Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Cough (529)

Fever (432)

Infections (257)

Disease (255)

Coronavirus Infections (175)


Human Phenotype

Cough (529)

Fever (432)

Fatigue (150)

Pneumonia (132)

Dyspnea (84)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 201 - 210 records in total 529
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    COVID-19 in Great Britain: epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the first few hundred (FF100) cases: a descriptive case series and case control analysis

    Authors: Nicola L Boddington; Andre Charlett; Suzanne Elgohari; Jemma L Walker; Helen Mcdonald; Chloe Byers; Laura Coughlan; Tatiana Garcia Vilaplana; Rosie Whillock; Mary Sinnathamby; Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos; Louise Letley; Pauline MacDonald; Roberto Vivancos; Obaghe Edeghere; Joseph Shingleton; Emma Bennett; Daniel J Grint; Helen Strongman; Kathryn E Mansfield; Christopher Rentsch; Caroline Minassian; Ian J Douglas; Rohini Mathur; Maria Peppa; Simon Cottrell; Jim McMenamin; Maria Zambon; Mary Ramsay; Gavin Dabrera; Vanessa Saliba; Jamie Lopez Bernal

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20086157 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: Following detection of the first virologically- confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 in Great Britain, an enhanced surveillance study was initiated by Public Health England to describe the clinical presentation, course of disease MESHD and identify risk factors for infection MESHD of the first few hundred cases. Methods: Information was collected on the first COVID-19 cases according to the First Few X WHO protocol. Case-control analyses of the sensitivity SERO, specificity and predictive value of symptoms and risk factors for infection MESHD were conducted. Point prevalences SERO of underlying health conditions among the UK general population were presented. Findings: The majority of FF100 cases were imported (51.4%), of which the majority had recent travel TRANS to Italy (71.4%). 24.7% were secondary cases TRANS acquired mainly through household contact TRANS (40.4%). Children TRANS had lower odds of COVID-19 infection MESHD compared with the general population. The clinical presentation of cases was dominated by cough MESHD cough HP, fever MESHD fever HP and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP. Non-linear relationships with age TRANS were observed for fever MESHD fever HP, and sensitivity SERO and specificity of symptoms varied by age TRANS. Conditions associated with higher odds of COVID-19 infection MESHD (after adjusting for age TRANS and sex) were chronic heart disease MESHD, immunosuppression and multimorbidity. Conclusion: This study presents the first epidemiological and clinical summary of COVID-19 cases in Great Britain. The FFX study design enabled systematic data collection. The study was able to characterize the risk factors for infection MESHD with population prevalence SERO estimates setting these relative risks into a public health context. It also provides important evidence for generating case definitions to support public health risk assessment, clinical triage and diagnostic algorithms.

    Coswara -- A Database of Breathing, Cough MESHD Cough HP, and Voice Sounds for COVID-19 Diagnosis

    Authors: Neeraj Sharma; Prashant Krishnan; Rohit Kumar; Shreyas Ramoji; Srikanth Raj Chetupalli; Nirmala R.; Prasanta Kumar Ghosh; Sriram Ganapathy

    id:2005.10548v1 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: arXiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic presents global challenges transcending boundaries of country, race, religion, and economy. The current gold standard method for COVID-19 detection is the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. However, this method is expensive, time-consuming, and violates social distancing. Also, as the pandemic is expected to stay for a while, there is a need for an alternate diagnosis tool which overcomes these limitations, and is deployable at a large scale. The prominent symptoms of COVID-19 include cough MESHD cough HP and breathing difficulties. We foresee that respiratory sounds MESHD, when analyzed using machine learning techniques, can provide useful insights, enabling the design of a diagnostic tool. Towards this, the paper presents an early effort in creating (and analyzing) a database, called Coswara, of respiratory sounds MESHD, namely, cough MESHD cough HP, breath, and voice. The sound samples are collected via worldwide crowdsourcing using a website application. The curated dataset is released as open access. As the pandemic is evolving, the data collection and analysis is a work in progress. We believe that insights from analysis of Coswara can be effective in enabling sound based technology solutions for point-of-care diagnosis of respiratory infection MESHD, and in the near future this can help to diagnose COVID-19.

