Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 34
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    Acute transverse myelitis MESHD myelitis HP in a HIV-positive patient with COVID-19

    Authors: Vitalie Lisnic; Victor Nemtan; Evghenia Hacina; Galina Topciu; Elena Manole; Majda M. Thurnher; Rüdiger von Kummer

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50901/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Immunocompromised status keeps on being a challenge for a neurologist, especially in the context of the coronavirus disease MESHD – 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. We report a clinical case of a human- immunodeficiency HP virus (HIV) - positive patient who developed an acute transverse myelitis MESHD myelitis HP. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) examination showed longitudinally extensive spinal cord abnormality HP, and laboratory tests confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. The patient responded to methylprednisolone pulse therapy and therapeutic plasma SERO exchange. No cases of HIV-positive patients with myelitis MESHD myelitis HP and COVID-19 has been reported yet.

    Safety and Efficacy Concerns of Lopinavir/Ritonavir in COVID-19 Affected Patients: A Retrospective Series

    Authors: Marc-Antoine Lepage; Nicholas Rozza; Richard Kremer; Ami Grunbaum

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20153932 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Context: Originally developed for the treatment of human immunodeficiency HP virus (HIV), the antiviral combination lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is being investigated for use against coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19). We present a case series raising safety and efficacy concerns in COVID-19 affected patients. Methods: We measured LPV trough concentrations in 12 patients treated at our center and reviewed their clinical charts for side effects known to occur in HIV patients. Results: Compared to established LPV trough concentrations in HIV treated patients, concentrations in COVID-19 affected patients were 3-fold greater (20.64 +/- 10.14 mcg/mL versus 6.25 mcg/mL). In addition, cholestasis MESHD cholestasis HP and dyslipidemia toxicity thresholds were exceeded in 12/12 and 11/12 patients respectively. No patients achieved the presumed therapeutic concentration. The side effects noted were mainly gastrointestinal symptoms (5/12, 42%), electrolytes imbalances (4/12, 33%), liver enzyme disturbances (5/12, 42%), and triglyceride elevations (2/12, 17%). Conclusion: None of our patients reached presumed therapeutic LPV concentrations despite experiencing side effects and exceeding cholestasis MESHD cholestasis HP and dyslipidemia toxicity thresholds. This raises concerns for the safety and efficacy of LPV/r. Clinicians should consider closely monitoring for side effects and not necessarily attribute them to COVID-19 itself.

    Cell type-specific immune dysregulation HP in severely ill COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Changfu Yao; Stephanie A Bora; Tanyalak Parimon; Tanzira Zaman; Oren A Friedman; Joseph A Palatinus; Nirmala S Surapaneni; Yuri P Matusov; Giuliana Cerro Chiang; Alexander G Kassar; Nayan Patel; Chelsi ER Green; Adam W Aziz; Harshpreet Suri; Jo Suda; Andres A Lopez; Gislaine A Martins; Barry R Stripp; Sina A Gharib; Helen S Goodridge; Peter Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20161182 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly become the most serious pandemic since the 1918 flu pandemic. In extreme situations, patients develop a dysregulated inflammatory lung injury MESHD called acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS) that causes progressive respiratory failure HP requiring mechanical ventilatory support. Recent studies have demonstrated immunologic dysfunction in severely ill COVID-19 patients. To further delineate the dysregulated immune response driving more severe clinical course from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, we used single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) to analyze the transcriptome of peripheral blood SERO mononuclear cells (PBMC) from hospitalized COVID-19 patients having mild disease MESHD (n = 5), developing ARDS (n = 6), and recovering from ARDS (n = 6). Our data demonstrated an overwhelming inflammatory response with select immunodeficiencies HP within various immune populations in ARDS patients. Specifically, their monocytes had defects in antigen presentation and deficiencies in interferon responsiveness that contrasted the higher interferon signals in lymphocytes. Furthermore, cytotoxic activity was suppressed in both NK and CD8 lymphocytes whereas B cell activation was deficient, which is consistent with the delayed viral clearance in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Finally, we identified altered signaling pathways in the severe group that suggests immunosenescence and immunometabolic changes could be contributing to the dysfunctional immune response. Our study demonstrates that COVID-19 patients with ARDS have an immunologically distinct response when compared to those with a more innocuous disease MESHD course and show a state of immune imbalance in which deficiencies in both the innate and adaptive immune response may be contributing to a more severe disease MESHD course in COVID-19.

