Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 41 - 50 records in total 254
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    COVID-19: Role of the Inflammasome

    Authors: Claudio G. Gallo; Sirio Fiorino; Giovanni Posabella; Donato Antonacci; Antonio Tropeano; Emanuele Pausini; Carlotta Pausini; Tommaso Guarniero; Marco Zancanaro

    id:202007.0246/v1 Date: 2020-07-12 Source: Preprints.org

    Covid-19 disease MESHD is caused by SARS Cov-2 virus. Despite its high transmissibility TRANS, the CFR (Case Fatality Rate) of COVID-19 seems to be lower than the SARS (9,5%) and MERS (34,4%) ones93 , but higher than the influenza one (0-1%)94,95 . The disease is asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS or paucisymptomatic in most of the patients, although in few cases it can be characterized by serious complications. The main causes of hospitalization in intensive care are represented by ALI ( Acute Lung Injury MESHD), ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD), cardiovascular problems and coagulopathies (diffuse thrombosis MESHD, microthrombosis, embolisms MESHD, myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP, arrhytmias, heart failure MESHD, stroke MESHD stroke HP)96-98, acute nephropathy99,100 and encephalopathies101. The virus presence in the vascular wall can cause endotheliitis, which triggers the process of diffuse coagulation that can lead to a worsening of the systemic inflammation MESHD. The exaggerated inflammatory response seems to be connected with the development of ARDS, MOF ( Multiple Organ Failure MESHD) and coagulopathies102-107.

    The presentation of spontaneous splenic rupture MESHD splenic rupture HP in a COVID-19 patient: a case report

    Authors: Mohammadreza Mobayen; Saeed Yousefi; Mohammadsadegh Mousavi; Amin Shafighi Anbaran

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40764/v1 Date: 2020-07-09 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction: Splenic rupture MESHD Splenic rupture HP is an emergency MESHD condition and the vast numbers of cases are secondary TRANS to trauma. Several underlying pathologies have also been associated with splenic rupture MESHD splenic rupture HP, such as hematological diseases MESHD, malignancies, and infectious and inflammatory diseases MESHD.Presentation of case: The patient was a 52-year-old man who referred to the Poursina Hospital in Rasht while complaining of abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP from the day before hospitalization. The patient reported a history of lethargy MESHD lethargy HP, fever MESHD fever HP, and nausea MESHD nausea HP. In the examinations performed, there was a brief tenderness in the patient's epigastrium. The patient was monitored and about 12 hours after hospitalization, ill appearance, respiratory ( respiratory distress HP) symptoms, and high fever MESHD fever HP were reported for the patient. According to the examination, the patient was immediately transferred to the operating room and underwent laparotomy. During the operation, contrary to our expectations, a lot of blood SERO (about 1000 cc) was observed in the patient's abdomen. After blood SERO suctioning, the left upper quadrant (LUQ) was bleeding and the rupture MESHD of the spleen could also be observed. Therefore, a splenectomy was performed .In the examinations performed for the patient, the patient's rtPCR test confirmed COVID-19.Conclusion: The evaluation of the spontaneous splenic rupture MESHD splenic rupture HP (SSR) in our case shows that this type of risk should also be considered in patients with COVID-19 who referred to medical centers with abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP, and if more cases are reported, the correctness of this process can be commented on.

    Towards the design of multiepitope-based peptide vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Hasanain Abdulhameed Odhar; Salam Waheed Ahjel; Suhad Sami Humadi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.186122 Date: 2020-07-08 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 is a current pandemic health threat especially for elderly TRANS patients with comorbidities. This respiratory disease MESHD is caused by a beta coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2. The disease MESHD can progress into acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD that can be fatal. Currently, no specific drug or vaccine are available to combat this pandemic outbreak. Social distancing and lockdown have been enforced in many places worldwide. The spike protein of coronavirus 2 is essential for viral entry into host target cells via interaction with angiotensin converting enzyme 2. This viral protein is considered a potential target for design and development of a drug or vaccine. Previously, we have reported several potential epitopes on coronavirus 2 spike protein with high antigenicity, low allergenicity and good stability against specified proteases. In the current study, we have constructed and evaluated a peptide vaccine from these potential epitopes by using in silico approach. This construct is predicted to have a protective immunogenicity, low allergenicity and good stability with minor structural flaws in model build. The population coverage of the used T-cells epitopes is believed to be high according to the employed restricted alleles. The vaccine construct can elicit efficient and long-lasting immune response as appeared through simulation analysis. This multiepitope-based peptide vaccine may represent a potential candidate against coronavirus 2. However, further in vitro and in vivo verification are required.

