Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 12
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    Genomic heterogeneity and clinical characterization of SARS-CoV-2 in Oregon

    Authors: Alexa K. Dowdell; Kevin Matlock; Fred L. Robinson; Roshanthi Weerasinghe; Rogan Rattray; Marina Pukay; Melvin Lathara; Anastacia Harlan; Thomas R Ward; Mary Campbell; Walter J. Urba; Ganapati Srinivasa; Carlo B. Bifulco; Brian D Piening

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20160069 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    The first reported case of COVID-19 in the State of Oregon occurred in late February 2020, with subsequent outbreaks occurring in the populous Portland metro area but also with significant outbreaks in less-populous and rural areas. Here we report viral sequences from 188 patients across the hospitals and associated clinics in the Providence Health System in the State of Oregon dating back to the early days of the outbreak. We show a significant shift in dominant clade lineages over time in Oregon, with the rapid emergence and dominance of Spike D614G-positive variants. We also highlight significant diversity in SARS-CoV-2 sequences in Oregon, including a large number of rare mutations, indicative that these genomes could be utilized for outbreak tracing TRANS. Lastly, we show that SARS-CoV-2 genomic information may offer additional utility in combination with clinical covariates in the prediction of acute disease MESHD phenotypes.

    Role of Physiotherapy in Long Term Physical and Mental Health of People Recovered From COVID 19: A Systematic Review Protocol

    Authors: Vyom Gyanpuri; Neetu Dhiman; Abhishek Pathak; Om Prakash Singh

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-44727/v1 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: the objective of the study to design a protocol on the effectiveness of physiotherapy on long term physical and mental health of recovered patients from coronavirus disease MESHD 2019. Methods: The following electronic databases will be searched from inception to June 2020: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Databases, and other databases. We will include all published documents regarding this topic. Two separate individuals will analyse studies and select accordingly after removal of duplicate studies. Then, final screening, assessment of quality of the articles and data analysis will be done. Meta-analyses, subgroup analysis, and descriptive analysis will be performed based on the included data conditions. Results: Methodological heterogeneity analysis of current evidence will be provided from Physical health outcomes like Barthel Index or Functional Independence measure scale and questionnaires describing health status like Physical Health Questionnaire and Mental health outcomes like SRQ-20, Hamilton Depression scale or Hamilton Anxiety HP scale.Conclusion: This study will provide the evidence regarding the importance of physiotherapy in future physical and mental health of recovered COVID-19 patients, when performed during treatment of disease in acute MESHD hospital management.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020190863 

    Disruption of Adaptive Immunity Enhances Disease MESHD in SARS-CoV-2 Infected Syrian Hamsters

    Authors: Rebecca Brocato; Lucia Principe; Robert Kimi; Xiankun Zeng; Janice Williams; Yanan Liu; Rong Li; Jeffrey Smith; Joseph Golden; Dave Gangemi; Sawsan Youssef; Zhongde Wang; Jacob Glanville; Jay W Hooper

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-43931/v1 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Animal models recapitulating human COVID-19 disease MESHD, especially with severe disease MESHD, are urgently needed to understand pathogenesis and evaluate candidate vaccines and therapeutics. Here, we develop novel severe disease animal models MESHD for COVID-19 involving disruption of adaptive immunity in Syrian hamsters. Cyclophosphamide (CyP) immunosuppressed or RAG2 knockout (KO) hamsters were exposed to SARS-CoV-2 by the respiratory route. Both the CyP-treated and RAG2 KO hamsters developed clinical signs of disease MESHD that were more severe than in immunocompetent hamsters, notably weight loss MESHD weight loss HP, viral loads, and fatality (RAG2 KO only). Disease MESHD was prolonged in transiently immunosuppressed hamsters and uniformly lethal in RAG2 KO hamsters. We evaluated the protective efficacy of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody SERO and found that pretreatment, even in immunosuppressed animals, limited infection MESHD. Our results suggest that functional B and/or T cells are not only important for the clearance of SARS-CoV-2, but also play an early role in protection from acute disease MESHD.

    Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop severe and fatal respiratory disease MESHD

    Authors: Joseph Golden; Curtis Cline; Xiankun Zeng; Aura Garrison; Brian Carey; Eric Mucker; Lauren White; Joshua Shamblin; Rebecca Brocato; Jun Liu; April Babka; Hypaitia Rauch; Jeffrey M Smith; Bradley Hollidge; Collin Fitzpatrick; Catherine Badger; Jay Hooper

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.195230 Date: 2020-07-09 Source: bioRxiv

    ABSTRACTThe emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has created an international health crisis. Small animal models mirroring SARS-CoV-2 human disease MESHD are essential for medical countermeasure (MCM) development. Mice are refractory to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD due to low affinity binding to the murine angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein. Here we evaluated the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in male TRANS and female TRANS mice expressing the human ACE2 gene under the control of the keratin 18 promotor. In contrast to non-transgenic mice, intranasal exposure of K18-hACE2 animals to two different doses of SARS-CoV-2 resulted in acute disease MESHD including weight loss MESHD weight loss HP, lung injury MESHD, brain infection MESHD and lethality. Vasculitis MESHD Vasculitis HP was the most prominent finding in the lungs of infected mice. Transcriptomic analysis from lungs of infected animals revealed increases in transcripts involved in lung injury MESHD and inflammatory cytokines. In the lower dose challenge groups, there was a survival advantage in the female TRANS mice with 60% surviving infection MESHD whereas all male TRANS mice succumbed to disease MESHD. Male TRANS mice that succumbed to disease MESHD had higher levels of inflammatory transcripts compared to female TRANS mice. This is the first highly lethal murine infection MESHD model for SARS-CoV-2. The K18-hACE2 murine model will be valuable for the study of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and the assessment of MCMs.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.View Full Text

    Acute kidney injury MESHD Acute kidney injury HP in hospitalized patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Joana Gameiro; José Agapito Fonseca; João Oliveira; Filipe Marques; João Bernardo; Claudia Costa; Carolina Carreiro; Sandra Braz; Lourdes Alvoeiro; José António Lopes

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39131/v1 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction: The incidence of AKI in coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) patients ranges from 0.5 to 35% and has been associated with worse prognosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, severity, duration, risk factors and prognosis of AKI in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Methods: We conducted a retrospective single-center analysis of 192 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from March to May of 2020. AKI was diagnosed using the Kidney Disease MESHD Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) classification based on serum SERO creatinine (SCr) criteria. Persistent and Transient AKI were defined according to the Acute Disease MESHD Quality Initiative (ADQI) workgroup definitions.Results: In this cohort of COVID-19 patients, 55.2% developed AKI (n=106). The majority of AKI patients had persistent AKI (n=64, 60.4%). Overall, in-hospital mortality was 18.2% (n=35) and was higher in AKI patients (28.3% vs 5.9%, p<0.001, unadjusted OR 6.03 (2.22-16.37), p<0.001). On a multivariate analysis, older age TRANS (adjusted OR 1.08 (95% CI 1.02-1.13), p=0.004), lower Hb level (adjusted OR 0.69 (95% CI 0.53-0.91), p=0.007) and acidemia HP at presentation (adjusted OR 5.53 (95% CI 1.70-18.63), p=0.005), duration of AKI (adjusted OR 7.91 for persistent AKI (95% CI 2.39-26.21), p=0.001) and severity of AKI (adjusted OR 2.30 per increase in KDIGO stage (95% CI 1.10-4.82), p=0.027) were independent predictors of mortality.Conclusion: AKI was frequent in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Persistent AKI and higher severity of AKI were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.

    COVID-19 Pneumonia: Inter-Observer Agreement and Diagnostic Accuracy of Chest CT in Patients with Intermediate Clinical Probability

    Authors: Anne-Laure BRUN; Alexia GENCE-BRENEY; Julie TRICHEREAU; Marie-Christine BALLESTER; Marc VASSE; Marie-Laure CHABI; François MELLOT

