Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Descriptive epidemiology of 16,780 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the United States

    Authors: Shemra Rizzo; Devika Chawla; Kelly Zalocusky; Daniel Keebler; Jenny Chia; Lisa Lindsay; Vincent Yau; Tripthi Kamath; Larry Tsai

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.17.20156265 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Despite the significant morbidity and mortality caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19), our understanding of basic disease MESHD epidemiology remains limited. This study aimed to describe key patient characteristics, comorbidities, treatments, and outcomes of a large U.S.-based cohort of patients hospitalized with COVD-19 using electronic health records (EHR). METHODS: We identified patients in the Optum De-identified COVID-19 EHR database who had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 or a presumptive diagnosis between 20 February 2020 and 6 June 2020. We included hospitalizations that occurred 7 days prior to, or within 21 days after, COVID-19 diagnosis. Among hospitalized patients we describe the following: vital statistics and laboratory results on admission, relevant comorbidities (using diagnostic, procedural, and revenue codes), medications (NDC, HCPC codes), ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, length of stay (LOS), and mortality. RESULTS: We identified 76,819 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 16,780 of whom met inclusion criteria for COVID-related hospitalization. Over half the cohort was over age TRANS 50 (74.5%), overweight MESHD overweight HP or obese (77.2%), or had hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (58.1%). At admission, 30.3% of patients presented with fever MESHD fever HP (>38C) and 32.3% had low oxygen saturation (<90%). Among the 16,099 patients with complete hospital records, we observed that 58.9% had hypoxia MESHD, 23.4% had an ICU stay during hospitalization, 18.1% were ventilated, and 16.2% died. The median LOS was 6 days (IQR: 4, 11). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest descriptive study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the United States. We report summary statistics of key clinical outcomes that provide insights to better understand COVID-19 disease MESHD epidemiology.

    Overweight MESHD Overweight HP/ obesity MESHD obesity HP as the potentially most important lifestyle factor associated with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19

    Authors: Vanessa Sacco; Barbara Rauch; Christina Gar; Stefanie Haschka; Anne L Potzel; Stefanie Kern-Matschilles; Friederike Banning; Irina Benz; Mandy Meisel; Jochen Seissler; Andreas Lechner

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20161042 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Objective The occurrence of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP separates severe cases of COVID-19 from the majority of cases with mild disease MESHD. However, the factors determining whether or not pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP develops remain to be fully uncovered. We therefore explored the associations of several lifestyle factors with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19. Methods Between May and July 2020, we conducted an online survey of 201 adults TRANS in Germany who had recently gone through COVID-19, predominantly as outpatients. Of these, 165 had a PCR-based diagnosis and 36 had a retrospective diagnosis by antibody testing SERO. The survey covered demographic information, eight lifestyle factors, comorbidities and medication use. We defined the main outcome as the presence vs. the absence of signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, represented by dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, the requirement for oxygen therapy or intubation. Results Signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP occurred in 39 of the 165 individuals with a PCR-based diagnosis of COVID-19 (23.6%). Among the lifestyle factors examined, only overweight MESHD overweight HP/ obesity MESHD obesity HP associated with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (odds ratio 2.68 (1.29 - 5.59) p=0.008). The observed association remained significant after multivariate adjustment, with BMI as a metric variable, and also after including the antibody SERO-positive individuals into the analysis. Conclusions This exploratory study finds an association of overweight MESHD overweight HP/ obesity MESHD obesity HP with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19. This finding suggests that a signal proportional to body fat mass, such as the hormone leptin, impairs the body's ability to clear SARS-CoV-2 before pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP develops. This hypothesis concurs with previous work and should be investigated further to possibly reduce the proportion of severe cases of COVID-19.

    Angiotensin-(3-4) modulates angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) downregulation in proximal tubule cells due to overweight MESHD overweight HP and undernutrition: implications regarding the severity of renal lesions in Covid-19 infection MESHD

    Authors: Rafael Luzes; Humberto Muzi-Filho; Amaury Pereira-Acacio; Thuany Crisostomo; Adalberto Vieyra

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.29.178293 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: bioRxiv

    The renal lesions – including severe acute kidney injury MESHD acute kidney injury HP – are severe outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD. There are no reports regarding the influence of the nutritional status on the severity and progress of these lesions. Ageing is also an important risk factor. In the present communication we compare the influence of overweight MESHD overweight HP and undernutrition in the levels of renal angiotensin converting enzymes 1 and 2. Since the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated in the progress of kidney failure during Covid-19, we also investigated the influence of Angiotensin-(3–4) (Ang-(3–4)) the shortest angiotensin-derived peptide, which is considered the physiological antagonist of several angiotensin II effects. We found that both overweight MESHD overweight HP and undernutrition downregulate the levels of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) without influence on the levels of ACE1 in kidney rats. Administration of Ang-(3–4) recovers the control levels of ACE2 in overweight MESHD overweight HP but not in undernourished rats. We conclude that chronic and opposite nutritional conditions play a central role in the pathophysiology of renal Covid-19 lesions, and that the role of RAAS is also different in overweight MESHD overweight HP and undernutrition.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.View Full Text

