Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Cough (8)

Infections (6)

Fever (6)

Disease (6)

Headache (5)


Human Phenotype

Rhinorrhea (11)

Cough (7)

Fever (6)

Headache (5)

Anosmia (4)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Association of olfactory dysfunction with hospitalization for COVID-19: a multicenter study in Kurdistan

    Authors: Hosna Zobairy; Erfan Shamsoddin; Mohammad Aziz Rasouli; Nasrollah Veisi Khodlan; Ghobad Moradi; Bushra Zareie; Sara Teymori; Jalal Asadi; Ahmad Sofi-Mahmudi; Ahmad R. Sedaghat

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.26.20158550 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To evaluate the association of olfactory dysfunction (OD) with hospitalization for COVID-19. Study Design: Multi-center cohort study. Setting: Emergency MESHD departments of thirteen COVID-19-designed hospitals in Kurdistan province, Iran. Subjects and Methods: Patients presenting with flu-like symptoms who tested positive by RT-PCR for COVID-19 between May 1st and 31st, 2020. At the time of presentation and enrollment, patients were asked about the presence of OD, fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, shortness of breath, headache MESHD headache HP, rhinorrhea HP and sore throat. The severity of OD was assessed on an 11-point scale from 0 (none) to 10 ( anosmia HP). Patients were either hospitalized or sent home for outpatient care based on standardized criteria. Results: Of 203 patients, who presented at a mean of 6 days into the COVID-19 disease MESHD course, 25 patients (12.3%) had new OD and 138 patients (68.0%) were admitted for their COVID-19. Patients admitted for COVID-19 had a higher prevalence SERO of all symptoms assessed, including OD (p<0.05 in all cases), and OD identified admitted patients with 84.0% sensitivity SERO and 34.3% specificity. On univariate logistic regression, hospitalization was associated with OD (odds ratio [OR] = 2.47, 95%CI: 1.085-6.911, p=0.049). However, hospitalization for COVID-19 was not associated with OD (OR=3.22, 95% CI: 0.57-18.31, p=0.188) after controlling for confounding demographics and comorbidities. Conclusion: OD may be associated with hospitalization for (and therefore more severe) COVID-19. However, this association between OD and COVID-19 severity is more likely driven by patient characteristics linked to OD, such as greater numbers of COVID-19 symptoms experienced or high-risk comorbidities.

    Clinical Characteristics of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Authors: Kai Qian; Guo-Ping Wang; Hao Peng; Jun Peng; Hong-Zhong Cheng; Yi Deng; Jun Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-44722/v1 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Although novel pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP associated with the Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) suddenly broke out in China, China has controlled this epidemic effectively. Therefore, evidence-based descriptions of medical and clinical characteristics in China are necessary.Methods Literatures have been systematically performed a search on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, GreyNet International, and The Cochrane Library from inception up to March 15, 2020. Quality of evidence was evaluated according to the STROBE checklist, and publication bias was analyzed by Egger’s test. In the single-arm meta-analysis, A random-effects model was used to obtain a pooled incidence rate. We conducted subgroup analysis according to geographic region and research scale.Results A total of 30 Chinese studies and 1969 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The valid pooled incidence rates of symptoms were as follows: rhinorrhea HP 5.1% (95% CI: 3.7–6.8, I2 = 31.90), diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP 11.0% (95% CI: 9.3–12.9, I2 = 16.58), pharyngalgia 9.4% (95% CI: 7.5–11.7, I2 = 36.40), headache MESHD headache HP 9.5% (95% CI: 8.5–11.1, I2 = 5.7), and lymphocytopenia 36.7% (95% CI: 33.8–39.8 I2 = 28.73). Meanwhile, 4.3% (95% CI: 3.5–5.4, I2 = 0.00) of patients were found without any symptoms, although they were diagnosed by RT-PCR. In terms of lung CT imaging, most of the patients showed bilateral mottling or ground-glass opacity, and 7.7% (95% CI: 4.4–12.9, I2 = 35.64) of patients had a crazy-paving pattern. In subgroup analysis, the pooled incidence rate of normal CT presentations in the Wuhan area and outside Wuhan area was 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4–3.6, I2 = 24.78) and 5.8% (95% CI: 4.4–7.7, I2 = 32.76) respectively (P = 0.001).Conclusions The findings suggest that although most of the COVID-19 patients have symptoms or abnormal CT imaging presentations, a few of them accompany with no symptoms or abnormal CT imaging results should also be noticed. The digestive symptoms and lymphocytopenia may be the potential clinical characteristics, especially for patients with a history of contact with COVID-19. Additionally, the incidence rate of ARDS in the Wuhan area and outside Wuhan area was different; however, the reasons for this phenomenon are unclear.

