Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


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    Association of mental disorders with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe health outcomes: a nationwide cohort study

    Authors: Ha-Lim Jeon; Jun Soo Kwon; So-Hee Park; Ju-Young Shin

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20169201 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: No epidemiological data exists for the association between mental disorders and the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) severity. Aims: To evaluate the association between mental disorders and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe outcomes following COVID-19. Methods: We performed a cohort study using the Korean COVID-19 patient database based on the national health insurance data. Each patient with a mental or behavioral disorder (diagnosed during six months prior to the first SARS-CoV-2 test) was matched by age TRANS, sex, and Charlson comorbidity index with up to four patients without mental disorders. SARS-CoV-2 positivity risk and risk of death MESHD or severe events (intensive care unit admission, use of mechanical ventilation, and acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD) post- infection MESHD were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 230,565 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2, 33,653 (14.6%) had mental disorders, 928/33,653 (2.76%) tested positive, and 56/928 (6.03%) died. In multivariate analysis with the matched cohort, there was no association between mental disorders and SARS-CoV-2 positivity risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.12); however, a higher risk was associated with schizophrenia HP-related disorders (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81). Among confirmed cases TRANS, mortality risk significantly increased in patients with mental disorders (OR, 1.84, 95% CI, 1.07-3.15). Conclusion: Mental disorders are likely contributing factors of mortality following COVID-19. Although the infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk did not increase in overall mental disorders, patients with schizophrenia HP-related disorders were more vulnerable to the infection MESHD.

    Signatures and mechanisms of efficacious therapeutic ribonucleotides against SARS-CoV-2 revealed by analysis of its replicase using magnetic tweezers

    Authors: Mona Seifert; Subhas C. Bera; Pauline van Nies; Robert N. Kirchdoerfer; Ashleigh Shannon; Thi-Tuyet-Nhung Le; Tyler L. Grove; Flavia S. Papini; Jamie J. Arnold; Steven C. Almo; Bruno Canard; Martin Depken; Craig E. Cameron; David Dulin

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.240325 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) results from an infection MESHD infection by the severe HP by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the third coronavirus outbreak to plague MESHD humanity this century. Currently, the most efficacious therapeutic against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is the Remdesivir (RDV), an adenine-like ribonucleotide analogue that is very efficiently incorporated by the SARS-CoV-2 replicase. Understanding why RDV is so well incorporated will facilitate development of even more effective therapeutics. Here, we have applied a high-throughput, single-molecule, magnetic-tweezers platform to study thousands of cycles of nucleotide addition by the SARS-CoV-2 replicase in the absence and presence of RDV, a Favipiravir-related analog (T-1106), and the endogenously produced ddhCTP. Our data are consistent with two parallel catalytic pathways of the replicase: a high-fidelity catalytic (HFC) state and a low-fidelity catalytic (LFC) state, the latter allowing the slow incorporation of both cognate and non-cognate nucleotides. ddhCTP accesses HFC, T-1106 accesses LFC as a non-cognate nucleotide, while RDV efficiently accesses both LFC pathway. In contrast to previous reports, we provide unequivocal evidence against RDV functioning as a chain terminator. We show that RDV incorporation transiently stalls the replicase, only appearing as termination events when traditional, gel-based assays are used. The efficiency of ddhCTP utilization by the SARS-CoV-2 replicase suggests suppression of its synthesis during infection MESHD, inspiring new therapeutic strategies. Use of this experimental paradigm will be essential to the development of therapeutic nucleotide analogs targeting polymerases.

    Lymphopenia MESHD Lymphopenia HP-induced T cell proliferation is a hallmark of severe COVID-19

    Authors: Sarah Adamo; Stéphane Chevrier; Carlo Cervia; Yves Zurbuchen; Miro E. Räber; Liliane Yang; Sujana Sivapatham; Andrea Jacobs; Esther Bächli; Alain Rudiger; Melina Stüssi-Helbling; Lars C. Huber; Dominik Schaer; Bernd Bodenmiller; Onur Boyman; Jakob Nilsson

