Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Pain (45)

Fever (19)

Cough (19)

Infections (18)

Disease (16)


Human Phenotype

Pain (46)

Fever (19)

Cough (19)

Anxiety (8)

Headache (8)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Immunogenicity and Safety of a SARS-CoV-2 Inactivated Vaccine in Healthy Adults TRANS Aged TRANS 18-59 years: Report of the Randomized, Double-blind, and Placebo-controlled Phase 2 Clinical Trial

    Authors: Yan-Jun Zhang; Gang Zeng; Hong-Xing Pan; Chang-Gui Li; Biao Kan; Ya-Ling Hu; Hai-Yan Mao; Qian-Qian Xin; Kai Chu; Wei-Xiao Han; Zhen Chen; Rong Tang; Wei-Dong Yin; Xin Chen; Xue-Jie Gong; Chuan Qin; Yuan-Sheng Hu; Xiao-Yong Liu; Guo-Liang Cui; Cong-Bing Jiang; Heng-Ming Zhang; Jing-Xin Li; Min-Nan Yang; Xiao-Juan Lian; Yan Song; Jin-Xing Lu; Xiang-Xi Wang; Miao Xu; Qiang Gao; Feng-Cai Zhu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20161216 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND The top priority for the control of COVID-19 pandemic currently is the development of a vaccine. A phase 2 trial conducted to further evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac). METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the optimal dose, immunogenicity and safety of the CoronaVac. A total of 600 healthy adults TRANS aged TRANS 18-59 years were randomly assigned to receive 2 injections of the trial vaccine at a dose of 3 g/0.5 mL or 6 g /0.5mL, or placebo on Day 0,14 schedule or Day 0,28 schedule. For safety evaluation, solicited and unsolicited adverse events were collected after each vaccination within 7 days and 28 days, respectively. Blood SERO samples were taken for antibody SERO assay. RESULTS CoronaVac was well tolerated, and no dose-related safety concerns were observed. Most of the adverse reactions fell HP in the solicited category and were mild in severity. Pain MESHD Pain HP at injection site was the most frequently reported symptoms. No Grade 3 adverse reaction or vaccine related SAEs were reported. CoronaVac showed good immunogenicity with the lower 3 g dose eliciting 92.4% seroconversion under Day 0,14 schedule and 97.4% under Day 0,28 schedule. 28 days after two-dose vaccination, the Nab levels of individual schedules range from 23.8 to 65.4 among different dosage and vaccination schedules. CONCLUSIONS Favorable safety and immunogenicity of CoronaVac was demonstrated on both schedules and both dosages, which support the conduction of phase 3 trial with optimum schedule/dosage per different scenarios.

    Associations between personal protective equipment and nursing staff stress during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Manuela Hoedl; Doris Eglseer; Silvia Bauer

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20164129 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The results of several projects on the effects of personal protective equipment (PPE) have been published since the outbreak of COVID-19. It is known that wearing PPE, and specifically face masks, has physcial consequences like headache MESHD headache HP and pain MESHD pain HP, which can increase stress among nursing staff. However, none of these studies placed a focus on PPE and nursing staff, although nurses are the only members of the health care profession who are at the patients bedsides 24/7, and PPE is the only way to protect them from a COVID-19 infection MESHD. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the association between the use of PPE and stress among nursing staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods An online, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which we distributed using snowball sampling techniques. The questionnaire was developed on the basis of (inter-)national recommendations as well as the international literature. We used the perceived level of stress scale to measure the nursing staff members stress levels. Results We included data collected from 2600 nurses in this analysis. Nearly all nursing staff wore face masks. We showed that more than two-thirds of the nurses had moderate to high levels of stress. No statistically significant association between the use of PPE and stress was detected. However, we show a statistically significant association between the duration of mask usage and stress. Discussion and conclusions Nearly all participating nurses wore face masks or FFP masks to protect themselves from COVID-19 infection MESHD. This observation might indicate that Austrian nurses display a high level of compliance with national and international regulations and play a key role in such pandemics. Our results also show that increased mask-wearing time led to increased stress levels. These results suggest that (inter-)national regulations on how and when to use PPE should include a maximum duration of time for wearing each type of mask. Such regulations could help to prevent work-related stress, particularly in the case of future epidemics, and avoid burnout among nursing staff or even nurses leaving their jobs. The consequences of both of these negative outcomes should be considered in light of the predicted expected future shortage of health care workers.