    Modeling the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in patients with COVID-19 risk factors through predictive analysis

    Authors: Juan Alonso Leon-Abarca

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20154021 Date: 2020-07-19 Source: medRxiv

    With almost a third of adults TRANS being obese, another third hypertense and almost a tenth affected by diabetes, Latin American countries could see an elevated number of severe COVID-19 outcomes. We used the Open Dataset of Mexican patients with COVID-19 suspicion who had a definite RT-PCR result to develop a statistical model that evaluated the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the population. We included patients of all ages TRANS with every risk factor provided by the dataset: asthma MESHD asthma HP, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP, smoking, diabetes, obesity MESHD obesity HP, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, immunodeficiencies HP, chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, cardiovascular diseases MESHD, and pregnancy. The dataset also included an unspecified category for other risk factors that were not specified as a single variable. To avoid excluding potential patients at risk, that category was included in our analysis. Due to the nature of the dataset, the calculation of a standardized comorbidity index was not possible. Therefore, we treated risk factors as a categorical variable with two categories: absence of risk factors and the presence of at least one risk factor in accordance with previous epidemiological reports. Multiple logistic regressions were carried out to associate sex, risk factors, and age TRANS as a continuous variable (and the interaction that accounted for increasing diseases MESHD with older ages TRANS); and SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD as the dependent zero-one binomial variable. Post estimation predictive marginal analysis was performed to generate probability trends along 95% confidence bands. This analysis was repeated several times through the course of the pandemic since the first record provided in their repository (April 12, 2020) to one month after the end of the state of sanitary emergency MESHD (the last date analyzed: June 27, 2020). After processing, the last measurement included 464,389 patients. The baseline analysis on April 12 revealed that people 35 years and older with at least one risk factor had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in comparison to patients without risk factors (Figure 1). One month before the end of the nationwide state of emergency MESHD this age TRANS threshold was found at 50 years (May 2, 2020) and it shifted to 65 years on May 30. Two weeks after the end of the public emergency MESHD (June 13, 2020) the trends converged at 80 years and one week later (June 27, 2020) every male TRANS and female TRANS patient with at least one risk factor had a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD compared to people without risk factors. Through the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, all four probability curves shifted upwards as a result of progressive disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread. In conclusion, we found our model could monitor accurately the probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in relation to age TRANS, sex, and the presence of at least one risk factor. Also, because the model can be applied to any particular political region within Mexico, it could help evaluate the contagion spread in specific vulnerable populations. Further studies are needed to determine the underlying nature of the mechanisms behind such observations.

    COVID-19 Inmate Risk Appraisal (CIRA): Development and validation of a screening tool to assess COVID-19 vulnerability in prisons

    Authors: Leonel C. Gonçalves; Stéphanie Baggio; Michael Weber; Laurent Gétaz; Hans Wolff; Jay P. Singh; Andreas Naegeli; Astrid Rossegger; Jérôme Endrass

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40225/v1 Date: 2020-07-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives. To develop and validate a screening tool designed to identify detained people at increased risk for COVID-19 mortality, the COVID-19 Inmate Risk Appraisal (CIRA). Design. Cross-sectional study with a representative sample (development) and a case-control sample (validation).Setting. The two largest Swiss prisons.Participants. (1) Development sample: all male TRANS persons detained in Pöschwies, Zurich (n=365); (2) Validation sample: case-control sample of male TRANS persons detained in Champ-Dollon, Geneva (n=192, matching 1:3 for participants at risk for severe course of COVID-19 and participants without risk factors).Main outcome measures. The CIRA combined seven risk factors identified by the World Health Organization and the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health as prognosis of severe COVID-19 to derive an absolute risk increase in mortality rate: Age TRANS ≥60, cardiovascular disease MESHD, diabetes, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, chronic respiratory disease MESHD, immunodeficiency HP, and cancer. Results. Based on the development sample, we proposed a three-level classification: average (<3.7), elevated (3.7-5.7), and high (>5.7) risk. In the validation sample, the CIRA identified all individuals considered vulnerable by national recommendations (having at least one risk factor). The category “elevated risk” maximized sensitivity SERO (1) and specificity (.97). The CIRA had even higher capacity in discriminating vulnerable individuals according to clinical evaluation (a four-level risk categorization based on a consensus of medical staff). The category “elevated risk” maximized sensitivity SERO and specificity (both 1). When considering the individuals classified as extremely high risk by medical staff, the category “high risk” had a high discriminatory capacity (sensitivity=.89, specificity=.97). Conclusions. The CIRA scores have a high discriminative ability and will be important in custodial settings to support decisions and prioritize actions using a standardized valid assessment method. However, as knowledge on risk factors for COVID-19 mortality is still limited, the CIRA should be considered preliminary. Underlying data will be updated regularly on the website www.prison-research.com, where the CIRA algorithm is freely available.