    Disease MESHD severity-specific neutrophil signatures in blood SERO transcriptomes stratify COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Anna C. Aschenbrenner; Maria Mouktaroudi; Benjamin Kraemer; Nikolaos Antonakos; Marie Oestreich; Konstantina Gkizeli; Melanie Nuesch-Germano; Maria Saridaki; Lorenzo Bonaguro; Nico Reusch; Kevin Bassler; Sarantia Doulou; Rainer Knoll; Tal Pecht; Theodore S. Kapellos; Nikoletta Rovina; Charlotte Kroeger; Miriam Herbert; Lisa Holsten; Arik Horne; Ioanna D. Gemuend; Shobhit Agrawal; Kilian Dahm; Martina van Uelft; Anna Drews; Lena Lenkeit; Niklas Bruse; Jelle Gerretsen; Jannik Gierlich; Matthias Becker; Kristian Haendler; Michael Kraut; Heidi Theis; Simachew Mengiste; Elena De Domenico; Jonas Schulte-Schrepping; Lea Seep; Jan Raabe; Christoph Hoffmeister; Michael ToVinh; Verena Keitel; Gereon J. Rieke; Valentina Talevi; Ahmad N. Aziz; Peter Pickkers; Frank van de Veerdonk; Mihai G. Netea; Joachim L. Schultze; Matthijs Kox; Monique M.B. Breteler; Jacob Nattermann; Antonia Koutsoukou; Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis; Thomas Ulas

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20148395 Date: 2020-07-08 Source: medRxiv

    The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is currently leading to increasing numbers of COVID-19 patients all over the world. Clinical presentations range from asymptomatic TRANS, mild respiratory tract infection MESHD respiratory tract infection HP, to severe cases with acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD, respiratory failure HP, and death MESHD. Reports on a dysregulated immune system in the severe cases calls for a better characterization and understanding of the changes in the immune system. Here, we profiled whole blood SERO transcriptomes of 39 COVID-19 patients and 10 control donors enabling a data-driven stratification based on molecular phenotype. Neutrophil activation-associated signatures were prominently enriched in severe patient groups, which was corroborated in whole blood SERO transcriptomes from an independent second cohort of 30 as well as in granulocyte samples from a third cohort of 11 COVID-19 patients. Comparison of COVID-19 blood SERO transcriptomes with those of a collection of over 2,600 samples derived from 11 different viral infections MESHD, inflammatory diseases MESHD and independent control samples revealed highly specific transcriptome signatures for COVID-19. Further, stratified transcriptomes predicted patient subgroup-specific drug candidates targeting the dysregulated systemic immune response of the host.

    Characteristics and outcomes of Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD related to COVID-19 in Belgian and French Intensive Care Units according to antiviral strategies. The COVADIS multicenter observational study.

    Authors: David Grimaldi; Nadia Aissaoui; Gauthier Blonz; Giuseppe Carbutti; Romain Courcelle; Stephane Gaudry; Julien Higny; Geoffrey Horlait; Sami Hraiech; Laurent Lefebvre; Francois Lejeune; Andre Ly; Michael Piagnerelli; Bertrand Sauneuf; Nicolas Serck; Thibaud Soumagne; Piotr Szychowiak; Julien Textoris; Benoit Vandenbunder; Christophe Vinsonneau; Jean Baptiste Lascarrou

