Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 56
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    Does Cystic Fibrosis MESHD Constitute an Advantage in COVID-19 Infection MESHD?

    Authors: Valentino Bezzerri; Francesca Lucca; Sonia Volpi; Marco Cipolli

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53181/v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    The Veneto region is one of the most affected Italian regions by COVID-19. Chronic lung diseases HP lung diseases MESHD, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP (COPD), may constitute a risk factor in COVID-19. Moreover, respiratory viruses were generally associated with severe pulmonary impairment in cystic fibrosis MESHD (CF). We would have therefore expected numerous cases of severe COVID-19 among the CF population. Surprisingly, we found that CF patients were significantly protected against infection MESHD by SARS-CoV-2. We discussed this aspect formulating some reasonable theories.

    Decreased Eosinophil Counts HP and Elevated Lactate Dehydrogenase Predict Severe COVID-19 Patients with Underlying Chronic Airway Diseases MESHD

    Authors: Lingling Yi; Dian Chen; Shuchen Zhang; Yuchen Feng; Wenliang Wu; Chenli Chang; Shengchong Chen; Guohua Zhen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53471/v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Several predictors for the severity of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported, including decreased circulating lymphocytes and eosinophil counts. However, chronic airway inflammation MESHD characterized by accumulated lymphocytes or eosinophils may affect the pathogenesis of COVID-19. We aimed to investigate the predictors for the severity of COVID-19 in patients with chronic airway diseases MESHD.Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed medical records of all laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with chronic bronchitis MESHD chronic bronchitis HP, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP (COPD) and asthma MESHD asthma HP admitted in Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital, a large regional hospital in Wuhan, China, from January 26th to April 3rd. The Tongji Hospital ethics committee approved this study.Results: There were 59 patients with underlying chronic airway inflammation MESHD including chronic bronchitis MESHD chronic bronchitis HP, COPD, and asthma MESHD asthma HP. When compared with non-severe patients, severe patients were more likely to have decreased lymphocyte counts (0.6 vs. 1.1× 10⁹/L, p < 0.001), eosinopenia (< 0.02 × 10⁹/L, 73% vs. 24%, p < 0.001), increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (471.0 vs. 230.0 U/L, p < 0.001) and elevated IL-6 level (47.4 vs. 5.7 pg/ml, p = 0.002) on admission. Eosinopenia and elevated LDH were significantly associated with disease MESHD severity in both univariate and multivariate regression models included the above variables. Eosinopenia was also an independent risk factor for mortality of this cohort in a multivariate model included the above variables. Moreover, eosinophil counts and LDH levels tended to return to normal range over time in both groups after treatment and severe patients recovered slower than non-severe patients, especially eosinophil counts.Conclusions: Eosinopenia and elevated LDH are potential predictors of disease MESHD severity in COVID-19 patients with underlying chronic airway diseases MESHD. Theses predictors may help clinicians identify the severe COVID-19 patients with chronic bronchitis MESHD chronic bronchitis HP, COPD, and asthma MESHD asthma HP.

    Association of Diabetes and Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19: A Propensity Score Matched Analyses from a French Retrospective Cohort

    Authors: Willy Sutter; Baptiste Duceau; Aurélie Carlier; Antonin Trimaille; Thibaut Pommier; Oriane Weizman; Joffrey Cellier; Laura Geneste; Vassili Panagides; Wassima Marsou; Antoine Deney; Sabir Attou; Thomas Delmotte; Sophie Ribeyrolles; Pascale Chemaly; Clément Karsenty; Gauthier Giordano; Alexandre Gautier; Corentin Chaumont; Pierre Guilleminot; Audrey Sagnard; Julie Pastier; maxime Vignac; delphine Mika; Charles Fauvel; Théo Pezel; Ariel Cohen; Guillaume Bonnet; Ronan Roussel; Louis POTIER