    Association of Smoking Status with Outcomes in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Muhammad Adrish; Sridhar Chilimuri; Nikhitha Mantri; Haozhe Sun; Maleeha Zahid; Sudharsan Gongati; Ked Fortuzi; Abhishrut Pramod Jog; Pravish Purmessur; Ravish Singhal

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39752/v1 Date: 2020-07-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction: Smoking causes inflammation MESHD of the lung epithelium by releasing cytokines and impairing muco-ciliary clearance. Some studies have linked smoking with severity of illness of COVID-19 whereas others have found no such association.Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of all adults TRANS hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 09 to May 18, 2020. Results: 1173 patients met the study criteria. 837 patients never smoked and 336 patients were either current smokers or past smoker and were grouped together in smokers group. Patients in smokers group were more likely to be male TRANS and had higher incidence of underlying COPD (19% vs. 6%, p<0.001), human immunodeficiency HP virus infection MESHD (11% vs. 5%,p<0.001), cancer (11% vs. 6%, p=0.005), congestive heart failure HP heart failure MESHD (15% vs. 8%, p<0.001), coronary artery disease MESHD (15% vs. 9%, p=0.027), chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD (11% vs. 8%, p=0.037), and end-stage renal disease MESHD (10% vs. 6%, p=0.009) compared to non-smokers. Smokers were more likely to develop critical illness MESHD requiring mechanical ventilation (47% vs. 37% p=0.005). Univariate Cox model for survival analysis by smoking status showed that smokers only current smokers had higher risk of death MESHD compared to never-smokers (HR 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.22–2.12, p<0.001). In the multivariate approach Cox model for the survival, female TRANS sex, age TRANS, LDH and systemic steroid use were associated with overall survival.Conclusion: In our large single center retrospective database of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, smoking was associated with development of critical illness MESHD and higher likelihood of death MESHD

    The impact of SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS fear and COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of patients with primary immunodeficiency HP disorders, severe asthma MESHD asthma HP, and other high-risk groups

    Authors: Fatih Colkesen; Oguzhan Kilincel; Mehmet Sozen; Eray Yildiz; Sengul Beyaz; Fatma Colkesen; Gokhan Aytekin; Mehmet Zahit Kocak; Yakup Alsancak; Murat Araz; Sevket Arslan

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.26.20140616 Date: 2020-06-28 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The adverse effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of high-risk group patients for morbidity and mortality and its impact on public health in the long term have not been clearly determined. Objective: To determine the level of COVID-19 related transmission TRANS fear and anxiety HP in healthcare workers and patients with primary immunodeficiency HP disorder (PID), severe asthma MESHD asthma HP, and the ones with other comorbidities. Methods: The healthcare workers and patients with PID, severe asthma MESHD asthma HP (all patients receiving biological agent treatment), malignancy, cardiovascular disease MESHD, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (90% of patients receiving ACEI or ARB therapy), diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (42 % of patients receiving DPP-4 inhibitor therapy) were included in the study. A total of 560 participants, 80 individuals in each group, were provided. The hospital anxiety HP and depression scale ( HADS ) and Fear of illness and virus evaluation (FIVE ) scales were applied to the groups with face to face interview methods. Results: The mean age TRANS was 49.30 years and 306 (55 %) were female TRANS. The FIVE Scale and HADS-A scale scores of health care workers were significantly higher than other groups' scores (p = 0.001 and 0.006). The second-highest scores belonged to patients with PID. There was no significant difference between the groups for the HADS-D score (p=0.07). The lowest score in all scales was observed in patients with hypertension MESHD hypertension HP. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that in the pandemic process, patients with primary immunodeficiency HP, asthma MESHD asthma HP patients, and other comorbid patients, especially healthcare workers, should be referred to the centers for the detection and treatment of mental health conditions.