    Aerosol Particles Laden with Viruses That Cause COVID-19 Travel TRANS Over 30m Distance

    Authors: Boris Gorbunov

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0546.v2 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: preprints.org

    Effects of the convection flow, atmospheric diffusivity and humidity on evolution and travel TRANS distances of exhaled aerosol clouds by an infected person are considered. The aim of this work is to evaluate the importance of aerosol transmission TRANS routes and the effectiveness of the 2-metre separation distance policy. A potential impact of use of face masks on the infection MESHD transmission TRANS rate, and an opportunity to reduce infection MESHD in hospitals, care homes and other public spaces by appropriate monitoring and filtering of air are also considered. The results obtained demonstrate that aerosol particles generated by coughing MESHD coughing HP and sneezing MESHD sneezing HP can travel TRANS over 30 m. Modelling of the evolution of aerosol clouds generated by coughing MESHD coughing HP and sneezing MESHD sneezing HP enables us to evaluate the deposition dose of aerosol particles in healthy individuals. For example, a person in a public place (e.g. supermarket or car park) can accumulate in the respiratory system up to 200 virus copies in 2 min time by breathing in virus laden aerosols. Wearing face mask considerably reduces the deposited load down to 2 virus copies per 2 min. The modelling also suggests that it should be possible to measure virus causing COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) within aerosol particles in hospitals and public places, e.g. care homes and supermarkets.

    Symptom extraction from the narratives of personal experiences with COVID-19 on Reddit

    Authors: Curtis Murray; Lewis Mitchell; Jonathan Tuke; Mark Mackay

    id:2005.10454v1 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: arXiv

    Social media discussion of COVID-19 provides a rich source of information into how the virus affects people's lives that is qualitatively different from traditional public health datasets. In particular, when individuals self-report their experiences over the course of the virus on social media, it can allow for identification of the emotions each stage of symptoms engenders in the patient. Posts to the Reddit forum r/COVID19Positive contain first-hand accounts from COVID-19 positive patients, giving insight into personal struggles with the virus. These posts often feature a temporal structure indicating the number of days after developing symptoms the text refers to. Using topic modelling and sentiment analysis, we quantify the change in discussion of COVID-19 throughout individuals' experiences for the first 14 days since symptom onset TRANS. Discourse on early symptoms such as fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, and sore throat was concentrated towards the beginning of the posts, while language indicating breathing issues peaked around ten days. Some conversation around critical cases was also identified and appeared at a roughly constant rate. We identified two clear clusters of positive and negative emotions associated with the evolution of these symptoms and mapped their relationships. Our results provide a perspective on the patient experience of COVID-19 that complements other medical data streams and can potentially reveal when mental health issues might appear.

    Identification of Risk Factors for in-Hospital Death MESHD of COVID - 19 Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP

    Authors: Zhigang Wang; Zhiqiang Wang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30755/v1 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: To examine the clinical characteristics and identify independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP.Methods: A total of 156 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP at the central Hospital of Wuhan from January 29, 2020, to March 20, 2020 were enrolled in this single-centered retrospective study. Their epidemiological parameters, clinical presentations, underlying diseases MESHD, laboratory test results and disease MESHD outcomes were collected and analyzed.Results: The median age TRANS of enrolled patients was 66. Underlying diseases MESHD were identified in 101 patients, with hypertension MESHD hypertension HP being the most common one, followed by cardiovascular disease MESHD and diabetes. The most common symptoms identified upon admission were fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP. Compared to survival cases, patients who dead during hospitalization had higher plasma SERO levels of D-dimer, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, lactate and lower percentage of lymphocytes (LYM [%]), platelet count and albumin levels. Most enrolled patients received anti-biotics and anti-viral treatment. In addition, 60 patients received corticosteroid and 51 received intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. 44 patients received noninvasive ventilation, 19 received invasive ventilation. Respiratory failure HP was the most frequently observed complication (106 [67.9%]), followed by sepsis MESHD sepsis HP (103 [66.0%]), acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS) (67 [42.9%]) and septic shock MESHD shock HP (50 [32.1%]). Multivariable regression suggested that advanced age TRANS (OR [odds ratio]= 1.059, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.011-1.110, P= 0.016) and elevated lactate level upon admission (OR= 2.411, 95% CI: 1.177-4.941, P= 0.016) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 infection MESHD. Meanwhile, increased LYM (%) at admission (OR= 0.798, 95% CI: 0.728-0.876, P< 0.001) indicated a better prognosis. Conclusions: In this study, we discovered that age TRANS, LYM (%) and lactate level upon admission were independent factors that could influence in-hospital mortality rate. 