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.236521 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by infection MESHD infection with severe HP with severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has a broad clinical presentation ranging from asymptomatic infection MESHD asymptomatic TRANS to fatal disease MESHD. Different features associated with the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, such as hyperinflammation and reduction of peripheral CD8+ T cell counts are strongly associated with severe disease MESHD. Here, we confirm the reduction in peripheral CD8+ T cells both in relative and absolute terms and identify T cell apoptosis and migration into inflamed tissues as possible mechanisms driving peripheral T cell lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP. Furthermore, we find evidence of elevated serum SERO interleukin-7, thus indicating systemic T cell paucity and signs of increased T cell proliferation in patients with severe lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP. Following T cell lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP in our pseudo-longitudinal time course, we observed expansion and recovery of poly-specific antiviral T cells, thus arguing for lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP-induced T cell proliferation. In summary, this study suggests that extensive T cell loss and subsequent T cell proliferation are characteristic of severe COVID-19.

    Efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients: A Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Li-Peng Liu; Su-Yu Zong; Jun Li; Ao-Li Zhang; Chao Liu; Ye Guo; Wen-Yu Yang; Xiao-Juan Chen; Ying-Chi Zhang; Xiao-Fan Zhu

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    The therapeutic effect of tocilizumab remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate whether tocilizumab might be beneficial in COVID-19 patients. We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library from inception to June 23, 2020. Summary estimates of overall response rate (ORR) and all-cause death MESHD rate in all patients were analyzed. This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020191313). We included data from 28 articles including 991 COVID-19 patients who underwent tocilizumab administration. The pooled ORR was 72% (95% CI, 66-79%) and pooled all-cause death MESHD rate was 16% (95% CI, 11-22%). The optimal timing of administration was the 7.15 day from the symptom onset TRANS and with the lowest death MESHD rate of 13.11%. 562 patients were defined as with severe infection HP infection MESHD, and the pooled ORR was 78% (95% CI, 70-85%). The pooled ORR of 56 organ transplantation recipients was 53% (95% CI, 26-78%), which was lower than non-transplant patients [75% (95% CI, 69-81%)]. Nearly all studies confirmed the safety of tocilizumab administration. Tocilizumab improves the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients, especially in severe cases, and the optimal timing of administration may provide the guidance for management. However, tocilizumab may be used with caution in solid transplant recipients for the suboptimal efficacy.

    Blockchain Meets COVID-19: A Framework for Contact Information Sharing and Risk Notification System

    Authors: Jinyue Song; Tianbo Gu; Xiaotao Feng; Yunjie Ge; Prasant Mohapatra

    id:2007.10529v1 Date: 2020-07-20 Source: arXiv

    COVID-19 causes a global epidemic infection MESHD, which is the most severe infection HP infection MESHD disaster in human history. In the absence of particular medication and vaccines, tracing TRANS and isolating the source of infection MESHD is the best option to slow the spread of the virus and reduce infection MESHD and death MESHD rates among the population. There are three main obstacles in the process of tracing TRANS the infection MESHD: 1) Patient's electronic health record is stored in a traditional centralized database that could be stolen and tampered with the infection MESHD data, 2) The confidential personal identity of the infected user may be revealed to a third party or organization, 3) Existing infection MESHD tracing TRANS systems do not trace TRANS infections MESHD from multiple dimensions. Either the system is location-based or individual-based tracing TRANS. In this work, we propose a global COVID-19 information sharing system that utilizes the Blockchain, Smart Contract, and Bluetooth technologies. The proposed system unifies location-based and Bluetooth- based contact TRANS tracing TRANS services into the Blockchain platform, where the automatically executed smart contracts are deployed so that users can get consistent and non-tamperable virus trails. The anonymous functionality provided by the Blockchain and Bluetooth technology protects the user's identity privacy. With our proposed analysis formula for estimating the probability of infection MESHD, users can take measures to protect themselves in advance. We also implement a prototype system to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach.

    Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is defined by a shift in the serum SERO lipidome resulting in dysregulation of eicosanoid lipid immune mediators

    Authors: Benjamin Schwarz; Lokesh Sharma; Lydia Roberts; Xiaohua Peng; Santos Bermejo; Ian Leighton; Arnau Casanovas-Massana; Shelli Farhadian; Albert Ko; Yale IMPACT Team; Charles Dela Cruz; Catharine Bosio

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 10 million people worldwide with mortality exceeding3 half a million patients. Risk factors associated with severe disease MESHD and mortality include advanced age TRANS,4 hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes, and obesity MESHD obesity HP.1 Clear mechanistic understanding of how these comorbidities5 converge to enable severe infection HP infection MESHD is lacking. Notably each of these risk factors pathologically disrupts6 the lipidome and this disruption may be a unifying feature of severe COVID-19.1-7 Here we provide the first in depth interrogation of lipidomic changes, including structural-lipids as well as the eicosanoids and docosanoids lipid mediators (LMs), that mark COVID-19 disease MESHD severity. Our data reveal that progression from moderate to severe disease MESHD is marked by a loss of specific immune regulatory LMs and increased pro-inflammatory species. Given the important immune regulatory role of LMs, these data provide mechanistic insight into the immune balance in COVID-19 and potential targets for therapy with currently approved pharmaceuticals.8

    In Silico Approach of Potential Phytochemical Inhibitor from Moringa oleifera, Cocos nucifera, Allium cepa, Psidium guajava, and Eucalyptus globulus for the treatment of COVID-19 by Molecular Docking

    Authors: Ika Nur Fitriani; Wiji Utami; Adi Tiara Zikri; Pugoh Santoso

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection MESHD infection with severe HP with severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2. COVID-19 has devastating effects on people in all countries and getting worse. We aim to investigate an in-silico docking analysis of phytochemical compounds from medicinal plants that used to combat inhibition of the COVID-19 pathway. There are several phytochemicals in medicinal plants, however, the mechanism of bioactive compounds remains unclear. These results are obtained from in silico research provide further information to support the inhibition of several phytochemicals.Methods Molecular docking used to determine the best potential COVID-19 M pro inhibitor from several bioactive compounds in Moringa oleifera, Allium cepa, Cocos nucifera, Psidium guajava, and Eucalyptus globulus. Molecular docking was conducted and scored by comparison with standard drugs remdesivir. ADME properties of selected ligands were evaluated using the Lipinski Rule. The interaction mechanism of the most recommended compound predicted using the STITCH database.Results There was no recommended compound in Moringa oleifera as a potential inhibitor for COVID-19. Oleanolic acid in Allium cepa, α-tocotrienol in Cocos nucifera, asiatic acid in Psidium guajava and culinoside in Eucalyptus globulus were the most recommended compound in each medicinal plant. Oleanolic acid was reported to exhibit anti-COVID-19 activity with binding energy was − 9.20 kcal/mol. This score was better than remdesivir as standard drug. Oleanolic acid interacted through the hydrogen bond with HIS41, THR25, CYS44, GLU166. Oleanolic acid binding with CASP-3, CASP-9, and XIAP signaling pathway.Conclusions Oleanolic acid in Allium cepa found as a potential inhibitor of COVID-19 M-pro that should be examined in future studies. These results suggest that oleanolic acid may be useful in COVID-19 treatment.

    Obstetrical and intensive care strategies in a high-risk pregnancy with critical respiratory failure HP due to COVID-19: a case report

    Authors: Zuzana Kolkova; Martin Bjurstrom; John-Kalle Lansberg; Eimantas Svedas; Maria Andrada; Stefan Hansson; Andreas Herbst; Mehreen Zaigham

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-06-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundWith the disease MESHD burden increasing daily, there is a lack of evidence regarding the impact of COVID-19 in pregnancy. Healthy pregnant women are still not regarded as a susceptible group despite physiological changes that make pregnant women more vulnerable to severe infection HP infection MESHD. However, high-risk pregnancies may be associated with severe COVID-19 disease MESHD with respiratory failure HP, as outlined in this report. We discuss the importance of timely delivery and antenatal steroid administration in a critically ill patient.CaseA 27-year-old pregnant woman (1-para) with type I diabetes, morbid obesity MESHD obesity HP, hypothyroidism and a previous Caesarean section, presented with critical respiratory failure HP secondary to COVID-19 at 32 weeks of gestation. A preterm emergency MESHD Caesarean section was performed, after steroid treatment for foetal lung maturation. The patient benefited from prone positioning however, transient acute renal injury, rhabdomyolysis MESHD rhabdomyolysis HP and sepsis MESHD sepsis HP led to prolonged intensive care and mechanical ventilation for 26 days post-Caesarean. The baby had an uncomplicated recovery.ConclusionCOVID-19 infection MESHD in high-risk pregnancies may result in severe maternal-neonatal outcomes such as critical respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and premature termination of the pregnancy. Antenatal steroids may be of benefit for foetal lung maturation but should not delay delivery in severe cases.