    Paracetamol use in COVID-19: friend TRANS or enemy?

    Authors: Piero Sestili; Carmela Fimognari

    id:202008.0186/v1 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: Preprints.org

    COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented sanitary threat: antiviral and host-directed medications to treat the disease MESHD are still urgently needed.A great effort has been paid to find drugs and treatments for hospitalized, severely ill patients. However, medications used for the domiciliary management of initial symptoms, notwithstanding their importance, have not been and are not presently regarded with the same attention. In analogy with other respiratory viral infections MESHD, COVID-19 patients in the early phase require specific antivirals (still lacking) and non-etiotropic drugs to lower pain MESHD pain HP, fever MESHD fever HP and control inflammation MESHD. Non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol (PAC) are widely used as non-etiotropic agents in these conditions and hence are both theoretically repurposable for COVID-19. However, a warning from some research reports and National Authorities raised NSAIDs safety concerns because of the supposed induction of ACE2 protein levels (the receptor used by SARS-CoV2 to enter host airways cells), the risk of bacterial superinfections MESHD and masking of disease MESHD symptoms. As a consequence, the use of NSAIDs was, and is, strongly discouraged while the alternative adoption of paracetamol is still preferred.On the basis of novel data and hypothesis on the possible role of scarce glutathione (GSH) levels in the exacerbation of COVID-19 and of the GSH depleting activity of PAC, this commentary raises the question of whether PAC may produce an oxidative imbalance which could be detrimental in COVID-19 clinical outcomes.

    The association between COVID-19-imposed lockdowns and online searches for toothache MESHD using Google Trends

    Authors: Ahmad Sofi-Mahmudi; Erfan Shamsoddin; Peyman Ghasemi; Mona Nasser; Bita Mesgarpour

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20157065 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To assess the association between the lockdowns due to COVID-19 and global online searches for toothache MESHD using Google Trends (GT). Methods We investigated GT online searches for the search terms toothache MESHD and tooth pain MESHD pain HP, within the past five years. The time frame for data gathering was considered as the initiation and end dates of national/regional lockdowns in each country. Relative search volumes (RSVs) for online Google Search queries in 2019 was considered as the control. We analysed data after normalising based on the Internet penetration rate. We used one-way ANOVA to identify statistical difference for RSVs between 2020 and 2016-2019 for each country. A linear regression model was used to assess whether there is a correlation between RSVs in 2020 and gross domestic production, COVID-19 deaths MESHD, dentists' density, YLDs of oral conditions, Internet access, lockdown duration, Education Index, and dental expenditure per capita. Results The results of worldwide RSVs for toothache MESHD and tooth pain MESHD pain HP also showed significantly higher values in 2020 compared to the previous four years. Of 23 included countries in our study, 16 showed significantly increased RSVs during the lockdown period compared to the same periods in the past four years. There was a statistically significant relationship between difference of RSVs means in 2020 and in 2016-2019 combined with percent of urban residency (B=-1.82; 95% CI: (-3.38, -0.26); p=0.026) and dental expenditure per capita (B=-0.42; 95% CI: (-0.80, -0.05); p=0.031) (R2=0.66). Conclusion Generally, the interest in toothache MESHD and tooth pain MESHD pain HP has significantly increased in 2020 compared to the last four years. This could implicitly reinforce the importance of dental care, as urgent medical care worldwide. Governments' expenditure on oral healthcare and the rate of urban residency, could be mentioned as important factors to direct general populations' online care-seeking behaviour with regard to dental pain MESHD pain HP.

