Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence

antibody (1)

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    Association of mental disorders with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe health outcomes: a nationwide cohort study

    Authors: Ha-Lim Jeon; Jun Soo Kwon; So-Hee Park; Ju-Young Shin

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20169201 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: No epidemiological data exists for the association between mental disorders and the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) severity. Aims: To evaluate the association between mental disorders and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe outcomes following COVID-19. Methods: We performed a cohort study using the Korean COVID-19 patient database based on the national health insurance data. Each patient with a mental or behavioral disorder (diagnosed during six months prior to the first SARS-CoV-2 test) was matched by age TRANS, sex, and Charlson comorbidity index with up to four patients without mental disorders. SARS-CoV-2 positivity risk and risk of death MESHD or severe events (intensive care unit admission, use of mechanical ventilation, and acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD) post- infection MESHD were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 230,565 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2, 33,653 (14.6%) had mental disorders, 928/33,653 (2.76%) tested positive, and 56/928 (6.03%) died. In multivariate analysis with the matched cohort, there was no association between mental disorders and SARS-CoV-2 positivity risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.12); however, a higher risk was associated with schizophrenia HP-related disorders (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81). Among confirmed cases TRANS, mortality risk significantly increased in patients with mental disorders (OR, 1.84, 95% CI, 1.07-3.15). Conclusion: Mental disorders are likely contributing factors of mortality following COVID-19. Although the infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk did not increase in overall mental disorders, patients with schizophrenia HP-related disorders were more vulnerable to the infection MESHD.

    Clozapine treatment and risk of COVID-19.

    Authors: Risha Govind; Daniela Fonesca de Freitas; Megan R Pritchard; Richard D Hayes; James H MacCabe

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.17.20133595 Date: 2020-06-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background Clozapine, an antipsychotic with unique efficacy in treatment resistant psychosis HP, is associated with increased susceptibility to infection MESHD, including pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Aims To investigate associations between clozapine treatment and increased risk of COVID-19 in patients with schizophrenia HP-spectrum disorders who are receiving antipsychotic medications, using electronic health records data, in a geographically defined population in London. Method Using information from South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLAM) clinical records, via the Clinical Record Interactive Search system, we identified 6,309 individuals who had an ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia HP-spectrum disorders and were taking antipsychotics at the time on the COVID-19 pandemic onset in the UK. People who were on clozapine treatment were compared with those on any other antipsychotic treatment for risk of contracting COVID-19 between 1 March and 18 May 2020. We tested associations between clozapine treatment and COVID-19 infection MESHD, adjusting for gender TRANS, age TRANS, ethnicity, BMI, smoking status, and SLAM service use. Results Of 6,309 patients, 102 tested positive for COVID-19. Individuals who were on clozapine had increased risk of COVID-19 compared with those who were on other antipsychotic medication (unadjusted HR = 2.62 (95% CI 1.73 - 3.96), which was attenuated after adjusting for potential confounders, including clinical contact (adjusted hazard ratio HR=1.76, 95% CI 1.14 - 2.72). Conclusions These findings provide support for the hypothesis that clozapine treatment is associated with an increased risk of COVID-19. Further research will be needed in other samples to confirm this association. Potential clinical implications are discussed.

    Effect of underlying comorbidities on the infection MESHD and severity of COVID-19 in South Korea

    Authors: Wonjun Ji; Kyungmin Huh; Minsun Kang; Jinwook Hong; Gi Hwan Bae; Rugyeom Lee; Yewon Na; Hyoseon Choi; SeonYeong Gong; Yoon-Hyeong Choi; Kwang-Pil Ko; Jeong-Soo Im; Jaehun Jung