    Longitudinal symptom dynamics of COVID-19 infection MESHD in primary care

    Authors: Barak Mizrahi; Smadar Shilo; Hagai Rossman; Nir Kalkstein; Karni Marcus; Yael Barer; Ayya Keshet; Na'ama Shamir-Stein; Varda Shalev; Anat Ekka Zohar; Gabriel Chodick; Eran Segal

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.13.20151795 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    Objective : Data regarding the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 infection MESHD is rapidly accumulating. However, most studies thus far are based on hospitalized patients and lack longitudinal follow up. As the majority of COVID-19 cases are not hospitalized, prospective studies of symptoms in the population presenting to primary care are needed. Here, we assess the longitudinal dynamic of clinical symptoms in non-hospitalized individuals prior to and throughout the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Design Data on symptoms were extracted from electronic health records (EHR) consisting of both results of PCR tests and symptoms recorded by primary care physicians, and linked longitudinal self reported symptoms. Setting The second largest Health Maintenance Organization in Israel , Maccabi Health Services Participants From 1/3/2020 to 07/06/2020, information on symptoms from either surveys or primary care visits was available for 206,377 individuals, including 2,471 who tested positive for COVID-19. Main Outcomes Longitudinal prevalence SERO of clinical symptoms in COVID-19 infection MESHD diagnosed by PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 from nasopharyngeal swabs. Results: In adults TRANS, the most prevalent symptoms recorded in EHR were cough MESHD cough HP (11.6%), fever MESHD fever HP (10.3%), and myalgia MESHD myalgia HP (7.7%) and the most prevalent self-reported symptoms were cough MESHD cough HP (21%), fatigue MESHD fatigue HP (19%) and rhinorrhea HP and/or nasal congestion (17%). In children TRANS, the most prevalent symptoms recorded in the EHR were fever MESHD fever HP (7%), cough MESHD cough HP (5.5%) and abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP (2.4%) . Emotional disturbances were documented in 15.9% of the positive adults TRANS and 4.2% of the children TRANS. Loss of taste and smell, either self-reported or documented by a physician, 3 weeks prior to testing, were the most discriminative symptoms in adults TRANS (OR =11.18 and OR=5.47 respectively). Additional symptoms included self reported headache MESHD headache HP (OR = 2.03) and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP (OR = 1.73) and a documentation of syncope MESHD syncope HP, rhinorrhea HP (OR = 2.09 for both ) and fever MESHD fever HP (OR= 1.62 ) by a physician. Mean time to recovery TRANS was 23.5 +- 9.9 days. Children TRANS had a significantly shorter disease MESHD duration (21.7 +- 8.8 days, p-value=0.01). Several symptoms, including fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, myalgia MESHD myalgia HP, runny nose and shortness of breath were reported weeks after recovery. Conclusions As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses rapidly worldwide, obtaining accurate information on symptoms and their progression is of essence. Our study shed light on the full clinical spectrum of symptoms experienced by infected individuals in primary care, and may alert physicians for the possibility of COVID-19 infection MESHD.

    Symptomatology of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) - Lessons from A Meta-Analysis Across 13 Countries

    Authors: Champika Saman Kumara Gamakaranage; Dineshani Hettiarachchi; Dileepa Ediriweera; Saroj Jayasinghe