    A Case of HIV and Clinical Confirmed COVID-19

    Authors: Cansu Ozgen; Ulku Arslan; Simay Serin; Hulya Sungurtekin

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0269.v1 Date: 2020-06-21 Source: preprints.org

    Understanding the clinical conditions and outcomes of Covid-19 infected patients with immunodeficiency HP like HIV will be an information for improving management and treatment modalities. It was reported a patient of HIV plus clinical confirmed Covid-19 in this presentation.

    Non-coronavirus Genome Sequences Identified from Metagenomic Analysis of Clinical Samples from COVID-19 Infected Patients: An Evidence for Co- infection MESHD

    Authors: Mohamed Abouelkhair

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0505.v2 Date: 2020-06-18 Source: preprints.org

    In December 2019, pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. Early in 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced a new name for the 2019-nCoV-caused epidemic disease: coronavirus MESHD disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and declared COVID-19 to be the sixth international public health emergency MESHD. Cellular co- infection MESHD is a critical determinant of both viral fitness and infection MESHD outcome and plays a crucial role in shaping the host immune response to infections MESHD. In this study, sixty-eight public next-generation sequencing libraries from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were retrieved from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive database using SRA-Toolkit. Using an alignment-free method based on K-mer mapping and extension, SARS-CoV-2 was identified in all except three patients. Influenza A H7N9 (3/68), Human immunodeficiency HP virus 1 (1/68), rhabdovirus isolate (3/68), Human metapneumovirus (1/68), coronaviruses NL63 (1/68), Parvovirus (1/68), Simian virus 40 (1/68), and hepatitis MESHD hepatitis MESHD hepatitis HP virus (1/68) genome sequences were detected in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.

    Implications of COVID-19 in high burden HIV/TB countries: A systematic review of evidence

    Authors: Jacques L Tamuzi; Ayele T Birhanu; Constance S Shumba; Olatunji Adetokunboh; Jeannine Uwimana-Nico; Zelalem T Haile; Joseph Inugu; Peter Suwirakwenda Nyasulu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-35019/v1 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The triple burden of COVID-19, tuberculosis MESHD and human immunodeficiency HP virus is one of the major global health challenges of the 21st century and in the future. In high burden HIV/TB countries, the spread of COVID-19 among people living with HIV is a well-founded concern. A thorough understanding of HIV/TB and COVID-19 pandemics is important as the three diseases MESHD interact. This may clarify HIV/TB/COVID-19 as a newly related field and play an important role in the present and future management of the co- infections MESHD. However, several gaps are remaining in the knowledge of the burden of COVID-19 on patients with TB and HIV, the diagnosis, and management of these patients. The study was conducted to review different studies on SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV or COVID-19 associated with HIV/TB co- infection MESHD or only TB and to understand the interactions between HIV, TB and COVID-19 and its implications on the burden of the COVID-19 among HIV/TB co-infected or TB patients, screening algorithm and clinical management.Methods We conducted electronic search of potential eligible studies published in English in the Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, PubMed, Medrxiv, Google scholar and Clinical Trials Registry databases. We included case studies, case series and observational studies published between January, 2002 and March, 2020 in which SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and COVID-19 co-infected to HIV/TB or TB were managed in adult TRANS patients. We screened titles, abstracts and full articles for eligibility. As we anticipated heterogeneity in the literature, results were reported narratively.Results After removing 69 duplicates, 24 out of 246 articles were assessed for eligibility, of which 9 studies were included for qualitative analysis. Among them, we included two case reports, four case series, one case-control and two retrospective observational studies. The studies have shown that TB may occur during or after SARS-CoV. In terms of severity, the proportion of severe/critical SARS, MERS and COVID cases with TB co- infection MESHD was higher than in patients with mild/moderate stages (P = 0.0008).Conclusion SARS/MERS-CoV/COVID-19 associated to HIV/TB or TB subjects had a higher risk of developing severe/critical than mild/moderate SARS/MERS-CoV/COVID-19. Diagnostic algorithms and clinical management were suggested for efficiently improving COVID-19/HIV/TB co- infections MESHD outcomes.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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