    SARS-CoV-2 and Obesity MESHD Obesity HP: “CoVesity” - A Pandemic Within A Pandemic

    Authors: Kimberley Zakka; Swathikan Chidambaram; Sami Mansour; Kamal Mahawar; Paulina Salminen; Ramos Almino; Philip Schauer; James Kinross; Sanjay Purkayastha

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39118/v1 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Individuals who are overweight MESHD overweight HP or obese are in a chronic state of low-grade inflammation MESHD, making them particularly susceptible to developing severe forms of respiratory failure HP. Studies conducted in past pandemics link obesity MESHD obesity HP with worse health outcomes. This population is thus of particular concern within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, considering the cessation of obesity MESHD obesity HP management services. This systematic review highlights (1) the reciprocal link between the obesity MESHD obesity HP and COVID-19 pandemics (2) obesity MESHD obesity HP as a risk factor for more severe disease MESHD in past pandemics, (3) potential mechanisms that make obese individuals more susceptible to severe disease MESHD and higher viral load, (4) the need to safely resume bariatric services as recommended by expert guidelines, in order to mitigate the health outcomes of an already vulnerable population.

    Obesity MESHD Obesity HP during the COVID-19 pandemic: cause of high risk or an effect of lockdown? A population-based electronic health record analysis in 1 958 184 individuals.

    Authors: Michail Katsoulis; Laura Pasea; Alvina Lai; Richard JB Dobson; Spiros Denaxas; Harry Hemingway; Amitava Banerjee

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.22.20137182 Date: 2020-06-23 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Obesity MESHD Obesity HP is a modifiable risk factor for coronavirus(COVID-19)-related mortality. We estimated excess mortality in obesity MESHD obesity HP, both 'direct', through infection MESHD, and 'indirect', through changes in healthcare, and also due to potential increasing obesity MESHD obesity HP during lockdown. Methods: In population-based electronic health records for 1 958 638 individuals in England, we estimated 1-year mortality risk('direct' and 'indirect' effects) for obese individuals, incorporating: (i)pre-COVID-19 risk by age TRANS, sex and comorbidities, (ii)population infection MESHD rate, and (iii)relative impact on mortality(relative risk, RR: 1.2, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0). Using causal inference models, we estimated impact of change in body-mass index(BMI) and physical activity during 3-month lockdown on 1-year incidence for high-risk conditions( cardiovascular diseases MESHD, CVD; diabetes; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP, COPD and chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, CKD), accounting for confounders. Findings: For severely obese individuals (3.5% at baseline), at 10% population infection MESHD rate, we estimated direct impact of 240 and 479 excess deaths MESHD in England at RR 1.5 and 2.0 respectively, and indirect effect of 383 to 767 excess deaths MESHD, assuming 40% and 80% will be affected at RR=1.2. Due to BMI change during the lockdown, we estimated that 97 755 (5.4%: normal weight to overweight MESHD overweight HP, 5.0%: overweight MESHD overweight HP to obese and 1.3%: obese to severely obese) to 434 104 individuals (15%: normal weight to overweight MESHD overweight HP, 15%: overweight MESHD overweight HP to obese and 6%: obese to severely obese) individuals would be at higher risk for COVID-19 over one year. Interpretation: Prevention of obesity MESHD obesity HP and physical activity are at least as important as physical isolation of severely obese individuals during the pandemic.

    Does COVID-19 Change Dietary Habits and Lifestyle Behaviours in Kuwait?

    Authors: Wafaa Husain; Fatemah Ashkanani

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0154.v1 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: preprints.org

    Aim: This study was designed to understand the changes in dietary and lifestyle behaviours that are major determinants of health during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online questionnaire using a convenience sample of 415 adults TRANS living in Kuwait ( age TRANS range 18-73 years). Results: The overall prevalence SERO of being overweight MESHD overweight HP and obesity MESHD obesity HP among participants was 37.2% and 33.1% respectively. The study identified significant changes in the dietary habits and lifestyle behaviours of participants during COVID-19. In general, there was an increase in the percentage of participants that consumed four or more meals a day, skipped breakfast, and engaged in frequent late night snacking. Moreover, there was a drastic decrease in the frequency of fast food consumption and an increase in the percentage of participants who had their main meal freshly made. Furthermore, there was a great reduction in physical activity and an increase in the amount of screen time and sedentary behaviours. A notable increase was detected in day-time sleep and a decrease in night-time sleep among participants. Conclusion: This study indicates that due to the increased prevalence SERO of habits conducive to increased rates of being overweight MESHD overweight HP and obesity MESHD obesity HP during the COVID-19 outbreak, there is a high likelihood that the pandemic will further exacerbate the already widespread problem of obesity MESHD obesity HP and being overweight MESHD overweight HP in Kuwait.