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-51775/v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: To compare the clinical outcomes between patients with and without diabetes admitted to hospital with COVID-19.Methods: Retrospective multicentre cohort study from 24 academic tertiary medical centres in France including 2851 patients (675 with diabetes) hospitalised for COVID-19 between February 26 and April 20, 2020. A propensity score matching method (1:1 matching including patient characteristics, medical history, vital signs, and laboratory results) was used to compare patients with and without diabetes (n=603 in each group). The primary outcome was admission to intensive care unit (ICU) or in-hospital death MESHD. Results: Patients with diabetes were older (71 ± 13 vs. 65 ± 18 years; p<0.001), were less often female TRANS (38% vs. 44%; p<0.001) and more likely to have comorbidities: hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (79% vs 42%; p<0.001), coronary heart disease MESHD (23% vs 9%; p<0.001), stroke MESHD stroke HP (13% vs 8%; p<0.001), heart failure MESHD (17% vs 9%; p<0.001), chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD (26% vs 10%; p<0.001), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP (7% vs 5%; p<0.05). The primary outcome occurred in 584 (36.4%) patients with diabetes compared to 246 (26.8%) in those without diabetes (p<0.001). After propensity score matching, the risk of primary outcome was similar in patients with and without diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16, 95%CI 0.95-1.41, p=0.14) and was 1.29 (95%CI 0.97 – 1.69) for in-hospital mortality, 1.26 (95%CI 0.93 – 1.72) for mortality without transfer in ICU, and 1.14 (95%CI 0.88 – 1.47) for transfer to ICU.Conclusions: In this retrospective cohort of patients hospitalised for COVID-19, diabetes was not significantly associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 severe outcomes after propensity score matching.Trial registration NCT04344327

    ACE2 Expression is elevated in Airway Epithelial Cells from aged TRANS and male TRANS donors but reduced in asthma MESHD asthma HP

    Authors: Peter Wark; Prabuddha Pathinyake; Gerard Kaiko; Kristy Nichol; Ayesha Ali; Ling Chen; Erika Suntanto; Luke Garrat; Sukhwinder S Sohal; Wenying Lu; Matthew Eapen; Christopher Oldmeadow; Nathan Bartlett; Andrew Reid; Punnam Veerati; Alan Hsu; Thomas Iosifides; Stephen Stick; Philip M Hansbro; Anthony Kicic

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.26.20162248 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Rationale: COVID-19 is complicated by acute lung injury MESHD, and death MESHD in some individuals. It is caused by SARS-CoV-2 that requires the ACE2 receptor and serine proteases to enter airway epithelial cells (AECs). Objective: To determine what factors are associated with ACE2 expression particularly in patients with asthma MESHD asthma HP and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP (COPD). Methods: We obtained upper and lower AECs from 145 people from two independent cohorts, aged TRANS 2-89, Newcastle (n=115), and from Perth (n= 30) Australia. The Newcastle cohort was enriched with people with asthma MESHD asthma HP (n=37) and COPD (n=38). Gene expression for ACE2 and other genes potentially associated with SARS-CoV-2 cell entry were assessed by quantitative PCR, protein expression was confirmed with immunohistochemistry on endobronchial biopsies and cultured AECs. Results: Increased gene expression of ACE2 was associated with older age TRANS (p=0.02) and male TRANS sex (p=0.03), but not pack-years smoked. When we compared gene expression between adults TRANS with asthma MESHD asthma HP, COPD and healthy controls, mean ACE2 expression was lower in asthma MESHD asthma HP (p=0.01). Gene expression of furin, a protease that facilitates viral endocytosis, was also lower in asthma MESHD asthma HP (p=0.02), while ADAM-17, a disintegrin that cleaves ACE2 from the surface was increased (p=0.02). ACE2 protein levels were lower in endobronchial biopsies from asthma MESHD asthma HP patients. Conclusions: Increased ACE2 expression occurs in older people and males TRANS. Asthma MESHD Asthma HP patients have reduced expression. Altered ACE2 expression in the lower airway may be an important factor in virus tropism and may in part explain susceptibility factors and why asthma MESHD asthma HP patients are not over-represented in those with COVID-19 complications.