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39412/v1 Date: 2020-07-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in varying clinical manifestations and mortality rates. There is no consensus on the symptomatology that would guide researchers and clinicians.Objective: The objective of the study was to identify symptoms and their frequencies of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 with a meta-analysis of studies from several countries. Data sources: A systematic review using PubMed and Google Scholar data sources and reference tracing TRANS were used to identify 7176 relevant articles. Eligibility criteria: Suitable articles were selected manually with selection criteria and 14 original articles included for meta-analysis. Data abstraction analysis: PRISMA guideline was used for abstracting data. Then a table was generated by feeding it with numbers and proportions of each symptom described in original studies. A meta-analysis was carried out using random effect models on each symptom separately across the studies and their prevalence SERO rates and 95% confident intervals calculated.Results: We identified 14 relevant scientific papers, either cross-sectional or cohort studies and analyzed. There were 2,660 cases of COVID-19. he majority were from China (n=2,439, 91.7%) and remainder from the Netherlands, Italy, Korea and India and one article from Europe. There was a total of 32 symptoms (i.e. present in >50% of patients): fever (79.56%, 95% CI: 72.17-86.09%), malaise (63.3%, 95% CI: 53.1 – 73.0%), cough MESHD cough HP (56.7. %, 95% CI: 48.6 - 64.6 %) and cold (55.6%, 95% CI: 45.2 – 65.7%). Symptoms of intermediate incidence (5-49%) were; anosmia HP, sneezing MESHD sneezing HP, ocular pain HP pain MESHD, fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, sputum production, arthralgia MESHD arthralgia HP, tachypnea MESHD tachypnea HP, palpitation HP, headache MESHD headache HP, chest tightness HP, shortness of breath, chills MESHD chills HP, myalgia MESHD myalgia HP, sore throat, anorexia MESHD anorexia HP, weakness, diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP, rhinorrhea HP, dizziness MESHD, nausea MESHD nausea HP, altered level of consciousness, vomiting MESHD vomiting HP and abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP. Rare symptoms (<5% of patients) were: tonsil swelling, haemoptysis, conjunctival injection, lymphadenopathy MESHD lymphadenopathy HP and rash were uncommon symptoms of coronavirus disease MESHD (<5%).Conclusion and implications of key findings: We found (25/32) symptoms to be present in =>5% of cases which could be considered as “typical” symptoms of COVID-19. The list of symptoms we identified are different from those documents released by the WHO, CDC, NHS, Chinese CDC, Institute Pasteur and Mayo Clinic. The compiled list would be useful for future researchers to document a comprehensive picture of the illness.

    Olfactory dysfunction quantified by olfactometry in patients with SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Maria Teresa Cervilla; Irene Gutierrez; Maria Romero; Javier Garcia-Gomez

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-35796/v1 Date: 2020-06-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: To quantify olfactory dysfunction by olfactometry in patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD.Methods: Patients from a particular Spanish health area with SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD were recruited to study the loss of smell. Olfactometry was performed using the Sniffin Sticks test. The following clinical symtoms were studied: ENT symptoms related to infection MESHD, duration of sensorineural loss, subjective and objective score of loss of smell, and its temporal relationship with other systemic symptoms.Results: A total of 51 patients with SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD completed the study. A total of 86.3% reported subjective loss of smell capacity. Objective loss of olfactory ability was quantified by olfactometry in 22% of patients. Statistical significance was demonstrated between the group of patients with anosmia HP/ hyposmia HP and the Sniffin Sticks test (p-value: 0.013). The most frequent ENT symptoms in patients with quantified olfactory loss consisted of nasal obstruction MESHD nasal obstruction HP, absence of rhinorrhea HP, sore throat, and ear pain HP pain MESHD. The subjective olfactory recovery rate prior to performing olfactometry was 64.3% of the sample. A total of 77% of patients in whom olfactory loss was quantified by olfactometry reported a subjective duration of more than 15 days.Conclusion: Olfactory dysfunction is an objective clinical finding in patients with SARS- Cov-2 infection MESHD. Its persistence has been demonstrated beyond the first month after infection MESHD. Their quantitative study should be continued to determine the recovery rate and its possible long-term sequelae, as well as treatments to improve the quality of life of these patients.