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-37489/v1 Date: 2020-06-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives To assess inter-reader agreements and diagnostic accuracy of chest CT to identify COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in patients with intermediate clinical probability during an acute disease MESHD outbreak.Methods:From March 20 to April 8, consecutive patients with intermediate clinical probability of COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP underwent a chest CT scan. Two independent chest radiologists blinded to clinical information and RT-PCR results retrospectively reviewed and classified images on a 1-5 confidence level scale for COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Agreements between radiologists were assessed with kappa statistics. Diagnostic accuracy of chest CT compared to RT-PCR assay and patient outcomes was measured using receiver operating characteristics (ROC). Positive predictive value SERO (PPV) and negative predictive value SERO (NPV) for COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP were calculated.Results: 319 patients with a mean age TRANS of 62.3 yo were included. Inter-observer agreement for highly probable (kappa: 0.83 [p < .001]) and highly probable or probable (kappa: 0.82 [p < .001]) diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP was very good. RT-PCR tests performed in 307 patients were positive in 173 and negative in 134. Sixteen patients with negative RT-PCR tests and probable or highly probable CT patterns according to both radiologists were reclassified COVID-19 positive after clinical discussion. The areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.94 and 0.92 respectively. With a disease MESHD prevalence SERO of 61.6%, PPV were 96.6 % and 94.4%, and NPV 84.3% and 78.2%.Conclusion :During acute COVID-19 outbreak, chest CT scan may be used for triage of patients with intermediate clinical probability with very good inter-observer agreements and diagnostic accuracy.

    A Combined Deep CNN-LSTM Network for the Detection of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Using X-ray Images

    Authors: Md. Zabirul Islam; Md. Milon Islam; Amanullah Asraf

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.18.20134718 Date: 2020-06-20 Source: medRxiv

    Nowadays automatic disease MESHD detection has become a crucial issue in medical science with the rapid growth of population. Coronavirus (COVID-19) has become one of the most severe and acute diseases MESHD in very recent times that has been spread globally. Automatic disease MESHD detection framework assists the doctors in the diagnosis of disease MESHD and provides exact, consistent, and fast reply as well as reduces the death MESHD rate. Therefore, an automated detection system should be implemented as the fastest way of diagnostic option to impede COVID-19 from spreading. This paper aims to introduce a deep learning technique based on the combination of a convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short -term memory (LSTM) to diagnose COVID-19 automatically from X-ray images. In this system, CNN is used for deep feature extraction and LSTM is used for detection using the extracted feature. A collection of 421 X -ray images including 141 images of COVID-19 is used as a dataset in this system. The experimental results show that our proposed system has achieved 97% accuracy, 91% specificity, and 100% sensitivity SERO. The system achieved desired results on a small dataset which can be further improved when more COVID-19 images become available. The proposed system can assist doctors to diagnose and treatment the COVID-19 patients easily.

    Disruption of Adaptive Immunity Enhances Disease MESHD in SARS-CoV-2 Infected Syrian Hamsters

    Authors: Rebecca Brocato; Lucia Principe; Robert Kim; Xiankun Zeng; Janice Williams; Yanan Liu; Rong Li; Jeffrey Smith; Joseph Golden; Dave Gangemi; Sawsan Youssef; Zhongde Wang; Jacob Glanville; Jay Hooper

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.19.161612 Date: 2020-06-19 Source: bioRxiv

    Animal models recapitulating human COVID-19 disease MESHD, especially with severe disease MESHD, are urgently needed to understand pathogenesis and evaluate candidate vaccines and therapeutics. Here, we develop novel severe disease animal models MESHD for COVID-19 involving disruption of adaptive immunity in Syrian hamsters. Cyclophosphamide (CyP) immunosuppressed or RAG2 knockout (KO) hamsters were exposed to SARS-CoV-2 by the respiratory route. Both the CyP-treated and RAG2 KO hamsters developed clinical signs of disease MESHD that were more severe than in immunocompetent hamsters, notably weight loss MESHD weight loss HP, viral loads, and fatality (RAG2 KO only). Disease MESHD was prolonged in transiently immunosuppressed hamsters and uniformly lethal in RAG2 KO hamsters. We evaluated the protective efficacy of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody SERO and found that pretreatment, even in immunosuppressed animals, limited infection MESHD. Our results suggest that functional B and/or T cells are not only important for the clearance of SARS-CoV-2, but also play an early role in protection from acute disease MESHD. One Sentence SummaryAn antibody SERO targeting the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 limits infection MESHD in immunosuppressed Syrian hamster models.