    Risk Factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization: COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Authors: Jean Y. Ko; Melissa L. Danielson; Machell Town; Gordana Derado; Kurt J. Greenland; Pam Daily Kirley; Nisha B. Alden; Kimberly Yousey-Hindes; Evan J. Anderson; Patricia A. Ryan; Sue Kim; Ruth Lynfield; Salina M. Torres; Grant R. Barney; Nancy M. Bennett; Melissa Sutton; H. Keipp Talbot; Mary Hill; Aron J. Hall; Alicia M. Fry; Shikha Garg; Lindsay Kim; - COVID-NET Investigation Group

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20161810 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Identification of risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization is needed to guide prevention and clinical care. Objective: To examine if age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions is independently associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: 70 counties within 12 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) and a population-based sample of non-hospitalized adults TRANS residing in the COVID-NET catchment area from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Participants: U.S. community-dwelling adults TRANS ([≥]18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, March 1- June 23, 2020. Measurements: Adjusted rate ratios (aRR) of hospitalization by age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity and underlying medical conditions ( hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, coronary artery disease MESHD, history of stroke MESHD stroke HP, diabetes, obesity MESHD obesity HP [BMI [≥]30 kg/m2], severe obesity MESHD obesity HP [BMI[≥]40 kg/m2], chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, asthma MESHD asthma HP, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP). Results: Our sample included 5,416 adults TRANS with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Adults TRANS with (versus without) severe obesity MESHD obesity HP (aRR:4.4; 95%CI: 3.4, 5.7), chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD (aRR:4.0; 95%CI: 3.0, 5.2), diabetes (aRR:3.2; 95%CI: 2.5, 4.1), obesity MESHD obesity HP (aRR:2.9; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.5), hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (aRR:2.8; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.4), and asthma MESHD asthma HP (aRR:1.4; 95%CI: 1.1, 1.7) had higher rates of hospitalization, after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, and race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for the presence of an individual underlying medical condition, higher hospitalization rates were observed for adults TRANS [≥]65 years, 45-64 years (versus 18-44 years), males TRANS (versus females TRANS), and non-Hispanic black and other race/ethnicities (versus non-Hispanic whites). Limitations: Interim analysis limited to hospitalizations with underlying medical condition data. Conclusion: Our findings elucidate groups with higher hospitalization risk that may benefit from targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.

    Developing the nomogram for the prediction of in-hospital incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD in patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Ning Ding; Yang Zhou; Guifang Yang; Cuirong Guo; Fengning Tang; Xiangping Chai

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-49304/v1 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS) was the most common complication of coronavirus disease MESHD-2019(COVID-19), leading to poor clinical outcomes. However, the model to predict the in-hospital incidence of ARDS in patients with COVID-19 is limited. Therefore, we aimed to develop a predictive nomogram for the in-hospital incidence of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.Methods: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to Changsha Public Health Centre between Jan 30, 2020, and Feb 22, 2020, were enrolled. Clinical characteristics and laboratory variables were analyzed in patients with ARDS. Risk factors for ARDS were selected by LASSO binary logistic regression. Nomogram was established based on risk factors and validated by the dataset.Results: A total of 113 patients, involving 99 in the non-ARDS group and 14 in the ARDS group were included in the study. 8 variables including hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP (COPD), cough MESHD cough HP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), white blood SERO count (WBC), body temperature, and heart rate were identified to be included in the model. The specificity, sensitivity SERO, and accuracy of the full model were 100%, 85.7%, and 87.5% respectively. The calibration curve also showed good agreement between the predicted and observed values in the model.Conclusions: The nomogram can predict the in-hospital incidence of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. It helps physicians to make an individualized treatment plan for each patient.