    Self-reported changes in energy balance behaviors during COVID-19 related home confinement: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Authors: Surabhi Bhutani; Jamie A Cooper; Michelle R Vandellen

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.10.20127753 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused people to shelter-at-home for an extended period, resulting in a sudden rise in unstructured time. This unexpected disruption in everyday life has raised concerns about weight management, especially in high-risk populations of women and individuals with overweight MESHD overweight HP and obesity MESHD obesity HP. This study aimed to investigate the changes in behaviors that may impact energy intake and/or energy expenditure in U.S. adults TRANS during the home confinement. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 1,779 adults TRANS were collected using an online Qualtrics survey between April 24th and May 4th, 2020. Self-reported data on demographics, eating behaviors, physical activity, sleep, screen time, takeout food intake, and food purchasing behaviors were collected. Chi-Square analyses were conducted to evaluate differences in the percent of participants reporting increasing, decreasing, or staying the same in each health behavior since the COVID-19 outbreak in their area. Each analysis was followed by comparing whether increases or decreases were more likely for each health behavior. Similar comparisons were made between male TRANS and female TRANS participants and between body mass index (BMI) categories. Results: We observed an increase in the intake of both healthy and energy-dense unhealthy foods and snacks during the home confinement. Participants also reported increases in sedentary activities and decrease in physical activity, alcohol intake, and consumption of takeout meals during this time. In women, several behavioral changes support greater energy intake and less energy expenditure than men. No clear difference in patterns was observed across BMI status. Conclusion: Acute changes in behaviors underscore the significance of a sudden increase in unstructured time at home on potential weight gain MESHD. Our findings support the need to implement and support measures that promote strategies to maintain body weight MESHD and establish a methodology to collect body weight MESHD data at multiple time points to longitudinally assess the dynamic relationship between behaviors and body weight change MESHD.

    COVID-19: Impact of Obesity MESHD Obesity HP and Diabetes in Disease MESHD Severity

    Authors: Salman K. Al-Sabah; Mohannad Al-Haddad; Sarah Al Youha; Mohammad H. Jamal; Sulaiman AlMazeedi

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.24.20111724 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID19) pandemic is straining the healthcare system, particularly for patients with severe outcomes who require admittance to the intensive care unit (ICU). This study aimed to investigate the potential associations of obesity MESHD obesity HP and diabetes with COVID19 severe outcomes, assessed as ICU admittance. Subjects: Demographic and patient characteristics from a retrospective cohort of 1158 patients hospitalized with COVID19 in a single center in Kuwait, along with their medical history, were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to explore the associations between different variables and ICU admittance. Results: From the 1158 hospitalized patients, 271 (23.4%) had diabetes, 236 (20.4%) had hypertension MESHD hypertension HP and 104 (9%) required admittance into the ICU. From patients with available measurements, 157 (21.6%) had body mass index (BMI)[≥]25 kg/m2. Univariate analysis showed that overweight MESHD overweight HP (BMI=25.0~29.9 kg/m2), obesity MESHD obesity class HP class I (BMI=30~34.9 kg/m2) and morbid obesity MESHD obesity HP (BMI[≥]40 kg/m2) associated with ICU admittance (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence intervals (CI)]: 2.45 [1.26~4.74] p value=0.008; OR [95% CI]: 3.51 [1.60~7.69] p value=0.002; and OR [95% CI]: 5.18 [1.50~17.85] p value=0.009], respectively). Patients with diabetes were more likely to be admitted to ICU (OR [95% CI]: 9.38 [5.49~16.02]). Two models for multivariate regression analysis were used, assessing either BMI or diabetes on ICU outcomes. In the BMI model, class I obesity HP obesity and morbid MESHD obesity MESHD obesity HP were associated with ICU admittance (adjusted OR (AOR) [95% CI]: 2.7 [1.17~6.20] p value=0.019 and AOR [95% CI]: 3.95 [1.00~15.20] p value=0.046, respectively). In the diabetes model, diabetes was associated with higher ICU admittance (AOR [95% CI]: 5.49 [3.13~9.65] p value<0.001) whereas hypertension MESHD hypertension HP had a protective effect on ICU admittance (AOR [95% CI]: 0.51 (0.28-0.91). Conclusions: In our cohort, overweight MESHD overweight HP, obesity MESHD obesity HP and diabetes in patients with COVID19 were associated with ICU admittance, putting these patients at higher risk of poor outcomes.