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.28.20141911 Date: 2020-07-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background Limited data are available for antiviral therapy efficacy especially for the most severe patients under mechanical ventilation suffering from Covid-19 related Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD (ARDS). Methods Observational multicenter cohort of patients with moderate to severe Covid-19 ARDS, comparing antiviral strategies (none, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), lopinavir/ritonavir (L/R), others (combination or remdesivir). The primary end-point was the day-28 ventilator free days (VFD), patients which died before d28 were considered as having 0 VFD. The variable was dichotomized in patients still ventilated or dead at day 28 vs patients being extubated and alive at day 28 (VFD = or > 0). Results We analyzed 376 patients (80 with standard of care (SOC), 49 treated with L/R, 197 with HCQ, and 50 others). The median number of d28-VFD was 0 (IQR 0-13) and was different across the different groups (P=0.01), the SOC patients having the highest d28-VFD. A multivariate logistic regression including antiviral strategies, showed that age TRANS (OR 0.95 CI95%:0.93-0.98), male TRANS gender TRANS (OR 0.53 CI95%:0.31-0.93), Charlson score (OR 0.85 CI95%:0.73-0.99) and plateau pressure (OR 0.94 CI95%:0.88-0.99) were associated with having 0 d28-VFD whereas P/F ratio (OR 1.005 CI95%:1.001-1.010) was associated with having > or = 1 d28-VFD (ie. being extubated and alive). Acute kidney injury MESHD Acute kidney injury HP (AKI) was frequent (64%), its incidence was different across the patients groups (P=0.01). In a post-hoc logistic multivariate regression apart from demographics characteristics and comorbidities, the use of L/R (administered to 81 of 376 patients) was associated with occurrence of AKI (OR 2.07 CI95%:1.17-3.66) and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Conclusion In this observational study of moderate to severe Covid-19 ARDS patients, we did not observed a benefit of treating patients with any specific antiviral treatment. We observed an association between L/R treatment and occurrence of AKI and need for RRT.

    Low-dose Whole-lung Irradiation for COVID-19 Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP: Short Course Results

    Authors: Ahmad Ameri; Nazanin Rahnama; Rama Bozorgmehr; Majid Mokhtari; Mohammad Farahbakhsh; Mahmood Nabavi; Simin Dokht Shoaei; Hossein Izadi; Amir Shahram Yousefi Kashi; Hadiseh Shabanpour Dehbaneh; Farzad Taghizadeh-Hesary

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40507/v1 Date: 2020-07-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives: The COVID-19 outbreak is affecting people worldwide. Most of the infected patients suffering from respiratory involvement that may progress to acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of low-dose whole-lung radiotherapy in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP.  Methods: In this clinical trial, done in Iran, we enrolled patients with COVID-19 who were older than 60 years and hospitalized to receive supplementary oxygen for their documented pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Participants were treated with whole-lung irradiation in a single fraction of 0.5 Gy plus national protocol for the management of COVID-19. Vital signs (including blood SERO oxygenation and body temperature) and laboratory findings (IL-6 and CRP) were recorded before and after irradiation.Results: Between 21 May 2020 and 24 June 2020, five patients received whole-lung irradiation. They followed for 5-7 days to evaluate response to treatment and toxicities. The clinical and paraclinical findings of four patients (except for patient #4 that get worst and died on day 3) improved on the first day of irradiation. Patient #3 opted-out the trial on the third day of irradiation. The mean time to discharge was 6 days for the other three patients. No acute radiation-induced toxicity was recorded.Conclusion: With a response rate of 80%, whole-lung irradiation in a single fraction of 0.5 Gy had encouraging results in oxygen-dependent patients with COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP.

