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MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence

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    Perception and Management of COVID-19 Among Allergic Children TRANS: An Italian Survey.

    Authors: Lucia Diaferio; Giuseppe Fabio Parisi; Giulia Brindisi; Cristiana Indolfi; Giuseppe Marchese; Daniele Giovanni Ghiglioni; Anna Maria Zicari; Gian Luigi Marseglia; Michele Miraglia del Giudice

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40612/v1 Date: 2020-07-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background There is ample evidence that COVID-19 is significantly less severe in children TRANS than in adults TRANS and it has been reported that asthma MESHD asthma HP and allergy HP, the most prevalent chronic disorders in children TRANS, are not included in the top 10 comorbidities associated with COVID-19 fatalities. Nevertheless, there would seem that the concerns about asthma MESHD asthma HP and the risk of disease MESHD and related outcomes are still high. In order to assess these features, we conducted a 20-question anonymous internet-based survey among Italian paediatricians. Methods The questionnaire was conceived and pretested in April 2020, by a working group of experts of the Italian Paediatric Society for Allergy HP and Immunology (SIAIP).  The survey was emailed once between April and mid-May 2020. Participants were allowed to complete only a single survey.Results A total 99 participants had taken part in our survey and provided responses to our electronic questionnaire. The distribution of patients reported per month varies significantly according to the geographical area (P=0.02). Data confirmed that in the North part of Italy the rate of patients referred is higher than in the rest of Italy. Almost all respondents (98%) reported caring for up to a maximum of 10 infecting children TRANS and the last 2% more than twenty. Among these patients, according to the 75% of responders, a maximum rate of 20% were affected by allergic rhino- conjunctivitis MESHD conjunctivitis HP and in particular in the North of Italy while in the Centre and in the South there was a higher incidence (P=0.09). Almost the same applies for asthma MESHD asthma HP, 83% of responders declared that up to a maximum of 20% of affected children TRANS were asthmatic, from 20% to 40% for the 13,5% of responders and from 40% to 60% for the last 3,5%. As for the allergic conjunctivitis MESHD allergic conjunctivitis HP also for asthma MESHD asthma HP, we found a higher incidence in the Centre and in South than in the North (P=0.03).Conclusions This study is the first to provide a comprehensive review of COVID-19 knowledge and perceptions among paediatricians in Italy. From our point of view, it provides important information clearly useful for improving a good practice.

    In Vitro Virucidal Effect of Intranasally Delivered Chlorpheniramine Maleate Compound Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

    Authors: Gustavo Ferrer; Jonna Westover

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-25854/v1 Date: 2020-04-28 Source: ResearchSquare

     Background. The initial global outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-2019) pandemic, responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first reported in Wuhan, China, at the end of December 2019. COVID-19 shares similarities with the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and it behaves similarly to influenza with a high intranasal viral load. The genome sequence of COVID-19 opened the opportunity for multiple in vitro and clinical trials, but we still do not have a clear path to treatment. Chlorpheniramine is a safe and effective antihistamine with potent antiviral activity against various strains of influenza A/B, thus suggesting that CPM has broad antiviral activity. We tested the virucidal potential of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) in a nasal spray composition currently in development as an anti- allergy HP medication.Methods. The virucidal activity of chlorpheniramine maleate was tested using viral stock of SARS-CoV-2, USA-WA1/2020 strain in Vero 76 infected cells. The end-point titer (CCID50) values were calculated with the Reed-Muench (1948) equation. Three independent replicates of each sample were tested, and the average and standard deviation were calculated. Results were compared with untreated controls by one-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s multiple comparison test in GraphPad Prism (version 8) software. Results. After 25-minutes of contact time, the nasal spray reduced the levels of the virus from 4.2 to 1.7 log10 CCID50 per 0.1 mL, a statistically significant reduction of 2.5 log10 CCID50.Conclusions. This study demonstrates the strong virucidal effect against SARS-CoV-2 of a nasal spray containing chlorpheniramine maleate. Given that CPM has broad antiviral effects against influenza, virucidal effect against SARS-CoV-2, and coadjuvant effects with hydroxychloroquine in treating multidrug-resistant malaria MESHD with minimal side effects. We propose two further studies: a randomized placebo-controlled study of intranasally delivered chlorpheniramine in patients with mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2, and a second study aiming to determine the potential antiviral and adjuvant effects of CPM plus hydroxychloroquine, versus chloroquine alone, in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2.   

    Azithromycin added to Hydroxychloroquine for Patients Admitted to Intensive Care due to Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) – Protocol of Randomized Controlled Trial AZIQUINE-ICU

    Authors: František Duška; Petr Waldauf; Milada Halačová; Václav Zvoníček; Jakub Bala; Jan Beneš; Martin Balík; Olga Klementová; Irena Kozáková; Viktor Kubricht; Anne Le Roy; Veronika Řehořová; Tomáš Vymazal; Vladimír Černý

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-22892/v2 Date: 2020-04-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    •      Background: Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is known to be susceptible in vitro to exposure to hydroxychloroquine and its effect have been found to be potentiated by azithromycin. We hypothesize, that early administration of hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin can prevent respiratory deterioration in patients admitted to intensive care due to rapidly progressive COVID-19 infection MESHD. •      Methods: Design: Prospective, multi-centre, double blind, randomised, controlled trial (RCT). Participants: Adult TRANS (>18 years) within 24 hours of admission to intensive care unit with proven or suspected COVID-19 infection MESHD, whether or not mechanically ventilated. Exclusion criteria include duration symptoms of febrile disease MESHD for ≥1 week, treatment limitations in place or moribund patients, allergy HP or intolerance of any study treatment, pregnancy. Interventions: Patients will be randomized in 1:1:1 ratio to receive Hydroxychloroquine 800mg orally in two doses followed by 400mg daily in two doses and Azithromycin 500 mg orally in one dose followed by 250 mg in one dose for a total of 5 days (HC-A group) or Hydroxychloroquine+ placebo (HC group) or placebo + placebo (C-group) in addition to best standard of care, which may evolve during the trial period but will not differ between groups. Primary outcome is the composite percentage of patients alive and not on end-of-life pathway who are free of mechanical ventilation at day 14. Secondary outcomes: The percentage of patients who were prevented from needing intubation until day 14; ICU length of stay; mortality (in hospital) at day 28 and 90.•      Discussion: Although both investigational drugs are often administered off label to patients with severe COVID-19, at present, there is no data from RCTs on their safety and efficacy. In vitro and observational trial suggest their potential to limit viral replication and the damage to lungs as the most common reason for ICU admission. Therefore, patients most likely to benefit from the treatment are those with severe, but early disease MESHD. This trial is designed and powered to investigate whether the treatment in this cohort of patients leads to improved clinical patients-centered outcomes, such as mechanical ventilation-free survival. Trial registration: Clinical trials.gov: NCT04339816 (Registered on 9th April 2020); Eudra CT number: 2020-001456-18 (Registered on 29th March 2020)

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).

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MeSH Disease
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