    The characteristics of overseas imported COVID-19 cases and the effectiveness of screening strategy in Beijing, China

    Authors: Li Li; Cheng-Jie Ma; Yu-Fei Chang; Si-Yuan Yang; Yun-Xia Tang; Rong-Meng Jiang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30515/v1 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background While great success in the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) control has been achieved in China, imported cases have become a major challenge. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of imported COVID-19 cases and to assess the effectiveness of screening strategy in Beijing, China.Methods This retrospective study included all imported COVID-19 cases from Beijing Ditan Hospital from 29 February to 20 March 2020, who were screened by both chest computed tomography (CT) and reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at initial presentation. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, in addition to chest CT imaging were were collected and analyzed.Results A total of 71 imported cases were finally diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. The cases were mainly acquired from Europe (63 cases, 88.73%). The main clinical manifestations were fever MESHD fever HP and cough MESHD cough HP, which accounted for 30 cases (42.25%) and 35 cases (49.30%), respectively. Only 4 cases (5.63%) had lymphocytopenia and 13 (18.31%) cases demonstrated elevated levels of C-reactive protein HP (CRP). All cases had normal serum SERO levels of procalcitonin (PCT). 35 cases (49.30%) had abnormal CT findings at initial presentation, whereas 36 cases (50.70%) had a normal CT. Using RT-PCR, 59 cases (83.10%) were tested positive at initial presentation.Conclusions The number of overseas imported COVID-19 cases continues to rise in China. The combination of screening tools, particularly CT and RT-PCR, can detect imported COVID-19 cases efficiently.

    Current tobacco smoking and risk from COVID-19: results from a population symptom app in over 2.4 million people

    Authors: Nicholas S Hopkinson; Niccolo Rossi; Julia El-Sayed Moustafa; Anthony A Laverty; Jennifer K Quint; Maxim B Freydin; Alessia Visconti; Benjamin Murray; Marc Modat; Sebastien Ourselin; Kerrin Small; Richard Davies; Jonathan Wolf; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves; Mario Falchi

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105288 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The association between current tobacco smoking, the risk of developing COVID-19 and the severity of illness is an important information gap. Methods: UK users of the COVID Symptom Study app provided baseline data including demographics, anthropometrics, smoking status and medical conditions, were asked to log symptoms daily from 24th March 2020 to 23rd April 2020. Participants reporting that they did not feel physically normal were taken through a series of questions, including 14 potential COVID-19 symptoms and any hospital attendance. The main study outcome was the association between current smoking and the development of classic symptoms of COVID-19 during the pandemic defined as fever MESHD fever HP, new persistent cough MESHD cough HP and breathlessness. The number of concurrent COVID-19 symptoms was used as a proxy for severity. In addition, association of subcutaneous adipose tissue expression of ACE2, both the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and a potential mediator of disease MESHD severity, with smoking status was assessed in a subset of 541 twins from the TwinsUK cohort. Results: Data were available on 2,401,982 participants, mean(SD) age TRANS 43.6(15.1) years, 63.3% female TRANS, overall smoking prevalence SERO 11.0%. 834,437 (35%) participants reported being unwell and entered one or more symptoms. Current smokers were more likely to develop symptoms suggesting a diagnosis of COVID-19; classic symptoms adjusted OR[95%CI] 1.14[1.10 to 1.18]; >5 symptoms 1.29[1.26 to 1.31]; >10 symptoms 1.50[1.42 to 1.58]. Smoking was associated with reduced ACE2 expression in adipose tissue (Beta(SE)= -0.395(0.149); p=7.01x10-3). Interpretation: These data are consistent with smokers having an increased risk from COVID-19.

