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MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Altitude as a protective factor from COVID-19

    Authors: Timothy M Thomson; Fresia Casas; Harold Andre Guerrero; RĂ³mulo Figueroa-Mujica; Francisco C Villafuerte; Claudia Machicado

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20167262 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic had a delayed onset in South America compared to Asia (outside of China), Europe or North America. In spite of the presumed time advantage for the implementation of preventive measures to help contain its spread, the pandemic in that region followed growth rates that paralleled, and currently exceed, those observed several weeks before in Europe. Indeed, in early August, 2020, many countries in South and Central America presented among the highest rates in the world of COVID-19 confirmed cases TRANS and deaths MESHD per million inhabitants. Here, we have taken an ecological approach to describe the current state of the pandemic in Peru and its dynamics. Our analysis supports a protective effect of altitude from COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Further, we provide circumstantial evidence that internal migration through a specific land route is a significant factor progressively overriding the protection from COVID-19 afforded by high altitude. Finally, we show that protection by altitude is independent of poverty indexes and is inversely correlated with the prevalence SERO in the population of risk factors associated with severe COVID-19, including hypertension MESHD hypertension HP and hypercholesterolemia MESHD hypercholesterolemia HP. We discuss long-term multisystemic adaptations to hypobaric hypoxia MESHD as possible mechanisms that may explain the observed protective effect of high altitude from death MESHD from COVID-19.

    Factors Associated with Hospitalization and Disease MESHD Severity in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Population of COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Angelico Mendy; Senu Apewokin; Anjanette A Wells; Ardythe L Morrow

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.25.20137323 Date: 2020-06-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) first identified in Wuhan in December 2019 became a pandemic within a few months of its discovery. The impact of COVID-19 is due to both its rapid spread and its severity, but the determinants of severity have not been fully delineated. Objective: Identify factors associated with hospitalization and disease MESHD severity in a racially and ethnically diverse cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: We analyzed data from COVID-19 patients diagnosed at the University of Cincinnati health system from March 13, 2020 to May 31, 2020. Severe COVID-19 was defined as admission to intensive care unit or death MESHD. Logistic regression modeling adjusted for covariates was used to identify the factors associated with hospitalization and severe COVID-19. Results: Among the 689 COVID-19 patients included in our study, 29.2% were non-Hispanic White, 25.5% were non-Hispanic Black, 32.5% were Hispanic, and 12.8% were of other race/ethnicity. About 31.3% of patients were hospitalized and 13.2% had severe disease MESHD. In adjusted analyses, the sociodemographic factors associated with hospitalization and/or disease MESHD severity included older age TRANS, non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity (compared to non-Hispanic White), and smoking. The following comorbidities: diabetes, hypercholesterolemia MESHD hypercholesterolemia HP, asthma MESHD asthma HP, COPD, chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, cardiovascular diseases MESHD, osteoarthritis MESHD osteoarthritis HP, and vitamin D deficiency MESHD were associated with hospitalization and/or disease MESHD severity. Hematological disorders such as anemia MESHD anemia HP, coagulation disorders, and thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP were associated with both hospitalization and disease MESHD severity. Conclusion: This study confirms race and ethnicity as predictors of severe COVID-19. It also finds clinical risk factors for hospitalization and severe COVID-19 not previously identified such a vitamin D deficiency MESHD, hypercholesterolemia MESHD hypercholesterolemia HP, osteoarthritis MESHD osteoarthritis HP, and anemia MESHD anemia HP.

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE1, ACE2) gene variants are associated with COVID19 severity depending on the hypertension MESHD hypertension HP status.

    Authors: JUAN GOMEZ; GUILLERMO M ALBAICETA; MARTA GARCIA-CLEMENTE; CARLOS LOPEZ-LARREA; LAURA AMADO; TAMARA HERMIDA; ANA I ENRIQUEZ; PABLO HERRERO; SANTIAGO MELON; MARTA E ALVAREZ-ARGUELLES; SUSANA ROJO-ALBA; ALVARO LEAL-NEGREDO; REBECA LORCA; ELIAS CUESTA-LLAVONA; ELIECER COTO

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.11.20128033 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The Angiotensin system is implicated in the pathogenesis of COVID19. First, ACE2 is the cellular receptor for SARS-COv-2, and expression of the ACE2 gene could regulate the individuals susceptibility to infection MESHD. In addition, the balance between ACE1 and ACE activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases MESHD and could play a role in the severity of COVID19. Functional ACE1 and ACE2 gene polymorphisms have been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases MESHD, and could thus also contribute to the outcome of COVID19. Methods: We studied 204 COVID19 patients (137 non-severe and 67 severe-ICU cases) and 536 age TRANS-matched controls. The ACE1 indel and ACE2 rs2285666 polymorphism were determined. Variables frequencies were compared between the groups by logistic regression. We also sequenced the ACE2 coding nucleotides in a group of patients. Results: Severe COVID19 was associated with hypertension MESHD hypertension HP male TRANS gender TRANS (p<0.001), hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (p=0.006), hypercholesterolaemia (p=0.046), and the ACE1-DD genotype (p=0.049). In the multiple logistic regression hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (p=0.02, OR=2.26, 95CI=1.12-4.63) and male TRANS gender TRANS (p=0.002; OR=3.15, 95CI=1.56-6.66) remained as independent significant predictors of severity. The ACE2 polymorphism was not associated with the disease MESHD outcome. The ACE2 sequencing showed no coding sequence variants that could explain an increased risk of developing COVID19. Conclusions: Adverse outcome of COVID19 was associated with male TRANS gender TRANS, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, hypercholesterolemia MESHD hypercholesterolemia HP and the ACE1 genotype. The ACE1-indel was a significant risk factor for severe COVID19, but the effect was dependent on the hypertensive status.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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