    Higher Body Mass Index is an Important Risk factor in COVID-19 patients: A Systematic Review

    Authors: Vivek Singh Malik; Ravindra Khaiwal; Savita Verma Attri; Sanjay Kumar Bhadada; Meenu Singh

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.11.20098806 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Globally, both obesity MESHD obesity HP and underweight are severe health risks for various diseases MESHD. The current study systematically examines the emerging evidence to identify an association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and COVID-19 disease MESHD outcome. Methods: Online literature databases (e.g., Google Scholar, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Medrixv and BioRixv) were screened following standard search strategy having the appropriate keyword such as Obesity MESHD Obesity HP, Underweight, BMI, Body Mass Index, 2019-nCov, COVID-19, novel coronavirus, coronavirus disease MESHD. Studies published till 20th April 2020 were included without language restriction. These studies include case reports, case series, cohort, and any other which reported BMI, overweight MESHD overweight HP/ obesity MESHD obesity HP or underweight, and its complication with COVID-19 disease MESHD. Findings: Obesity MESHD Obesity HP plays a significant part in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 patients, though the role of BMI in the COVID-19 pandemic must not be ignored. Interpretation: Consequences of inflammation MESHD of adipose tissue has been reported as a leading cause of insulin resistance MESHD insulin resistance HP and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP due to metabolic dysfunction. The results of the current study show that BMI plays a significant role in COVID-19 severity in all ages TRANS, especially the elderly TRANS population. A panel should review COVID-19 patients with higher BMI and other co-morbidities, and they should be given increased vigilance, testing priority, and therapy. Further, the COVID-19 patients whose illness entered 7-10 days, age TRANS >50 yrs, and elevated CRP levels should have additional medical considerations. Recommendation: Population and patients with high BMI have moderate to high risk of medical complications with COVID-19, and hence their health status should be monitored more frequently. Keywords: Age TRANS, BMI, COVID-19, Obesity MESHD Obesity HP.

    Characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women hospitalised with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the UK: a national cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS)

    Authors: Marian Knight; Kathryn Bunch; Nicola Vousden; Edward Morris; Nigel Simpson; Christopher Gale; Patrick O'Brien; Maria Quigley; Peter Brocklehurst; Jennifer J Kurinczuk

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.08.20089268 Date: 2020-05-12 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To describe a national cohort of pregnant women hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the UK, identify factors associated with infection MESHD and describe outcomes, including transmission TRANS of infection MESHD, for mother and infant. Design: Prospective national population-based cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS). Setting: All 194 obstetric units in the UK Participants: 427 pregnant women admitted to hospital with confirmed Sars-CoV-2 infection MESHD between 01/03/2020 and 14/04/2020. 694 comparison women who gave birth between 01/11/2017 and 31/10/2018. Main outcome measures: Incidence of maternal hospitalisation, infant infection MESHD. Rates of maternal death MESHD, level 3 critical care unit admission, preterm birth, stillbirth MESHD, early neonatal death, perinatal MESHD death MESHD; odds ratios for infected versus comparison women. Results: Estimated incidence of hospitalisation with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy 4.9 per 1000 maternities (95%CI 4.5-5.4). The median gestation at symptom onset TRANS was 34 weeks (IQR 29-38). Black or other minority ethnicity (aOR 4.49, 95%CI 3.37-6.00), older maternal age TRANS (aOR 1.35, 95%CI 1.01-1.81 comparing women aged TRANS 35+ with those aged TRANS 30-34), overweight MESHD overweight HP and obesity MESHD obesity HP (aORs 1.91, 95%CI 1.37-2.68 and 2.20, 95%CI 1.56-3.10 respectively compared to women with a BMI<25kg/m2) and pre-existing comorbidities (aOR 1.52, 95%CI 1.12-2.06) were associated with admission with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy. 247 women (58%) gave birth or had a pregnancy loss; 180 (73%) gave birth at term. 40 (9%) hospitalised women required respiratory support. Twelve infants (5%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, six of these infants within the first 12 hours after birth. Conclusions: The majority of pregnant women hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 were in the late second or third trimester, supporting guidance for continued social distancing measures in later pregnancy. Most had good outcomes and transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 to infants was uncommon. The strong association between admission with infection MESHD and black or minority ethnicity requires urgent investigation and explanation. Study Registration: ISRCTN 40092247

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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