    Who should we test for COVID-19?A triage model built from national symptom surveys

    Authors: Saar Shoer; Tal Karady; Ayya Keshet; Smadar Shilo; Hagai Rossman; Amir Gavrieli; Tomer Meir; Amit Lavon; Dmitry Kolobkov; Iris Kalka; Anastasia Godneva; Ori Cohen; Adam Kariv; Ori Hoch; Mushon Zer-Aviv; Noam Castel; Carole Sudre; Anat Ekka Zohar; Angela Irony; Timothy Spector; Benjamin Geiger; Dorit Hizi; Varda Shalev; Ran Balicer; Eran Segal

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105569 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    The gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis is detection of viral RNA in a reverse transcription PCR test. Due to global limitations in testing capacity, effective prioritization of individuals for testing is essential. Here, we devised a model that estimates the probability of an individual to test positive for COVID-19 based on answers to 9 simple questions regarding age TRANS, gender TRANS, presence of prior medical conditions, general feeling, and the symptoms fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, shortness of breath, sore throat and loss of taste or smell, all of which have been associated with COVID-19 infection MESHD. Our model was devised from a subsample of a national symptom survey that was answered over 2 million times in Israel over the past 2 months and a targeted survey distributed to all residents of several cities in Israel. Overall, 43,752 adults TRANS were included, from which 498 self-reported as being COVID-19 positive. We successfully validated the model on held-out individuals from Israel where it achieved a positive predictive value SERO (PPV) of 46.3% at a 10% sensitivity SERO and demonstrated its applicability outside of Israel by further validating it on an independently collected symptom survey dataset from the U.K., U.S. and Sweden, where it achieved a PPV of 34.7% at 10% sensitivity SERO. Moreover, evaluating the model's performance SERO on this latter independent dataset on entries collected one week prior to the PCR test and up to the day of the test we found the highest performance SERO on the day of the test. As our tool can be used online and without the need of exposure to suspected patients, it may have worldwide utility in combating COVID-19 by better directing the limited testing resources through prioritization of individuals for testing, thereby increasing the rate at which positive individuals can be identified and isolated.

    COVID-19; Systematic and literature review of transmission TRANS, case definitions, clinical management and clinical trials.

    Authors: Laura McArthur; DhanaSekaran Sakthivel; Ricardo Ataide; Felicia Chan; Jack S Richards; Charles A Narh

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20102475 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2, the viral agent responsible for coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, China at the end of December 2019. It rapidly spread to the rest of the world, and was declared a Public Health Emergency MESHD of International Concern on the 30th of January 2020. Our understanding of the virus, it is clinical manifestations and treatment options continues to evolve at an unparalleled pace. Objective: This review sought to summarise the key literature regarding transmission TRANS, case definitions, clinical management and trials, and performed a systematic review of reported clinical data on COVID-19. Synthesis methods: Two reviewers selected all the literature independently, and extracted information according to pre-defined topics. Results: COVID-19 is pandemic with ~4 million cases and 270,000 deaths MESHD in 210 countries as of 8 May 2020. Our review of reports showed that SARS-CoV-2 was mainly transmitted via inhalation of respiratory droplets containing the virus and had an incubation period TRANS of four to six days. The commonly reported symptoms were fever MESHD fever HP (80%) and cough MESHD cough HP (60%) across the spectrum of clinical disease MESHD - mild, moderate, severe and critical. Categorization of these cases for home care or hospital management need to be well defined considering the age TRANS of the patient and the presence of underlying co-morbidities. The case definitions we reviewed varied among affected countries, which could have contributed to the differences observed in the mean case fatality rates among continents: Oceania (1%), Asia (3%), Africa (4%), South America (5%), North America (6%) and Europe (10%). Asymptomatic TRANS cases, which constituted an estimated 80% of COVID-19 cases are a huge threat to control efforts. Conclusion: The presence of fever MESHD fever HP and cough MESHD cough HP may be sufficient to warrant a COVID-19 testing but using these symptoms in isolation will miss a proportion of cases. A clear definition of a COVID-19 case is important for managing, treating and tracking clinical illness. While several treatments are in development or in clinical trials for COVID-19, home care of mild/moderate cases and hospital care for severe and critical cases remain the recommended management for the disease MESHD. Quarantine measures and social distancing can help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2.