    Reducing COVID-19 hospitalization risk through behavior change

    Authors: MARY L ADAMS; David L Katz; Joseph Grandpre; Douglas Shenson

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20159350 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Our objective was to determine strategies that could potentially reduce the risk of hospitalizations from COVID-19 due to underlying conditions. We used data (N=444,649) from the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to identify potentially modifiable risk factors associated with reporting any of the underlying conditions ( cardiovascular disease MESHD, asthma MESHD asthma HP, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP, diabetes, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP or obesity MESHD obesity HP) found to increase risk of US hospitalizations for COVID-19. Risk factors included lifetime smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Multiple logistic regression in Stata produced adjusted odds ratios (AORs) used to estimate population attributable-risk (PAR) in Excel. PARs for the 3 risk factors ranged from 12.4% for inactivity to 15.6% for diet for a combined PAR of 36.3%, implying that total elimination of these 3 risk factors could potentially reduce underlying conditions as much as 36%. This suggests that reducing COVID-19 hospitalizations might be a measurable and feasible US goal for the coronavirus pandemic. The simple lifestyle changes of increasing physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption could reduce obesity MESHD obesity HP, a key underlying condition and risk factor for 4 others. Reducing obesity MESHD obesity HP and inactivity may also boost immunity. With uncertainly around how long the pandemic might last, other proposed strategies include wearing face masks when social distancing is not feasible, and addressing the special issues for nursing home residents. Such actions have the potential to lessen the impact of COVID-19 in the short term along with providing long term health benefits regarding chronic conditions.

    Modeling the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in patients with COVID-19 risk factors through predictive analysis

    Authors: Juan Alonso Leon-Abarca

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20154021 Date: 2020-07-19 Source: medRxiv

    With almost a third of adults TRANS being obese, another third hypertense and almost a tenth affected by diabetes, Latin American countries could see an elevated number of severe COVID-19 outcomes. We used the Open Dataset of Mexican patients with COVID-19 suspicion who had a definite RT-PCR result to develop a statistical model that evaluated the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the population. We included patients of all ages TRANS with every risk factor provided by the dataset: asthma MESHD asthma HP, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP, smoking, diabetes, obesity MESHD obesity HP, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, immunodeficiencies HP, chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, cardiovascular diseases MESHD, and pregnancy. The dataset also included an unspecified category for other risk factors that were not specified as a single variable. To avoid excluding potential patients at risk, that category was included in our analysis. Due to the nature of the dataset, the calculation of a standardized comorbidity index was not possible. Therefore, we treated risk factors as a categorical variable with two categories: absence of risk factors and the presence of at least one risk factor in accordance with previous epidemiological reports. Multiple logistic regressions were carried out to associate sex, risk factors, and age TRANS as a continuous variable (and the interaction that accounted for increasing diseases MESHD with older ages TRANS); and SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD as the dependent zero-one binomial variable. Post estimation predictive marginal analysis was performed to generate probability trends along 95% confidence bands. This analysis was repeated several times through the course of the pandemic since the first record provided in their repository (April 12, 2020) to one month after the end of the state of sanitary emergency MESHD (the last date analyzed: June 27, 2020). After processing, the last measurement included 464,389 patients. The baseline analysis on April 12 revealed that people 35 years and older with at least one risk factor had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in comparison to patients without risk factors (Figure 1). One month before the end of the nationwide state of emergency MESHD this age TRANS threshold was found at 50 years (May 2, 2020) and it shifted to 65 years on May 30. Two weeks after the end of the public emergency MESHD (June 13, 2020) the trends converged at 80 years and one week later (June 27, 2020) every male TRANS and female TRANS patient with at least one risk factor had a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD compared to people without risk factors. Through the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, all four probability curves shifted upwards as a result of progressive disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread. In conclusion, we found our model could monitor accurately the probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in relation to age TRANS, sex, and the presence of at least one risk factor. Also, because the model can be applied to any particular political region within Mexico, it could help evaluate the contagion spread in specific vulnerable populations. Further studies are needed to determine the underlying nature of the mechanisms behind such observations.

