Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in Indian children TRANS in the initial phase of the pandemic: A cross-sectional study

    Authors: Bhakti Sarangi; Venkat Sandeep Reddy; Jitendra S. Oswal; Nandini Malshe; Ajinkya Patil; Manojit Chakraborty; Sanjay Lalwani

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-36303/v1 Date: 2020-06-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: India saw the largest and the most stringent lockdown in the world when the number of COVID-19 cases reached around 550. With some early benefits in containing the surge and restricting the R0 TRANS of the virus, the current relaxation of lockdown norms has witnessed an exponential rise in positive cases. With scarcity of Pediatric data from the Indian subcontinent, early observations in the pandemic are pivotal in improving the understanding of physiologic behaviors, identifying risks, and guiding clinicians in assessing time-tested interventions and augmenting the awareness in the masses about the manifold clinical profiles of an evolving disease MESHD.Objective: To assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children TRANS admitted with COVID-19 infection MESHD early in the pandemic.Study Design: A cross-sectional studyParticipants: Fifty children TRANS between one month and 18 years of age TRANS whose nasopharyngeal swab tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT- PCR. Results: 28 (56%) children TRANS were male TRANS. 41 (82%) came from government declared containment zones with only one child TRANS having history of travel TRANS to affected area. Home overcrowding was observed in 33 (66%). Of the 50 children TRANS, 29 (58%) were asymptomatic TRANS while 20 (40%) and one (2%) had mild and moderate symptoms respectively. Fever MESHD Fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, and sore throat were the most common symptoms. 49 (98%) children TRANS had BCG scar HP. Leucopenia was seen in three (6%) only. Mean (SD) Neutrophil-Lymphocyte-Ratio (NLR) was 0.78 (0.48) while mean (SD) CRP was 10.98 (23.90). All 50 (100%) were cured. Conclusion: Our study reasserts the increasing pediatric burden of COVID-19 with all age groups TRANS affected and overcrowding as a risk factor for continued community transmission TRANS, thus beckoning that public health policies be directed to ensuring further preventive measures. It also re-iterates the milder disease MESHD pattern in children TRANS with COVID-19 in the initial phase of the pandemic with a high proportion of asymptomatic TRANS and mild illness. Though abnormal CRP values are synonymous with the illness in children TRANS; leucopenia may not be a consistent finding.  

    Pregnancy outcomes, Newborn complications and Maternal-Fetal Transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in women with COVID-19: A systematic review

    Authors: Rahul Gajbhiye; Deepak Modi; Smita Mahale

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.11.20062356 Date: 2020-04-15 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to examine published and preprint reports for maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 and also assess the incidence of maternal-fetal transmission TRANS of SARS CO-V-2 infection MESHD. Design : Systematic review Data sources:We searched PUMBED. Medline, Embase, MedRxiv and bioRxiv databases upto 31st March 2020 utilizing combinations of word variants for " coronavirus " or " COVID-19 " or " severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD " or " SARS-COV-2 " and " pregnancy " . We also included data from preprint articles. Study selection : Original case reports and case series on pregnant women with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Data extraction : We included 23 studies [China (20), USA (01), Republic of Korea (01) and Honduras, Central America (01) reporting the information on 172 pregnant women and 162 neonates. The primary outcome measures were maternal health characteristics and adverse pregnancy outcomes, neonatal outcomes and SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in neonates was extracted. Treatments given to pregnant women with COVID-19 were also recorded. Results: Out of 172 women affected by COVID-19 in pregnancy, 160 women had delivered 162 newborns (2 set of twins, 12 ongoing pregnancies). In pregnant women with COVID-19, the most common symptoms were fever MESHD fever HP (54%), cough MESHD cough HP (35%), myalgia MESHD myalgia HP (17%), dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP (12%) and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP (4%). Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP was diagnosed by CT scan imaging in 100 % of COVID-19 pregnant women. Pregnancy complications MESHD included delivery by cesarean section (89%), preterm labor (21%), fetal distress MESHD fetal distress HP (9%) and premature rupture of membranes HP rupture MESHD of membranes (8%). The most common co-morbidities associated with pregnant women with COVID-19 were diabetes (11%), hypertensive disorders (9%), placental disorders (5%), co- infections MESHD (6%), scarred HP uterus (5%), hypothyroidism MESHD hypothyroidism HP (5%) and anemia MESHD anemia HP (4%). Amongst the neonates of COVID-19 mothers, preterm birth (23%), respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (14%), pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (14%) low birth weight MESHD (11%), small for gestational age HP age TRANS (3%) were reported. There was one still birth and one neonatal death MESHD reported. Vertical transmission TRANS rate of SARS-CoV-2 is estimated to be 11%. Conclusion In pregnant women with COVID-19, diabetes and hypertensive disorders are common co-morbidities and there is a risk of preterm delivery. Amongst the neonates born to mothers with COVID-19, respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD and pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP are common occurrence. There is an evidence of vertical transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in women with COVID-19.

