. We therefore explored the associations of several lifestyle factors with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19. Methods Between May and July 2020, we conducted an online survey of adults TRANS in Germany who had recently gone through COVID-19, predominantly as outpatients (n=201). Of these, 165 had a PCR-based diagnosis and 36 had a retrospective diagnosis by antibody testing SERO. The survey covered demographic information, eight lifestyle factors, comorbidities and medication use. We defined the main outcome as the presence vs. the absence of signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, represented by dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, the requirement for oxygen therapy or intubation. Results Signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP occurred in 39 of the 165 individuals with a PCR-based diagnosis of COVID-19 (23.6%). Among the lifestyle factors examined, only overweight MESHD overweight HP/ obesity MESHD obesity HP associated with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (odds ratio 2.68 (1.29 - 5.59) p=0.008). The observed association remained significant after multivariate adjustment, with BMI as a metric variable, and also after including the antibody SERO-positive individuals into the analysis. Conclusions This exploratory study finds an association of overweight MESHD overweight HP/ obesity MESHD obesity HP with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19. This finding suggests that a signal proportional to body fat mass, such as the hormone leptin, impairs the body's ability to clear SARS-CoV-2 before pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP develops. This hypothesis concurs with previous work and should be investigated further to possibly reduce the proportion of severe cases of COVID-19.

    Automatic CT Quantification of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP: An international collaborative development, validation, and clinical implication

    Authors: Seung-Jin Yoo; Xiaolong Qi; Shohei Inui; Sang Joon Park; Hyungjin Kim; Yeon Joo Jeong; Kyung Hee Lee; Young Kyung Lee; Bae Young Lee; Jin Yong Kim; Kwang Nam Jin; Jae-Kwang Lim; Yun-Hyeon Kim; Ki Beom Kim; Zicheng Jiang; Chuxiao Shao; Junqiang Lei; Shengqiang Zou; Hongqiu Pan; Ye Gu; Guo Zhang; Jin Mo Goo; Soon Ho Yoon

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives    We aimed to develop and validate the automatic quantification of COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP on CT images. Methods This retrospective study included 176 chest CT scans of 131 COVID-19 patients from 13 Korean and Chinese institutions. Two experienced radiologists semi-automatically drew pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, preparing 49,830 positive and negative CT slices to develop the 2D U-Net for segmenting pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. The 2D U-Net was distributed as downloadable software. External validation for quantifications’ accuracy was performed using Japanese, Italian, Radiopaedia, Chinese datasets. Primary measures for the accuracy of the network were correlation coefficients for extent (%) and weight (g) of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the clinical implication of the extent and weight regarding the presence of symptoms in the Japanese dataset and the occurrence of composite outcome in the Spanish dataset. Results In the internal validation dataset, the intraclass correlation coefficients between the 2D U-Net and reference values for the extent and weight were 0.990 and 0.993, respectively. In the Japanese dataset, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the U-Net outcomes and visual CT severity scores were 0.908 and 0.899, respectively. In the other external validation datasets, the intraclass correlation coefficients between the U-Net and reference values were between 0.951-0.970 (extent) and between 0.970-0.995 (weight), respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the extent and weight of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP were independently associated with symptoms (OR, 4.142 and 4.434; p=.013 and .009, respectively), and poor prognosis (OR, 7.446 and 4.677; p=.004 and .029, respectively).Conclusions CT extent and weight of COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP were automatically quantifiable and independently associated with symptoms and prognosis. 