    Infected hip prosthesis in patient with suspected Covid-19 infection MESHD

    Authors: Dr. Andrea Cosentino; Dr. Gianni Odorizzi; Dr. Wilhelm Berger

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53032/v1 Date: 2020-08-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Infections MESHD following arthroplasty are one of the major risks during this type of surgery.Case presentation: Four and half years after right hip arthroplasty surgery, the patient came back to our attention with pain MESHD pain HP at the same hip. The instrumental examinations showed signs of cup detachment and therefore, after carefully analyzing the case, we decided to perform a sterile aspiration HP of the hip in the operating room under C-arm fluoroscopy. Microbiological examinations showed positivity for E.Coli. The patient underwent to surgery to remove the prosthesis and implant a spacer. A therapy with Cefotaxim 2g 1-1-1 for 6 weeks was then set, after which a total arthroplasty was implanted. During this period, the Covid-19 pandemic occurred and therefore the patient performed two nasal-throat swabs, both negative. However, one week after the final surgery, respiratory conditions worsened and we performed a chest X-ray and CT scan, with suggestive images of ground-glass opacification patterns (GGO). Due to the clinic and the characteristic images of the instrumental examinations, the patient was transferred to the observation ward, waiting for the response of two additional swabs, also negative. The patient was then transferred to the ward for patients with typical symptoms of Covid-19 but with negative swabs for two weeks and subsequently discharged at home.Conclusion: Despite the concomitant Covid-19 pandemic, the guidelines in case of periprosthetic hip infection MESHD infection further confirm TRANS further confirm the correct management of the patient. 

    Sexual Function, Mental Health, and Quality of Life Under Strain of COVID-19 Pandemic in Iranian Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Cross-sectional Study

    Authors: Negin Mirzaei; shahideh Jahanian Sadatmahalleh; Mahnaz Bahri Khomami; Ashraf Moini; Anoshirvan Kazemnejad

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52895/v1 Date: 2020-08-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health of pregnant and lactating women is unclear. This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on psychological health, sexual function, and quality of life (QoL) in Iranian pregnant and lactating women and compare the results with non-pregnant /lactating (as the control group).Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on pregnant and lactating women as case groups, with non-pregnant /lactating women as control. Patients were asked to complete three questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety HP and Depression Scale (HADS), Female TRANS Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). One-way ANOVA was used to reveal the statistical differences between the three groups.Result The mean age TRANS of patients was 20.81 ± 5.92 years old. Evaluation of the three groups with regard to HADS and SF-12 showed that all mean values were lower in pregnant women than in other groups. Also, the differences in scores in the three groups were statistically significant (P˂0.001). The comparison of FSFI scores showed that the mean of all domain and total scores were significantly lower in pregnant women compared with other groups. The differences between the three groups were statistically significant during desire, arousal, orgasm, pain MESHD pain HP, and total score (P˂0.001).Conclusion The COVID-19 epidemic increases the risk of depression, anxiety HP, FSD, and lowers QoL in pregnant and lactating women, with the general population. This suggests the urgent need for psychological intervention in the maternal population during the epidemic.

    The volume of general surgery emergency MESHD cases in a government hospital during the COVID -19 pandemic and two other periods: A comparative study

    Authors: Ibrahim abu shakra; Maxim Bez; Samer Ganam; Rula Francis; Amir Muati; Amitai Bickel; Fahed Merei; Ziv Talmi; Khatib Kamal; Eli Kakiashvili