    ARDS and Cytokine Storm in SARS-CoV-2 Infected Caribbean Vervets

    Authors: Robert V Blair; Monica Vaccari; Lara A Doyle-Meyers; Chad J Roy; Kasi Russell-Lodrigue; Marissa Fahlberg; Chris J Monjure; Brandon Beddingfield; Kenneth S Plante; Jessica A Plante; Scott C Weaver; Xuebin Qin; Cecily C Midkiff; Gabrielle Lehmicke; Nadia Golden; Breanna Threeton; Toni Penney; Carolina Allers; Mary B Barnes; Melissa Pattison; Prasun K Datta; Nicholas J Maness; Angela Birnbaum; Rudolf P Bohm; Jay Rappaport

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.18.157933 Date: 2020-06-19 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 induces a wide range of disease MESHD severity ranging from asymptomatic infection MESHD asymptomatic TRANS, to a life-threating illness, particularly in the elderly TRANS and persons with comorbid conditions. Up to now, SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than five million and led to more than 300,000 deaths MESHD worldwide. Among those persons with serious COVID-19 disease, acute MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS) is a common and often fatal presentation. SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS is difficult to treat clinically, and new therapeutic strategies are needed. In order to evaluate such therapeutic strategies, animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD that manifest severe disease MESHD are needed. Here we report fatal ARDS in two African green monkeys (AGMs) infected with SARS-CoV-2 that demonstrated pathological lesions and disease MESHD similar to severe COVID-19 in humans. Moreover, we report the observation of cytokine release (cytokine storm) in three of four infected AGMs. All four animals showed increased levels of IL-6 in plasma SERO, a predictive marker and presumptive therapeutic target in humans infected with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Our results suggest the AGM is a useful model to study disease MESHD pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, and for the evaluation of therapeutic interventions designed to combat serious pulmonary disease MESHD associated with this infection MESHD.

    Ethnicity and outcomes in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 infection MESHD in East London: an observational cohort study

    Authors: Vanessa J Apea; Yize I Wan; Rageshri Dhairyawan; Zudin A Puthucheary; Rupert M Pearse; Chloe M Orkin; John R Prowle

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.10.20127621 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Preliminary studies suggest that people from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds experience higher mortality from COVID-19 but the underlying reasons remain unclear. Methods: Prospective analysis of registry data describing patients admitted to five acute NHS Hospitals in east London, UK for COVID-19. Emergency MESHD hospital admissions with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 aged TRANS 16 years or over were included. Data, including ethnicity, social deprivation, frailty MESHD, patient care and detailed risk factors for mortality, were extracted from hospital electronic records. Multivariable survival analysis was used to assess associations between ethnic group and mortality accounting for the effects of age TRANS, sex and various other risk factors. Results are presented as hazard ratios (HR) or odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Findings: 1996 adult TRANS patients were admitted between 1st March and 13th May 2020. After excluding 259 patients with missing ethnicity data, 1737 were included in our analysis of whom 511 had died by day 30 (29%). 538 (31%) were from Asian, 340 (20%) Black and 707 (40%) white backgrounds. Compared to white patients, those from BAME backgrounds were younger, with differing co-morbidity profiles and less frailty MESHD. Asian and black patients were more likely to be admitted to intensive care and to receive invasive ventilation (OR 1.54, [1.06-2.23]; p=0.023 and 1.80 [1.20-2.71]; p=0.005, respectively). After adjustment for age TRANS and sex, patients from Asian (HR 1.49 [1.19-1.86]; p<0.001) and black (HR 1.30 [1.02-1.65]; p=0.036) backgrounds were more likely to die. These findings persisted across a range of risk-factor adjusted analyses. Interpretation: Patients from Asian and Black backgrounds are more likely to die from COVID-19 infection MESHD despite controlling for all previously identified confounders. Higher rates of invasive ventilation in intensive care indicate greater acute disease MESHD severity. Our analyses suggest that patients of Asian and Black backgrounds suffered disproportionate rates of premature death MESHD from COVID-19.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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