    Chronic Hemodialysis Patients have better outcomes with COVID-19 - a retrospective cohort study

    Authors: Ashutossh Naaraayan; Abhishek Nimkar; Amrah Hasan; Sushil Pant; Momcilo Durdevic; Henrik Elenius; Corina Nava Suarez; Prasanta Basak; Kameswari Lakshmi; Michael Mandel; Stephen Jesmajian

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.22.20159202 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Several comorbid conditions, have been identified as risk factors in patients with COVID-19. However, there is a dearth of data describing the impact of COVID-19 infection MESHD in patients with end-stage renal disease MESHD on hemodialysis (ESRD-HD). Methods This retrospective case series analyzed 362 adult TRANS patients consecutively hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 illness between March 12, 2020 and May 13, 2020, at a teaching hospital in the New York City metropolitan area. Primary outcome was severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP as defined by the World Health Organization. Secondary outcomes were: 1) the Combined Outcome of Acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD or in-hospital Death MESHD (COAD), and 2) the need for High-levels of Oxygen supplementation (HiO2). Results Patients with ESRD-HD had lower odds for poor outcomes including severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP [Odds Ratio (OR) 0.4, Confidence Interval (CI) (0.2-0.9) p=.04], HiO2 [OR 0.3, CI (0.1-0.8) p=.02] and COAD [OR 0.4, CI (0.2-1.05) p=.06], when compared to patients without ESRD. In contrast, higher odds for severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, COAD and HiO2 were seen with advancing age TRANS. African-Americans were over-represented in the hospitalized patient cohort, when compared to their representation in the community (35% vs 18%). Hispanics had higher odds for severe-illness and HiO2 when compared to Caucasians. Conclusions Patients with ESRD-HD had a milder course of illness with a lower likelihood of severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and a lesser need for aggressive oxygen supplementation when compared to patients not on chronic dialysis. This protective effect, might have a pathophysiologic basis and needs to be further explored.

    COVID-19 Intensive Care Admissions Have Twice the Corrected Mortality of non-COVID-19 Viral Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP

    Authors: Dan V Nicolau; Alexander Hasson

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20161059 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Studying the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database has yielded results showing intensive care admissions by those infected with COVID-19 have twice the corrected mortality of patients presenting with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. A basis of an APACHE-II-like score denoted as "BASCA" is also outlined in this study.

    Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage After COVID-19 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Sajjad Muhammad; Soheil Naderi; Mostafa Ahmadi; Askar Ghorbani; Daniel Hänggi

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 virus infection MESHD leads to a severe and dysbalanced inflammatory response with hypercytokinemia and immunodepression. Systemic inflammation MESHD due to viral infections MESHD can potentially cause vascular damage including disruption of blood SERO-brain barrier (BBB) and alterations in coagulation system that may also lead to cardiovascular and neurovascular events. Here, we report the first case of COVID-19 infection MESHD leading to aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). Case DescriptionA 61-year-old woman presented with dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, cough MESHD cough HP and fever MESHD fever HP. She was over weight with Body MESHD mass-index of 34 and history of hypertension MESHD hypertension HP. No history of subarachnoid hemorrhage MESHD subarachnoid hemorrhage HP in the family. She was admitted in ICU due to low oxygen saturation (89%). A chest CT showed typical picture of COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Oropharyngeal swab with a PCR-based testing was COVID-19 positive. She was prescribed with favipiravir and hydroxychloroquine in Addition to oxygen support. On second day she experienced sudden headache MESHD headache HP and losst conciousness. A computer tomography (CT) with CT-angiography revealed subarachnoid haemorrhage in basal cisterns from a ruptured MESHD anterior communicating artery aneurysm MESHD. The aneurysm MESHD was clipped microsurgically through a standard pterional approach and the patient was admitted again to intensive care unit for further intensive medical treatment. Post-operative the patient showed slight motor dysphasia HP. No other neurological deficits.ConclusionAneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to COVID-19 infection MESHD might be triggered by systemic inflammation MESHD. COVID-19 infection MESHD could be one of the risk factors leading to instability and rupture MESHD of intracranial aneurysm MESHD.