    The Emerging Role of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) 

    Authors: Angélica Arcanjo; Jorgete Logullo; Camilla Cristie Barreto Menezes; Thais Chrispim de Souza Cravalho Giangiarulo; Shana Priscila Coutinho Barroso; Adriane Todeschini; Leonardo Freire-de-Lima; Debora Ricardo Decoté; Celio Geraldo Freire-de-Lima; Fátima Conceição Silva; Wilson Savino; Alexandre Morrot

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40461/v1 Date: 2020-07-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2 causes COVID-19, a highly pathogenic viral infection MESHD threatening millions. The majority of those infected are asymptomatic TRANS or mildly symptomatic showing typical clinical signs of common cold MESHD. However approximately 20% of the patients can progress to acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS) and eventually death MESHD in about 5% of cases. Recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been shown to be a functional receptor for virus entry into host target cells. The upregulation of ACE2 in patients with comorbidities may represent a propensity for increased viral load and spreading of infection MESHD to extrapulmonary tissues. This systemic infection MESHD is associated with higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in infected tissues and high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to an extensive microthrombus formation with multiorgan failure. Herein we investigated whether SARS-CoV2 can stimulate extracellular neutrophils traps (NETs) in a process called NETosis. We demonstrated for the first time that SARS-CoV2 in fact is able to activate NETosis in human neutrophils. Our findings indicated that this process is associated with increased levels of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in neutrophils. The ROS-NET pathway plays a role in thrombosis MESHD formation and our study suggest the importance of this target for therapy approaches against disease MESHD.

    Dual-Histamine Blockade with Cetirizine - Famotidine Reduces Pulmonary Symptoms in COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Reed B Hogan II; Reed B Hogan III; Tim Cannon; Maria Rappi; John Studdard; Doug Paul; Thomas P Dooley

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.30.20137752 Date: 2020-07-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic due to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD can produce Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD as a result of a pulmonary cytokine storm. Antihistamines are safe and effective treatments for reducing inflammation MESHD and cytokine release. Combinations of Histamine-1 and Histamine-2 receptor antagonists have been effective in urticaria MESHD urticaria HP, and might reduce the histamine-mediated pulmonary cytokine storm in COVID-19. Can a combination of Histamine-1 and Histamine-2 blockers improve COVID-19 inpatient outcomes? Methods: A physician-sponsored cohort study of cetirizine and famotidine was performed in hospitalized patients with severe to critical pulmonary symptoms. Pulmonologists led the inpatient care in a single medical center of 110 high-acuity patients that were treated with cetirizine 10 mg and famotidine 20 mg b.i.d. plus standard-of-care. Results: Of all patients, including those with Do Not Resuscitate directives, receiving the dual-histamine blockade for at least 48 hours, the combination drug treatment resulted in a 16.4% rate of intubation, a 7.3% rate of intubation after a minimum of 48 hours of treatment, a 15.5% rate of inpatient mortality, and 11.0 days duration of hospitalization. The drug combination exhibited reductions in symptom progression when compared to published reports of COVID-19 patients. Concomitant medications were assessed and hydroxychloroquine was correlated with worse outcomes. Conclusions: This physician-sponsored cohort study of cetirizine and famotidine provides proof-of-concept of a new safe and effective method to reduce the progression in symptom severity, presumably by minimizing the histamine-mediated cytokine storm. Further clinical studies in COVID-19 are warranted of the repurposed off-label combination of two historically-safe histamine blockers.

    Prior diagnoses and medications as risk factors for COVID-19 in a Los Angeles Health System

    Authors: Timothy S Chang; Yi Ding; Malika K Freund; Ruth Johnson; Tommer Schwarz; Julie M Yabu; Chad Hazlett; Jeffrey N Chiang; Ami Wulf; - UCLA Health Data Mart Working Group; Daniel H Geschwind; Manish J Butte; Bogdan Pasaniuc

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.03.20145581 Date: 2020-07-04 Source: medRxiv