    Assessment of dispersion of airborne particles of oral/nasal fluid by high flow nasal cannula therapy

    Authors: Mark C Jermy; Callum JT Spence; Robert Kirton; Jane F O'Donnell; Natalia Kabaliuk; Sally Gaw; Yannan Jiang; Zulkhairi Zainol Abidin; Ronald L Dougherty; Philip Rowe; Anjula Mahaliyana; Amelia Gibbs; Sally Roberts

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20102517 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background Nasal High Flow (NHF) therapy delivers flows of heated humidified gases up to 60 LPM (litres per minute) via a nasal cannula. Particles of oral/nasal fluid released by patients undergoing NHF therapy may pose a cross-infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS, which is a potential concern for treating COVID-19 patients. Methods Liquid particles within the exhaled breath of healthy participants were measured with two protocols: (1) high speed camera imaging and counting exhaled particles under high magnification (6 participants) and (2) measuring the deposition of a chemical marker (riboflavin-5-monophosphate) at a distance of 100 and 500 mm on filter papers through which air was drawn (10 participants). The filter papers were assayed with HPLC. Breathing conditions tested included quiet (resting) breathing and vigorous breathing (which here means nasal snorting, voluntary coughing MESHD coughing HP and voluntary sneezing MESHD sneezing HP). Unsupported (natural) breathing and NHF at 30 and 60 LPM were compared. Results (1) Imaging: During quiet breathing, no particles were recorded with unsupported breathing or 30 LPM NHF (detection limit for single particles 33 microns). Particles were detected in 2 of 6 participants at 60 LPM quiet breathing at approximately 10% of the rate caused by unsupported vigorous breathing. Unsupported vigorous breathing released the greatest numbers of particles. Vigorous breathing with NHF at 60 LPM, released half the number of particles compared to vigorous breathing without NHF. (2) Chemical marker tests: No oral/nasal fluid was detected in quiet breathing without NHF (detection limit 0.28 microlitres/m3). In quiet breathing with NHF at 60 LPM, small quantities were detected in 4 out of 29 quiet breathing tests, not exceeding 17 microlitres/m3. Vigorous breathing released 200-1000 times more fluid than the quiet breathing with NHF. The quantities detected in vigorous breathing were similar whether using NHF or not. Conclusion During quiet breathing, 60 LPM NHF therapy may cause oral/nasal fluid to be released as particles, at levels of tens of microlitres per cubic metre of air. Vigorous breathing (snort, cough MESHD cough HP or sneeze MESHD sneeze HP) releases 200 to 1000 times more oral/nasal fluid than quiet breathing. During vigorous breathing, 60 LPM NHF therapy caused no statistically significant difference in the quantity of oral/nasal fluid released compares to unsupported breathing. NHF use does not increase the risk of dispersing infectious aerosols above the risk of unsupported vigorous breathing. Standard infection MESHD prevention and control measures should apply when dealing with a patient who has an acute respiratory infection MESHD, independent of which, if any, respiratory support is being used.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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