    Avoiding COVID-19 Complications with Diabetic Patients Could Be Achieved by Multi-Dose Bacillus Calmette–Guérin Vaccine: A Case Study of Beta Cells Regeneration by Serendipity

    Authors: Bassam M. Ayoub; Eman Ramadan; Nermeen Ashoush; Mariam M. Tadros; Moataz S. Hendy; Mohamed M. Elmazar; Shaker A. Mousa

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0134.v1 Date: 2020-04-09 Source: preprints.org

    Diabetes mellitus MESHD Diabetes mellitus HP (DM) is one of the major risk factors for COVID-19 complications as it is one of the chronic immune-compromising conditions especially if patients have uncontrolled diabetes, poor HbA1c &/or irregular blood SERO glucose levels. Diabetic patient’s mortality rates with COVID-19 are higher than cardiovascular or cancer patients. Recently Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) has shown successful results in reversing diabetes in both rats and clinical trials based on different mechanisms from aerobic glycolysis to Beta cells regeneration. BCG is a multi-face vaccine that has been used extensively in protection from TB and leprosy MESHD and has been repositioned for treatment of bladder cancer, diabetes & multiple sclerosis MESHD. Recently, the COVID-19 epidemiological study confirmed that universal BCG vaccination reduced morbidity and mortality in certain geographical areas. Countries without universal policies of BCG vaccination (Italy, Nederland, USA) have been more severely affected compared to countries with universal and long-standing BCG policies that have shown low numbers of reported COVID-19 cases. Some countries have started clinical trials that included a single dose BCG vaccine as prophylaxis from COVID-19 or an attempt to minimize its side effects. This proposed research aims to use BCG vaccine as a double-edged weapon countering both COVID-19 & diabetes, not only as protection but also as therapeutic vaccination. The work includes a case study of regenerated pancreatic beta cells based on improved C-peptide & PCPRI laboratory findings after BCG vaccination for a 9 years’ patient. The patient was re-vaccinated based on a negative tuberculin test & no scar HP at the site of injection of the 1st BCG vaccination at birth. Furthermore, the authors in the present article described a prospective BCG multi-dose clinical study in full details that they will apply in case of acceptance of their submitted grant & the ethical committee approval. The aim of the clinical study is to check if double dose BCG (4 weeks apart) will show a significant difference in the protection of health care professionals in Egypt. The authors suggest and invite the scientific community to take into consideration the concept of direct BCG re-vaccination (after 4 weeks) because of the reported gene expressions & exaggerated innate immunity consequently. As the diabetic MODY-5 patient (mutation of HNF1B, Val2Leu) was on low dose Riomet® while eliminating insulin gradually, a simple analytical method for metformin assay was recommended to ensure its concentration before use as it is not approved yet by the Egyptian QC labs.

    Genomics-guided molecular maps of coronavirus targets in human cells: a path toward the repurposing of existing drugs to mitigate the pandemic

    Authors: Gennadi Glinsky

    id:2003.13665v1 Date: 2020-03-30 Source: arXiv

    Human genes required for SARS-CoV-2 entry into human cells, ACE2 and FURIN, were employed as baits to build genomics-guided maps of up-stream regulatory elements, their expression and functions in human body, including pathophysiologically-relevant cell types. Genes acting as repressors and activators of the ACE2 and FURIN genes were identified based on the analyses of gene silencing and overexpression experiments as well as relevant transgenic mouse models. Panels of repressors (VDR; GATA5; SFTPC; HIF1a) and activators (HMGA2; INSIG1) were then employed to identify existing drugs that could be repurposed to mitigate the coronavirus infection MESHD. Present analyses identify Vitamin D and Quercetin as promising pandemic mitigation agents. Gene expression profiles of Vitamin D and Quercetin activities and their established safety records as over-the-counter medicinal substances suggest that they may represent viable candidates for further assessment and considerations of their potential as coronavirus pandemic mitigation agents. Notably, gene set enrichment analyses and expression profiling experiments identify multiple drugs, most notably testosterone, dexamethasone, and doxorubicin, smoking, and many disease MESHD conditions that appear to act as putative coronavirus infection MESHD-promoting agents. Discordant patterns of Testosterone versus Estradiol impacts on SCARS HP-CoV-2 targets suggest a plausible molecular explanation of the apparently higher male TRANS mortality during coronavirus pandemic.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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