### Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (1)

Obesity (1)

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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### The Role of Vitamin D in The Age TRANS of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Along with an Ecological Approach

doi:10.1101/2020.06.05.20123554 Date: 2020-06-08 Source: medRxiv

Background: Following emerge of a novel coronavirus from Wuhan, China, in December 2019, it has affected the whole world and after months of efforts by the medical communities, there is still no specific approach for prevention and treatment against the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Evidence recommends that vitamin D might be an important supportive agent for the immune system, mainly in cytokine response regulation against COVID-19. Hence, we carried out a rapid systematic review and meta-analysis along with an ecological investigation in order to maximize the use of everything that exists about the role of vitamin D in the COVID-19. Methods: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar (intitle) as well as preprint database of medRxiv, bioRxiv, Research Square, preprints.org, search engine of ScienceDirect and a rapid search through famous journals up to May 26, 2020. Studies focused on the role of vitamin D in confirmed COVID-19 patients were entered into the systematic review. Along with our main aim, to find the second objective: correlation of global vitamin D status and COVID-19 recovery and mortality we carried out a literature search in PubMed database to identify the national or regional studies reported the vitamin D status globally. CMA v. 2.2.064 and SPSS v.16 were used for data analysis. Results: Out of nine studies entered into our systematic review, six studies containing 3,822 participants entered into the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis indicated that 46.5% of COVID-19 patients were suffering from vitamin D deficiency MESHD (95% CI, 28.2%-65.8%) and in 43.3% of patients, levels of vitamin D were insufficient (95% CI, 27.4%-60.8%). In regard to our ecological investigation on 51 countries including 408,748 participants, analyses indicated no correlation between vitamin D levels and recovery rate (r= 0.041) as well as mortality rate (r=-0.073) globally. However, given latitude, a small reverse correlation between mortality rate and vitamin D status was observed throughout the globe (r= -0.177). In Asia, a medium direct correlation was observed for recovery rate (r= 0.317) and a significant reveres correlation for mortality rate (r= -0.700) with vitamin D status in such patients. In Europe, there were no correlations for both recovery (r= 0.040) and mortality rate (r= -0.035). In Middle East, the recovery rate (r= 0.267) and mortality rate (r= -0.217) showed a medium correlation. In North and Sought America, surprisingly, both recovery and mortality rate demonstrated a direct correlation respectively (r= 1.000, r=0.500). In Oceania, unexpectedly, recovery (r= -1.000) and mortality (r= -1.000) rates were in considerable reverse correlation with vitamin D levels. Conclusion: In this systematic review and meta-analysis with an ecological approach, we found a high percentage of COVID-19 patients who suffer from vitamin D deficiency MESHD or insufficiency. Much more important, our ecological investigation resulted in substantial direct and reverse correlations between recovery and mortality rates of COVID-19 patients with vitamin D status in different countries. Considering latitudes, a small reverse correlation between vitamin D status and mortality rate was found globally. It seems that populations with lower levels of vitamin D HP might be more susceptible to the novel coronavirus infection MESHD. Nevertheless, due to multiple limitations, if this study does not allow to quantify a value of the Vitamin D with full confidence, it allows at least to know what the Vitamin D might be and that it would be prudent to invest in this direction through comprehensive large randomized clinical trials.

### COVID-19 transmission risk TRANS factors

Authors: Alessio Notari; Giorgio Torrieri

id:2005.03651v1 Date: 2020-05-07 Source: arXiv

We analyze risk factors correlated with the initial transmission TRANS growth rate of the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of cases follows an early exponential expansion; we chose as a starting point in each country the first day with 30 cases and used 12 days. We looked for linear correlations of the exponents with other variables, using 126 countries. We find a positive correlation with high C.L. with the following variables, with respective $p$-value: low Temperature ($4\cdot10^{-7}$), high ratio of old vs.~working- age TRANS people ($3\cdot10^{-6}$), life expectancy ($8\cdot10^{-6}$), number of international tourists ($1\cdot10^{-5}$), earlier epidemic starting date ($2\cdot10^{-5}$), high level of contact in greeting habits ($6 \cdot 10^{-5}$), lung cancer ($6 \cdot 10^{-5}$), obesity MESHD obesity HP in males TRANS ($1 \cdot 10^{-4}$), urbanization ($2\cdot10^{-4}$), cancer prevalence SERO ($3 \cdot 10^{-4}$), alcohol consumption ($0.0019$), daily smoking prevalence SERO ($0.0036$), UV index ($0.004$, smaller sample, 73 countries), low Vitamin D levels HP ($p$-value $0.002-0.006$, smaller sample, $\sim 50$ countries). There is highly significant correlation also with blood SERO type: positive correlation with RH- ($2\cdot10^{-5}$) and A+ ($2\cdot10^{-3}$), negative correlation with B+ ($2\cdot10^{-4}$). We also find positive correlation with moderate C.L. ($p$-value of $0.02\sim0.03$) with: CO$_2$ emissions, type-1 diabetes, low vaccination coverage for Tuberculosis MESHD (BCG). Several such variables are correlated with each other and so they likely have common interpretations. We also analyzed the possible existence of a bias: countries with low GDP-per capita, typically located in warm regions, might have less intense testing and we discuss correlation with the above variables.

### Nsp7 and Spike Glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 Are Envisaged as Potential Targets of Vitamin D and Ivermectin

Authors: Jhimli Dasgupta; Udayaditya Sen; Abhisek Bakshi; Abhijit Dasgupta; Krishnendu Manna; Chinmay Saha; Rajat K. De; Satinath Mukhopadhyay; Nitai P. Bhattacharyya

id:10.20944/preprints202005.0084.v1 Date: 2020-05-05 Source: preprints.org

COVID-19 has emerged as deadly pandemic worldwide with no vaccine or suitable antiviral drugs to prevent or cure the disease MESHD. Because of the time-consuming process to develop new vaccines or antiviral agents, there has been a growing interest in repurposing some existing drugs to combat SARS-CoV-2. Vitamin D is known to be protective against acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS), pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and cytokine storm. Recently it has been used as a repurposed drug for the treatment of H5N1 virus-induced lung injury MESHD. Circumstantial evidences indicate that people with low level of vitamin D HP are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Although, vitamin D was suggested to interfere with viral replication, its interaction with any SARS-CoV-2 protein is unexplored yet. Beside this, ivermectin, a well-known anti-parasitic agent, exhibits potent anti-viral activities in vitro against viruses such as HIV-1 and dengue MESHD. Very recently, ivermectin has been found to reduce viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. We have analyzed available structures of SARS-CoV-2 proteins to identify probable binding partner(s) of vitamin D and ivermectin through knowledge-based docking studies and figured out possible implication of their binding in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Our observations suggest that the non-structural protein nsp7 possesses a potential site to house 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (VDY) or the active form of Vitamin D, calcitrol. Binding of vitamin D with nsp7 likely to hamper the formation of nsp7-nsp8 complex which is required to bind with RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), nsp12 for optimal function. On the other hand, potential binding site of ivermectin has been identified in the S2 subunit of trimeric spike(S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. We propose that deeply inserted mode of ivermectin binding at three inter-subunit junctions may restrict large scale conformational changes of S2 helices which is necessary for efficient fusion of viral and host membrane. Our study, therefore, opens up avenues for further investigations to consider vitamin D and ivermectin as potential drugs against SARS-CoV-2.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).

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 All None MeSH Disease Human Phenotype Transmission Seroprevalence

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