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-49541/v1 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective We compared characteristics of patients admitted to a northern Israeli hospital with common surgical complaints during three periods: the lockdown due to the COVID-19 outbreak, the Second Lebanon War in 2006, and a regular period.Background During March and April 2020, reductions in non-COVID-19 hospital admissions were observed around the world. Elective surgeries, visits with general practitioners, and diagnoses of medical emergencies MESHD were consequently delayed.Methods Demographic, medical, laboratory, imaging, intraoperative, and pathological data were collected from electronic medical files of patients who received emergency MESHD treatment at the surgery department of a single hospital in northern Israel. We compared characteristics of patients who were admitted with various conditions during three periods.Results Patients’ mean age TRANS and most of the clinical parameters assessed were similar between the periods. However, pain MESHD pain HP was reportedly higher during the COVID-19 than the control period (8.7 vs. 6.4 on a 10-point visual analog scale, P < 0.0001). During the COVID-19 outbreak, the Second Lebanon War, and the regular period, the mean numbers of patients admitted daily were 1.4, 4.4, and 3.0, respectively. The respective mean times from the onset of symptoms TRANS until admission were 3, 1, and 1.5 days, P < 0.001. The respective proportions of surgical interventions for appendiceal disease MESHD were 95%, 96%, and 69%; P = 0.03.Conclusion Compared to a routine period, patients during the COVID-19 outbreak waited longer before turning to hospitalization, and reported more pain MESHD pain HP at arrival. Patients during both emergency MESHD periods were more often treated surgically than non-operatively.

    EPICOVID19: Psychometric assessment and validation of a short diagnostic scale for a rapid Covid-19 screening based on reported symptoms

    Authors: Luca Bastiani; Loredana Fortunato; Stefania Pieroni; Fabrizio Bianchi; Fulvio Adorni; Federica Prinelli; Andrea Giacomelli; Gabriele Pagani; Stefania Maggi; Caterina Trevisan; Marianna Noale; Nithiya Jesuthasan; Aleksandra Sojic; Carla Pettenati; Massimo Andreoni; Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi; Massimo Galli; Sabrina Molinaro

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.22.20159590 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: medRxiv

    Background Confirmed COVID-19 cases have been reported in 213 countries and regions and as of 12 July 2020, over 12 million cases, with 561617 deaths MESHD have been reported worldwide. The number of cases changes quickly and varies depending upon which source you use to track, so in the current epidemiological context, the early recognition is critical for the rapid identification of suspected cases (with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD-like symptoms and signs MESHD) to be immediately subjected to quarantine measures. Although surveys are widely used for identifying COVID-19 cases, outcomes and associated risks, no validated epidemiological tool exists for surveying SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the population so far. Methods Our study is the phase II of the EPICOVID19 national survey, launched in April 2020 including a national convenience sample of 201121 adults TRANS, who voluntarily filled the EPICOVID19 questionnaire. The phase II questionnaire was mailed to all subjects who underwent tests for COVID-19 by nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and who accepted to be involved in the second phase of the study, focused on the results reported for NPS and/or serological IgG/IgM tests. We evaluated the capability of the self-reported symptoms collected through the EPICOVID19 questionnaire to discriminate the COVID-19 among symptomatic subjects, in order to identify possible cases to undergo instrumental measurements and clinical examinations. We defined a method for the identification of a total score and validated it with reference to the serological and molecular clinical diagnosis, using four standard steps: identification of critical factors, confirmation of presence of latent variable, development of optimal scoring algorithm and validation of the scoring algorithm. Findings 2703 subjects [66% response rate] completed the Phase II questionnaire. Of 2703 individuals, 694 (25.7%) were NPS(+) and of these 84 (12.1% of the 694 NPS(+)) were asymptomatic TRANS. In the individuals who performed serological testing SERO, of the 472 who did IgG(+) and 421 who did IgM(+), 22.9% and 11.6% tested positive, respectively. Among IgG(+) 1 of 108 subjects was asymptomatic TRANS (0.9%) while 5/49 subjects among IgM(+) were asymptomatic TRANS (10.2%). Compared with NPS(-), among NPS(+) subjects there was a higher rate for Fever MESHD Fever HP (421 [60.7%] vs 391[19.5% ]; p<0.0001), Loss of Taste and/or Smell (365 [52.6%] vs 239 [11.9% ]; p<0.0001) and Cough MESHD Cough HP (352 [50.7%] vs 580 [28.9% ]; p<0.0001). Also for other symptoms the frequencies were significantly higher in NPS(+) subjects than in NPS(-) ones (p<0.001). Among groups with serological tests SERO, the symptoms with higher percentages in the subjects IgG(+) were Fever MESHD Fever HP (65 [60.2%] vs 43[11.8% ]; p<0.0001) and Pain MESHD Pain HP in muscles, bones, joints (73 [67.6%] vs 71 [19.5% ]; p<0.0001). For the COVID-19 self-reported symptoms items, exploratory (proportion variance explained [89.9%]) and confirmatory factor analysis results (SMSR 0.072; RMSEA 0.052) highlights the presence of one latent variable (factor) underlying the symptoms. We define the one-factor solution as EPICOVID19 diagnostic scale and optimal score for each items was identified: Respiratory problems (1.03), Chest pain MESHD Chest pain HP (1.07), Loss of Taste and/or Smell (0.97) and Tachycardia MESHD Tachycardia HP ( palpitations HP) (1.05) were the most important symptoms. The cut-off score was 2.56 ( Sensitivity SERO 76.56%; Specificity 68.24%) in NPS(+) and 2.59 (Se 80.37; Sp 80.17) in IgG(+) subjects.

