The global Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to unprecedented social and economic consequences. The risk of morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 increases dramatically in the presence of co-existing medical conditions while the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Furthermore, there are no proven effective therapies for COVID-19. This study aims to identify SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, diseases MESHD manifestations, and COVID-19 therapies using network medicine methodologies along with clinical and multi-omics observations. We incorporate SARS-CoV-2 virus-host protein-protein interactions, transcriptomics, and proteomics into the human interactome. Network proximity measure revealed underlying pathogenesis for broad COVID-19-associated manifestations. Multi-modal analyses of single-cell RNA-sequencing data showed that co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was elevated in absorptive enterocytes from the inflamed ileal tissues of Crohn's disease HP disease MESHD patients compared to uninflamed tissues, revealing shared pathobiology by COVID-19 and inflammatory bowel disease MESHD. Integrative analyses of metabolomics and transcriptomics (bulk and single-cell) data from asthma MESHD asthma HP patients indicated that COVID-19 shared intermediate inflammatory endophenotypes with asthma MESHD asthma HP (includingIRAK3 and ADRB2). To prioritize potential treatment, we combined network-based prediction and propensity score (PS) matching observational study of 18,118 patients from a COVID-19 registry. We identified that melatonin (odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.59) was associated with 64% reduced likelihood of a positive laboratory test result for SARS-CoV-2. Using PS-matching user active comparator design, melatonin was associated with 54% reduced likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 positive test result compared to angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.86).