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.08.20095174 Date: 2020-05-11 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic is an emerging threat worldwide. It is still unclear how comorbidities affect the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD and severity of COVID-19. Methods: A nationwide retrospective case-control study of 65,149 individuals, aged TRANS 18 years or older, whose medical cost for COVID-19 testing were claimed until April 8, 2020. The diagnosis of COVID-19 and severity of COVID-19 infection MESHD were identified from the reimbursement data using diagnosis codes and based on whether respiratory support was used, respectively. Odds ratios were estimated using multiple logistic regression, after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, region, healthcare utilization, and insurance status. Results: The COVID-19 group (5,172 of 65,149) was younger and showed higher proportion of females TRANS. 5.6% (293 of 5,172) of COVID-19 cases were severe. The severe COVID-19 group had older patients and a higher male TRANS ratio than the non-severe group. Cushing syndrome MESHD (Odds ratio range (ORR) 2.059-2.358), chronic renal disease MESHD (ORR 1.292-1.604), anemia MESHD anemia HP (OR 1.132), bone marrow dysfunction (ORR 1.471-1.645), and schizophrenia HP (ORR 1.287-1.556) showed significant association with infection MESHD of COVID-19. In terms of severity, diabetes (OR 1.417, 95% CI 1.047-1.917), hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (OR 1.378, 95% CI 1.008-1.883), heart failure MESHD (ORR 1.562-1.730), chronic lower respiratory disease MESHD (ORR 1.361-1.413), non-infectious lower digestive system disease MESHD (ORR 1.361-1.418), rheumatoid arthritis MESHD rheumatoid arthritis HP (ORR 1.865-1.908), substance use (ORR 2.790-2.848), and schizophrenia HP (ORR 3.434-3.833) were related with severe COVID-19. Conclusions: We identified several comorbidities associated with COVID-19. Health care workers should be more careful when diagnosing and treating COVID-19 when the patient has the above-mentioned comorbidities. Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Comorbidity, Risk factor, Severity

    The landscape of host genetic factors involved in infection MESHD to common viruses and SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Linda Kachuri; Stephen S Francis; Maike Morrison; Yohan Bossé Taylor B Cavazos; Sara R Rashkin; Elad Ziv; John S Witte

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.01.20088054 Date: 2020-05-07 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Humans and viruses have co-evolved for millennia resulting in a complex host genetic architecture. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of immune response to viral infection MESHD provides insight into disease MESHD etiology and informs public health interventions. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive study linking germline genetic variation and gene expression with antibody SERO response to 28 antigens for 16 viruses using serological data from 7924 participants in the UK Biobank cohort. Using test results from 2010 UK Biobank subjects, we also investigated genetic determinants of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD. Results: Signals in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region dominated the landscape of viral antibody SERO response, with 40 independent loci and 14 independent classical alleles, 7 of which exhibited pleiotropic effects across viral families. Genome-wide association analyses discovered 7 novel genetic loci associated with viral antibody SERO response (P<5.0x10-8), including FUT2 (19q13.33) for human polyomavirus BK (BKV), STING1 (5q31.2) for Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), as well as CXCR5 (11q23.3) and TBKBP1 (17q21.32) for human herpesvirus 7. Transcriptome-wide association analyses identified 114 genes associated with response to viral infection MESHD, 12 outside of the HLA region, including ECSCR: P=5.0x10-15 (MCV), NTN5: P=1.1x10-9 (BKV), and P2RY13: P=1.1x10-8 (Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen). We also demonstrated pleiotropy between viral response genes and complex diseases MESHD, such as C4A expression in varicella zoster virus and schizophrenia HP. Finally, our analyses of SARS-CoV-2 revealed the first genome-wide significant infection MESHD susceptibility signal in EHF, an epithelial-specific transcriptional repressor implicated in airway disease MESHD. Targeted analyses of expression quantitative trait loci suggest a possible role for tissue-specific ACE2 expression in modifying SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility. Conclusions: Our study confirms the importance of the HLA region in host response to viral infection MESHD and elucidates novel genetic determinants of host-virus interaction. Our results may have implications for complex disease MESHD etiology and COVID-19.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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