    SARS-CoV-2 Serology Results in the First COVID-19 Case in California: A Case Report and Recommendations for Serology Testing and Interpretation

    Authors: Richard B. Lanman, MD; Todd H. Lanman

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-35358/v1 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: As countries in COVID-19 pandemic lockdown begin relaxation of shelter-in-place mitigation strategies, the role of serology testing escalates in importance. However, there are no clear guidelines as to when to use qualitative rapid diagnostic serology tests (RDTs) vs. SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA load (PCR) tests as an aid in acute diagnosis of patients presenting with flu-like symptoms, nor how to interpret serology test results in asymptomatic TRANS individuals or those with atypical COVID-19 symptomatology. Here we describe, in the context of the likely first case of COVID-19 in California, with an atypical presentation and not tested acutely, who nearly 3 months later was found to be IgM- and IgG+ positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, highlighting the role of RDT- based serology testing SERO and interpretation in retrospective diagnosis.Case Presentation: A 62-year-old male TRANS practicing neurosurgeon had onset of flu-like symptoms on January 20 with fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, slight cough MESHD cough HP only on deep inspiration, intermittent pleuritic chest pain MESHD chest pain HP unrelated to exertion, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, and night sweats HP but without fever MESHD fever HP, sore throat or rhinorrhea HP. He had recently traveled TRANS abroad but not to China. CT scan revealed right lower lobe infiltrate and effusion. Because of atypical symptoms, and low prevalence SERO of COVID-19 in January, community acquired pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP was diagnosed and one week of doxycycline was prescribed without relief, followed by a second week of azithromycin with symptom remission. Three months later the physician-patient (author THL), tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO by a serology point-of-care rapid diagnostic test (RDT).Conclusions: Serology testing may be an aid in acute diagnosis of COVID-19, especially in patients with atypical presentations, as well as in assessment of asymptomatic TRANS higher-risk persons such as healthcare workers for prior infection MESHD. Recommendations for serology testing and interpretation are explicated.

    COVID-19 in a Child TRANS with Primary Specific Antibody SERO Deficiency

    Authors: Hamid Ahanchian; Nasrin Moazzen; Majid Sezavar Dokht Faroughi; Negar Khalighi; Maryam Khoshkhui; Mohammad Hassan Aelami; Nasrin Sadat Motevalli Haghi; Nima Rezaei

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-28155/v1 Date: 2020-05-09 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background. In the recent coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, millions of people have been affected so far. Clinical manifestations and natural history of infections MESHD have a very wide range, which is important to know it in various underlying diseases MESHD. Although children TRANS are less affected than adults TRANS, its presentation especially in those with underlying diseases MESHD should not be neglected.Case presentation. Herein we report the first case of specific antibody SERO deficiency, who was affected with COVID-19. The patient suffered from rhinorrhea HP and modestly increased in productive cough HP cough MESHD, but real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was positive for COVID-19.Conclusions. Although presentation of COVID-19 in patients with immunodeficiency HP could be mild, it should not be missed, while early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can survive affected patients.

    Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis During COVID-19 Pandemic: Can PrEP Prevent Flu-Like Symptoms?

    Authors: Danilo Euclides Fernandes; Paulo Roberto Abrão Ferreira; Gianna Mastroianni Kirsztajn

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-27798/v1 Date: 2020-05-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Considering speculations on an eventual contribution of antiretroviral drugs to treat novel coronavirus, PrEP regular use may provide useful information and clarify its role in preventing flu-like symptoms.Objective: To identify risk and/or protective factors against flu-like symptoms during COVID-19 pandemic among PrEP regular users.Methods: Phone call interview or digital investigation (through WhatsApp® or e-mail) about PrEP regular use during the novel coronavirus pandemic, social distancing, exposure to suspected or confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 and recent flu-like symptoms.Findings: Among 108 individuals, the majority were cisgender, white, and gay men. Although most of the individuals were in social distancing (68,52%), they did not stop taking PrEP (75,93%). Fewer people had had contact with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 (12,04%), but some did have flu-like symptoms the month before the interview (27,78%) including rhinorrhea HP (56,67%), cough MESHD cough HP (53,33%), asthenia MESHD asthenia HP (50,00%) and headache MESHD headache HP (43,33%). Also, PrEP regular use was a protective factor against flu-like symptoms (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.96, p = 0.04) and was associated with social distancing adherence (OR = 7.2, 95% CI 2.74-19.02, p < 0.001).Conclusion: In our sample, regular use of PrEP was a protective factor against flu-like symptoms and was related to the accomplishment of social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic in São Paulo, Brazil. 