    In silico study of SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein-Protein Interactions and Potential Candidates for their Stabilization

    Authors: Martin Lavecchia; Julian Fernandez

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0558.v1 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: preprints.org

    The outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has caused a global health crisis. Unfortunately, only a few treatments have proved to be effective, and their worldwide distribution remains as a challenge. Due to the urgency of the situation, drug repurposing remains as the fastest way to identify possible therapeutic options. Recent studies have shown that the stabilization of non-native Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) of the nucleocapsid protein of MERS coronavirus is a valid strategy to inhibit viral replication, but no study up to date has been done in SARS-CoV-2. In this work, a novel protocol for the discovery of PPIs stabilizers is presented and applied to SARS-CoV-2 N protein with a drug repurposing approach. This enabled us to identify that catechin, a structural motif present in widely distributed natural products, might be a privileged scaffold for this type of stabilization. Since many of the compounds presented in this work are generally considered nutraceuticals and have also been exhaustively studied, even though some of them contain PAINS MESHD PAINS HP substructures, could be good candidates for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid inhibition and be considered for further in vitro testing against COVID-19.

    Comparison of Acute Appendicitis MESHD Before and Within COVID 19 Era: A Retrospective Study from Rural Nepal

    Authors: Suman Baral; Rajkumar Chhetri; Neeraj Thapa

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-47510/v1 Date: 2020-07-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Currently, the world has been engulfed with the pandemicity of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and various mitigating measures like lock down and social distancing are being taken which have created significant impact in the emergency MESHD surgical health delivery including acute appendicitis MESHD (AA). The main aim of this study was to compare the demographic and clinical parameters between two cohorts before the onset of lockdown and within the pandemic.Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was performed between two groups of patients presenting with AA in one of the tertiary care centers of rural Nepal. The cohorts were named group A and group B who presented three months prior to and after initiation of lockdown on March 24 2020 respectively. These two groups of patients were compared in demographics, clinicopathological characteristics and surgical aspects of acute appendicitis MESHD. Results There were 42 patients in group A and 50 patients in group B. Mean age TRANS of the patients was 31.32±171.18 years with male TRANS preponderance in group B (N= 29). Mean duration of pain MESHD pain HP increased significantly in group B [55.4±25.9(B) vs 43.52±30.3(A) hours, P= 0.04] along with mean duration of surgery. [51.06±9.4(B) vs 45.27±11.8(A) minutes, P= 0.015] There was significant decrease in post-operative hospital stay among group B patients. [3.05±1.19(B) vs 4.05±0.8(A) days, P= 0.0001] Complicated cases increased in group B (38% vs 33.3 % including appendicular perforation in 10 cases with perforation rate of 20 %. Six of these 10 cohorts had fecalith present intraoperatively. (P= 0.0001) Similarly, mean duration of presentation to hospital significantly increased in group B patients with perforation. [64.8±22.7(B) vs 52.05±14.7(A) hours]    Conclusion During the adversity of COVID 19, increased number of cases of AA can be dealt with surgery as the chances of late presentation and complexity of the lesion exists.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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