    COVID-19 among people living with HIV: A systematic review

    Authors: Hossein Mirzaei; Willi McFarland; Mohammad Karamouzian; Hamid Sharifi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20151688 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    This systematic review summarizes the evidence on the earliest patients with COVID-19-HIV co- infection MESHD. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, preprint databases, and Google Scholar from December 01, 2019 to June 1, 2020. From an initial 547 publications and 75 reports, 25 studies provided specific information on COVID-19 patients living with HIV. Studies described 252 patients, 80.9% were male TRANS, mean age TRANS was 52.7 years, and 98% were on ART. Co-morbidities in addition to HIV and COVID-19 (multimorbidity) included hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (39.3%), obesity MESHD obesity HP or hyperlipidemia MESHD hyperlipidemia HP (19.3%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP (18.0%), and diabetes (17.2%). Two-thirds (66.5%) had mild to moderate symptoms, the most common being fever MESHD fever HP (74.0%) and cough MESHD cough HP (58.3%). Among patients who died, the majority (90.5%) were over 50 years old, male TRANS (85.7%), and had multimorbidity (64.3%). Our findings highlight the importance of identifying co- infections MESHD, addressing co-morbidities, and ensuring a secure supply of ART for PLHIV during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    The natural history of symptomatic COVID-19 in Catalonia, Spain: a multi-state model including 109,367 outpatient diagnoses, 18,019 hospitalisations, and 5,585 COVID-19 deaths MESHD among 5,627,520 people

    Authors: Edward Burn; Cristian Tebe; Sergio Fernandez-Bertolin; Maria Aragon; Martina Recalde; Elena Roel; Albert Prats-Uribe; Daniel Prieto-Alhambra; Talita Duarte-Salles

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.13.20152454 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background The natural history of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has yet to be fully described, with most previous reports focusing on hospitalised patients. Using linked patient-level data, we set out to describe the associations between age TRANS, gender TRANS, and comorbidities and the risk of outpatient COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalisation, and/or related mortality. Methods A population-based cohort study including all individuals registered in Information System for Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP). SIDIAP includes primary care records covering > 80% of the population of Catalonia, Spain, and was linked to region-wide testing, hospital and mortality records. Outpatient diagnoses of COVID-19, hospitalisations with COVID-19, and deaths MESHD with COVID-19 were identified between 1st March and 6th May 2020. A multi-state model was used, with cause-specific Cox survival models estimated for each transition. Findings A total of 5,664,652 individuals were included. Of these, 109,367 had an outpatient diagnosis of COVID-19, 18,019 were hospitalised with COVID-19, and 5,585 died after either being diagnosed or hospitalised with COVID-19. Half of those who died were not admitted to hospital prior to their death MESHD. Risk of a diagnosis with COVID-19 peaked first in middle- age TRANS and then again for oldest ages TRANS, risk for hospitalisation after diagnosis peaked around 70 years old, with all other risks highest at oldest ages TRANS. Male TRANS gender TRANS was associated with an increased risk for all outcomes other than outpatient diagnosis. The comorbidities studied (autoimmune condition, chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP, dementia MESHD dementia HP, heart disease MESHD, hyperlipidemia MESHD hyperlipidemia HP, hypertension, malignant MESHD hypertension HP neoplasm MESHD neoplasm HP, obesity MESHD obesity HP, and type 2 diabetes) were all associated with worse outcomes. Interpretation There is a continued need to protect those at high risk of poor outcomes, particularly the elderly TRANS, from COVID-19 and provide appropriate care for those who develop symptomatic disease MESHD. While risks of hospitalisation and death MESHD are lower for younger populations, there is a need to limit their role in community transmission TRANS. These findings should inform public health strategies, including future vaccination campaigns.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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