    Clinical Features and Outcomes of COVID-19 in Older Adults TRANS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Sunny Singhal; Pramod Kumar; Sumitabh Singh; Srishti Saha; Aparajit Ballav Dey

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-06-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Few studies have focused on exploring the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in older patients. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to have a better understanding of the clinical characteristics of older COVID-19 patients.Methods A systematic search of PubMed and Scopus was performed from December 2019 to May 3rd, 2020. Observational studies including older adults TRANS ( age TRANS ≥60 years) with COVID-19 infection MESHD and reporting clinical characteristics or outcome were included. Primary outcome was assessing weighted pooled prevalence SERO (WPP) of severity and outcomes. Secondary outcomes were clinical features including comorbidities and need of respiratory support.Result 46 studies with 13,624 older patients were included. Severe infection HP infection MESHD was seen in 51% (95% CI– 36-65%, I2- 95%) patients while 22% (95% CI– 16-28%, I2- 88%) were critically ill. Overall, 11% (95% CI– 5-21%, I2- 98%) patients died. The common comorbidities were hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (48%, 95% CI– 36-60% I2- 92%), diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (22%, 95% CI– 13-32%, I2- 86%) and cardiovascular disease MESHD (19%, 95% CI – 11-28%, I2- 85%). Common symptoms were fever MESHD fever HP (83%, 95% CI– 66-97%, I2-91%), cough MESHD cough HP (60%, 95% CI– 50-70%, I2- 71%) and dyspnoea (42%, 95% CI– 19-67%, I2- 94%). Overall, 84% (95% CI– 60-100%, I2- 81%) required oxygen support and 21% (95% CI– 0-49%, I2- 91%) required mechanical ventilation. Majority of studies had medium to high risk of bias and overall quality of evidence was low for all outcomes.Conclusion Approximately half of older patients with COVID-19 have severe infection HP infection MESHD, one in five are critically ill and one in ten die. More high quality evidence is needed to study outcomes in this vulnerable patient population and factors affecting these outcomes.

    A novel optical biosensor for the early diagnosis of sepsis MESHD sepsis HP and severe COVID-19: the PROUD study

    Authors: Sarantia Doulou; Konstantinos Leventogiannis; Maria Tsilika; Matthew Rodencal; Konstantina Katrini; Nikolaos Antonakos; Miltiades Kyprianou; Emmanouil Karofylakis; Athanassios Karageorgos; Panagiotis Koufargyris; Gennaios Christopoulos; George Kassianidis; Kimon Stamatelopoulos; Robert Newberry; Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-06-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The accuracy of a new optical biosensor (OB) point-of-care device for the detection of severe infections HP infections MESHD is studied.Methods The OB emits different wavelengths and outputs information associated with heart rate, pulse oximetry, levels of nitric oxide and kidney function. At the derivation phase, recordings were done every two hours for three consecutive days after hospital admission in 142 patients at high-risk for sepsis MESHD sepsis HP by placing the OB on the forefinger. At the validation phase, single recordings were done in 54 patients with symptoms of viral infection MESHD; 38 were diagnosed with COVID-19.Results At the derivation phase, the cutoff value of positive likelihood of 18 provided 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value SERO for the diagnosis of sepsis MESHD sepsis HP. These were 87.5% and 91.7% respectively at the validation phase. OB diagnosed severe COVID-19 with 83.3% sensitivity SERO and 87.5% negative predictive value SERO.Conclusions The studied OB seems valuable for the discrimination of infection MESHD severity.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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