    With the continuing coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic coupled with phased reopening, it is critical to identify risk factors associated with susceptibility and severity of disease MESHD in a diverse population to help shape government policies, guide clinical decision making, and prioritize future COVID-19 research. In this retrospective case-control study, we used de-identified electronic health records (EHR) from the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Health System between March 9th, 2020 and June 14th, 2020 to identify risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility (severe acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR test positive), inpatient admission, and severe outcomes (treatment in an intensive care unit or intubation). Of the 26,602 individuals tested by PCR for SARS-CoV-2, 992 were COVID-19 positive (3.7% of Tested), 220 were admitted in the hospital (22% of COVID-19 positive), and 77 had a severe outcome (35% of Inpatient). Consistent with previous studies, males TRANS and individuals older than 65 years old had increased risk of inpatient admission. Notably, individuals self-identifying as Hispanic or Latino constituted an increasing percentage of COVID-19 patients as disease MESHD severity escalated, comprising 24% of those testing positive, but 40% of those with a severe outcome, a disparity that remained after correcting for medical co-morbidities. Cardiovascular disease MESHD, hypertension, and renal MESHD hypertension HP disease MESHD were premorbid risk factors present before SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing associated with COVID-19 susceptibility. Less well-established risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility included pre-existing dementia MESHD dementia HP (odds ratio (OR) 5.2 [3.2-8.3], p=2.6 x 10-10), mental health conditions (depression OR 2.1 [1.6-2.8], p=1.1 x 10-6) and vitamin D deficiency MESHD (OR 1.8 [1.4-2.2], p=5.7 x 10-6). Renal diseases MESHD including end-stage renal disease MESHD and anemia MESHD anemia HP due to chronic renal disease MESHD were the predominant premorbid risk factors for COVID-19 inpatient admission. Other less established risk factors for COVID-19 inpatient admission included previous renal transplant (OR 9.7 [2.8-39], p=3.2x10-4) and disorders of the immune system (OR 6.0 [2.3, 16], p=2.7x10-4). Prior use of oral steroid medications was associated with decreased COVID-19 positive testing risk (OR 0.61 [0.45, 0.81], p=4.3x10-4), but increased inpatient admission risk (OR 4.5 [2.3, 8.9], p=1.8x10-5). We did not observe that prior use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers increased the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, being admitted to the hospital, or having a severe outcome. This study involving direct EHR extraction identified known and less well-established demographics, and prior diagnoses and medications as risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility and inpatient admission. Knowledge of these risk factors including marked ethnic disparities observed in disease MESHD severity should guide government policies, identify at-risk populations, inform clinical decision making, and prioritize future COVID-19 research.

    Plasma SERO IL-6 Levels following Corticosteroid Therapy as an Indicator of ICU Length of Stay in Critically ill COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Samir Awasthi; Tyler Wagner; AJ Venkatakrishnan; Arjun Puranik; Matthew Hurchik; Vineet Agarwal; Ian Conrad; Christian Kirkup; Raman Arunachalam; John O'Horo; Walter Kremers; Rahul Kashyap; William Morice; John Halamka; Amy W Williams; William A Faubion; Andrew D Badley; Gregory J Gores; Venky Soundararajan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.02.20144733 Date: 2020-07-03 Source: medRxiv

    Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions and mortality in severe COVID-19 patients are driven by cytokine storms and acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS). Interim clinical trial results suggest that the corticosteroid dexamethasone displays superior 28-day survival in severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilation or oxygen. Among 16 patients with plasma SERO IL-6 measurement post-corticosteroid administration, a higher proportion of patients with an IL-6 value over 10 pg/mL have worse outcomes (i.e. ICU Length of Stay > 15 days or death MESHD) when compared to 41 patients treated with non-corticosteroid drugs including antivirals, tocilizumab, azithromycin, and hydroxychloroquine (p-value = 0.0024). Given this unexpected clinical association between post-corticosteroid IL-6 levels and COVID-19 severity, we hypothesized that the Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR or NR3C1) may be coupled to IL-6 expression in specific cell types that govern cytokine release syndrome MESHD (CRS). Examining single cell RNA-seq data from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of severe COVID-19 patients and nearly 2 million human cells from a pan-tissue scan shows that alveolar macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells co-express both NR3C1 and IL-6. The mechanism of Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) agonists mitigating pulmonary and multi-organ inflammation MESHD in some COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure HP, may be in part due to their successful antagonism of IL-6 production within lung macrophages and vasculature.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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