Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Temperament and character of patients with alcohol toxicity during COVID -19 pandemic

    Authors: AliReza Estedlal; Arash Mani; Hossein Molavi Vardanjani; Mahsa Kamali; Leila Zarei; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Kamran B Lankarani

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39758/v1 Date: 2020-07-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Corona virus pandemic acts as a stressor or trauma that affects both physical health and mental health. People exhibited various reactive behaviors to confront with this stressful situation. Alcohol consumption for coping motive was one of the most common techniques. Personality factors evidently influence alcohol consumption, since they are associated with drinking motives. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between temperament and character and alcohol abuse.Methods This cross-section study was conducted on 135 alcohol toxicity patients admitted to emergency MESHD room in March 2020 and 255 participants who were randomly selected from public in Shiraz. The questionnaire consisted of TCI (Temperament and character inventory) and several questions about COVID-19 pandemic. It was completed by a trained interviewer using the matched answer technique. Demographic factors were also self-reported.Results Among the participants, 216 were males TRANS (55.4%) and 174 females TRANS (44.6%). The mean age TRANS of the participants was 32.88 ± 13.49 years. Alcohol toxicity was mostly observed among the young males TRANS ( male TRANS/ female TRANS ratio was 6.45). Mean scores of novelty seeking, harm avoidant, and self-transcendent were higher in the alcohol toxicity group than normal population (P < 0.01). Mean scores of reward dependent, cooperativeness, and self-directedness were higher in normal population than the alcohol toxicity group (P < 0.001). The mean score of persistence was not significant in both group (P = 0.718).Conclusion Novelty-seeking and self-transcendence scores were higher and reward-dependency score was lower among the alcohol abusers and cooperativeness and self-directedness scores were lower among the alcohol abusers. Higher novelty-seeking was correlated with higher impulsiveness, exploratory excitability, extravagance, and disorderliness, which are included in Cluster B personality disorders HP and associated with alcohol and drug involvement. Lower self-directedness and lower cooperativeness indicate the higher likelihood of personality disorders HP. Cluster A personality disorder HP symptoms (in particular, schizoid personality disorder HP symptoms) are correlated with low reward-dependence scores.

    Dimensions and modulators of behavioural and mental-health changes during the Covid-19 pandemic: an N=343,017 study

    Authors: Adam Hampshire; Peter Hellyer; Eyal Soreq; William Trender; Mitul A Mehta; Konstantinos Ioannidis; Jon E Grant; Samuel R Chamberlain

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.18.20134635 Date: 2020-06-20 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND The effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on mental health remain unclear. To mitigate the risks and capitalise on opportunities for positive change, we must understand how the impact has been mediated by sociodemographics, mental disorders, personality HP traits, life circumstances and the coping measures people choose to take. METHODS Data were collected from 376,987 members of the general public, predominantly in the UK, between late December 2019 and May 2020. Interaction models examined differences in sociodemographic distributions of mood and anxiety HP for 233,268 people in January vs. 109,749 in May. Factor analysis of a comprehensive instrument determined the dimensionality of self-perceived pandemic-driven change in wellbeing, outlook and behaviour for 74,830 participants in May. Linear modelling identified demographic, contextual, clinical, and trait predictors of pandemic impact. Topic modelling distilled prevalent advice from free-text responses. RESULTS Anxiety HP, depression and insomnia HP changed markedly in demographically-mediated ways. Untoward changes were larger for older adults TRANS. Benefits were greater for younger adults TRANS. Social connectedness was negatively affected across most mental and neurological conditions. There were disorder-specific changes in other domains, e.g., heightened conflict at home for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder HP and heightened anxiety HP for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatric symptoms, personality traits, occupational variables and living conditions were amongst the strongest predictors of pandemic impact. Frontline health workers, carers of vulnerable older adults TRANS, and disabled or sheltered adults TRANS were disproportionately affected. Fifty advice topics were identified from free-text, the prevalence SERO of which covaried with subpopulation, context and traits. CONCLUSIONS The general public report positive and negative consequences of the pandemic. Particular subsets of people have heightened risk of untoward effects whereas other groups appear resilient. To be valid and effective, studies seeking to quantify, predict or mitigate the impact of pandemics on mental health should apply holistic approaches, combining multiple psycho-socio-economic factors.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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