    The effect of a national lockdown in response to COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence SERO of clinical symptoms in the population

    Authors: Ayya Keshet; Amir Gavrieli; Hagai Rossman; Smadar Shilo; Tomer Meir; Tal Karady; Amit Lavon; Dmitry Kolobkov; Iris Kalka; Saar Shoer; Anastasia Godneva; Ori Cohen; Adam Kariv; Ori Hoch; Mushon Zer-Aviv; Noam Castel; Anat Ekka Zohar; Angela Irony; Benjamin Geiger; Yuval Dor; Dorit Hizi; Ran Balicer; Varda Shalev; Eran Segal

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.27.20076000 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    The vast and rapid spread of COVID-19 calls for immediate action from policy-makers, and indeed, many countries have implemented lockdown measures to varying degrees. Here, we utilized nationwide surveys that assess COVID-19 associated symptoms to analyse the effect of the lockdown policy in Israel on the prevalence SERO of clinical symptoms in the population. Daily symptom surveys were distributed online and included questions regarding fever MESHD fever HP, respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, anosmia HP and ageusia MESHD. A total of 2,071,349 survey responses were analysed. We defined a single measure of symptoms, Symptoms Average (SA), as the mean number of symptoms reported by responders. Data were collected between March 15th to June 3rd, 2020. Notably, on the population level, following severe lockdown measures between March 15th and April 20th, SA sharply declined by 83.8% (p < 0.05), as did every single symptom, including the most common symptoms reported by our responders, cough MESHD cough HP and rhinorrhea HP and\or nasal congestion, which decreased by 74.1% (p < 0.05) and 69.6% (p < 0.05), respectively. Similarly, on the individual level, analysis of repeated responses from the same individuals (N = 208,637) over time also showed a decrease in symptoms during this time period. Moreover, the reduction in symptoms was observed in all cities in Israel, and in several stratifications of demographic characteristics. Different symptoms exhibit different reduction dynamics, suggesting differences in the nature of the symptoms or in the underlying medical conditions. Between May 13th and June 3rd, following several subsequent lockdown relief measures, we observed an increase in individual symptoms and in SA, which increased by 31.42%. Overall, these results demonstrate a profound decrease in a variety of clinical symptoms following the implementation of a lockdown in Israel, and an increase in the prevalence SERO of symptoms following the loosening of lockdown restrictions. As our survey symptoms are not specific to COVID-19 infection MESHD, this effect likely represents an overall nationwide reduction in the prevalence SERO of infectious diseases MESHD, including COVID-19. This quantification may be of major interest for COVID-19 pandemic, as many countries consider implementation of lockdown strategies.

    Clinical features, Diagnosis, and Treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review of case reports and case series

    Authors: Azin Tahvildari; Mahta Arbabi; Yeganeh Farsi; Parnian Jamshidi; Saba Hasanzadeh; Tess Moore Calcagno; Mohammad Javad Nasiri; Mehdi Mirsaeidi

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.28.20046151 Date: 2020-04-03 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has been declared a public health emergency MESHD worldwide. The objective of this systematic review was to characterize the clinical, diagnostic, and treatment characteristics of patients presenting with COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a structured search using PubMed/Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library to collect both case reports and case series on COVID-19 published up to February 30, 2020. Results: Thirty-four articles were included analyzing a total of 99 patients with a mean age TRANS of 46.2 years. The most common presenting symptom in patients who tested positive for COVID-19 was fever MESHD fever HP, reported in up to 83% of patients from 76.4% of the analyzed studies. Other symptoms including rhinorrhea HP, dizziness MESHD, and chills MESHD chills HP were less frequently reported. Additionally, in studies which reported C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements (44%), a large majority of patients displayed an elevated CRP (73%). Progression to acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS) was the most common complication of patients testing positive for COVID-19 (33%). CT images displayed ground-glass opacification (GGO) patterns (80%) as well as bilateral lung involvement (71.0%). The most commonly used antiviral treatment modalities included, lopinavir (HIV protease inhibitor), arbidiol hydrochloride (influenza fusion inhibitor), and oseltamivir (neuraminidase inhibitor). Conclusions: Development of ARDS may play a role in estimating disease progression MESHD and mortality risk. Early detection of elevations in serum SERO CRP, combined with a clinical COVID-19 symptom presentation may be used as a surrogate marker for presence and severity of disease MESHD. There is a paucity of data surrounding the efficacy of treatments. There is currently not a well-established gold standard therapy for the treatment of diagnosed COVID-19. Further prospective investigations are necessary.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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