    Ocular findings and retinal involvement in COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients: A cross-sectional study in an Italian referral centre

    Authors: Maria Pia Pirraglia; Giancarlo Ceccarelli; Alberto Cerini; Giacomo Visioli; Gabriella d'Ettorre; Claudio Maria Mastroianni; Francesco Pugliese; Alessandro Lambiase; Magda Gharbiya

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: changes in immune and coagulation systems and possible viral spread through blood SERO-brain barrier have been described in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. In this study, we evaluate the possible retinal involvement and ocular findings in severe COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients.  Methods: a cross sectional study was conducted on 46 patients affected by severe COVID-19 who were hospitalized in one Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and in two Infectious Diseases MESHD wards, including a bedside eye screening, corneal sensitivity SERO assessment and retinography. Results: a total of 43 SARS-CoV-2 positive pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients affected with COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP were included, 25 males TRANS and 18 females TRANS, with a median age TRANS of 70 [IQR 59-78]. Except for one patient with unilateral posterior chorioretinitis MESHD chorioretinitis HP of opportunistic origin, of whom aqueous tap was negative for SARS-CoV-2, no further retinal manifestation related to COVID-19 infection MESHD was found in our cohort. We found 3 patients (7%) with bilateral conjunctivitis MESHD conjunctivitis HP in whom PCR analysis on conjunctival swab provided negative results for SARS-CoV-2. No alterations of corneal sensitivity SERO were found.Conclusion: we demonstrated the absence of retinal involvement in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients. Ophthalmologic evaluation in COVID-19, particularly in patients hospitalized in an ICU setting, may be useful to reveal systemic co- infections by opportunistic MESHD infections by opportunistic HP pathogens. 


    Authors: Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza; Jose-Ignacio Pijoan; Elena Bereciartua; Susanna Dunder; Jokin Dominguez; Paula Garcia-Escudero; Alejandro Rodrigo; Carlota Gomez-Carballo; Jimena Varona; Laura Guio; Marta Ibarrola; Amaia Ugarte; Agustin Martinez-Berriotxoa

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.16.20152868 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of a short course of methyl-prednisolone pulses (MP) during the second week of disease MESHD (week-2) on the clinical course of patients with severe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. DESIGN: Comparative observational study using data collected from routine care. SETTING: Hospital Universitario Cruces, a tertiary level University hospital at Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: All patients with COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP admitted between 1st March and 30th April 2020 to the services of Infectious Diseases MESHD and Internal Medicine. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment with week-2-MP (125-250 mg/d for 3 consecutive days with no subsequent tapering) vs. standard of care. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Time to death MESHD and time to death MESHD or endotracheal intubation. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-two patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and elevated inflammatory markers at admission were included in the study. Sixty-one patients (25%) received week-2-MP. Twenty-two patients (9%) died during the study period. Thirty-one patients (12.8%) suffered death MESHD or intubation. The adjusted HR for death MESHD was 0.35 (95%CI 0.11 to 1.06, p= 0.064) for patients in the week-2-MP group. The adjusted HR for death MESHD or intubation week-2-MP was 0.33 (95%CI 0.13 to 0.84, p=0.020) for patients in the week-2-MP group. These differences were seen in the subcohort of patients with a SaO2/FiO2 at day 7 lower than the median of the whole population: HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.12, p=0.073 and HR 0.34, 95%CI 0.12 to 0.94, p=0.038, respectively, but not in patients with higher SaO2/FiO2. Other predictors of the final outcomes were arterial hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, SaO2/FiO2, high-risk CURB65 scores and the use of non-pulse glucocorticoids. Non-pulse glucocorticoids were a predictor of infections MESHD (OR 4.72, 95%CI 1.90 to 11.80, p<0.001), while week-2-MP were not (OR 1.04, 95%CI 0.40 to 2.70, p=0.938). CONCLUSIONS: Week-2-MP are effective in improving the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP with features of inflammatory activity and respiratory deterioration entering the second week of disease MESHD. The recognition of this high-risk population should prompt early use of MP at this point. REGISTRATION: This study has been registered in the EU PAS Register with the number EUPAS36287.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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