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    Abusers indoors and coronavirus outside: an examination of public discourse about COVID-19 and family violence on Twitter using machine learning

    Authors: Jia Xue; Junxiang Chen; Chen Chen; Ran Hu; Tingshao Zhu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.13.20167452 Date: 2020-08-15 Source: medRxiv

    Purpose: This brief report aims to provide the first large-scale analysis of public discourse regarding family violence and the COVID-19 pandemic on Twitter. Method: We analyzed 301,606 Tweets related to family violence and COVID-19 from April 12 to July 16, 2020, for this study. We used the machine learning approach, Latent Dirichlet Allocation, and identified salient themes, topics, and representative Twitter examples. Results: We extracted nine themes on family violence and COVID-19 pandemic, including (1) the Impact of COVID-19 on family violence (e.g., rising rates, hotline calls increased, murder & homicide); (2) the types (e.g., child TRANS abuse, domestic violence, sexual violence MESHD) and (3) forms of family violence (e.g., physical aggression MESHD, coercive control); (4) risk factors of family violence (e.g., alcohol abuse MESHD, financial constraints, gun, quarantine); (5) victims of family violence (e.g., LGBTQ, women, and women of color, children TRANS); (6) social services of family violence (e.g., hotlines, social workers, confidential services, shelters, funding); (7) law enforcement response (e.g., 911 calls, police arrest, protective orders, abuse reports); (8) Social movement/ awareness (e.g., support victims, raise awareness); and (9) domestic violence-related news (e.g., Tara Reade, Melissa Derosa). Conclusions: The COVID-19 has an impact on family violence. This report overcomes the limitation of existing scholarship that lacks data for consequences of COVID-19 on family violence. We contribute to the understanding of family violence during the pandemic by providing surveillance in Tweets, which is essential to identify potentially effective policy programs in offering targeted support for victims and survivors and preparing for the next wave.

    Vindication, Virtue and Vitriol: A study of online engagement and abuse toward British MPs during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Authors: Tracie Farrell; Genevieve Gorrell; Kalina Bontcheva

    id:2008.05261v1 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: arXiv

    COVID-19 has given rise to malicious content online, including online abuse MESHD and hate toward British MPs. In order to understand and contextualise the level of abuse MPs receive, we consider how ministers use social media to communicate about the crisis, and the citizen engagement that this generates. The focus of the paper is on a large-scale, mixed methods study of abusive and antagonistic responses to UK politicians during the pandemic from early February to late May 2020. We find that pressing subjects such as financial concerns attract high levels of engagement, but not necessarily abusive dialogue. Rather, criticising authorities appears to attract higher levels of abuse. In particular, those who carry the flame for subjects like racism and inequality, may be accused of virtue signalling or receive higher abuse levels due to the topics they are required by their role to address. This work contributes to the wider understanding of abusive language online, in particular that which is directed at public officials.

    Temperament and character of patients with alcohol toxicity MESHD during COVID -19 pandemic

    Authors: AliReza Estedlal; Arash Mani; Hossein Molavi Vardanjani; Mahsa Kamali; Leila Zarei; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Kamran B Lankarani

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39758/v1 Date: 2020-07-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Corona virus pandemic acts as a stressor or trauma MESHD that affects both physical health and mental health. People exhibited various reactive behaviors to confront with this stressful situation. Alcohol consumption for coping motive was one of the most common techniques. Personality factors evidently influence alcohol consumption, since they are associated with drinking motives. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between temperament and character and alcohol abuse MESHD.Methods This cross-section study was conducted on 135 alcohol toxicity MESHD patients admitted to emergency room in March 2020 and 255 participants who were randomly selected from public in Shiraz. The questionnaire consisted of TCI (Temperament and character inventory) and several questions about COVID-19 pandemic. It was completed by a trained interviewer using the matched answer technique. Demographic factors were also self-reported.Results Among the participants, 216 were males TRANS (55.4%) and 174 females TRANS (44.6%). The mean age TRANS of the participants was 32.88 ± 13.49 years. Alcohol toxicity MESHD was mostly observed among the young males TRANS ( male TRANS/ female TRANS ratio was 6.45). Mean scores of novelty seeking, harm avoidant, and self-transcendent were higher in the alcohol toxicity MESHD group than normal population (P < 0.01). Mean scores of reward dependent, cooperativeness, and self-directedness were higher in normal population than the alcohol toxicity MESHD group (P < 0.001). The mean score of persistence was not significant in both group (P = 0.718).Conclusion Novelty-seeking and self-transcendence scores were higher and reward-dependency score was lower among the alcohol abusers and cooperativeness and self-directedness scores were lower among the alcohol abusers. Higher novelty-seeking was correlated with higher impulsiveness MESHD, exploratory excitability, extravagance, and disorderliness, which are included in Cluster B personality disorders MESHD personality disorders HP and associated with alcohol and drug involvement. Lower self-directedness and lower cooperativeness indicate the higher likelihood of personality disorders HP personality disorders MESHD. Cluster A personality disorder MESHD personality disorder HP symptoms (in particular, schizoid personality disorder MESHD personality disorder HP symptoms) are correlated with low reward-dependence scores.

    Association of the Covid-19 lockdown with smoking, drinking, and attempts to quit in England: an analysis of 2019-2020 data

    Authors: Sarah E Jackson; Claire Garnett; Lion Shahab; Melissa Oldham; Jamie Brown

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.25.20112656 Date: 2020-05-27 Source: medRxiv

    Aim: To examine changes in smoking, drinking, and quitting/reduction behaviour following the Covid-19 lockdown in England. Design/setting: Monthly cross-sectional surveys representative of the adult TRANS population in England, aggregated before (April 2019 through February 2020) versus after (April 2020) the lockdown. Participants: 20,558 adults TRANS ([≥]16y). Measurements: The independent variable was the timing of the Covid-19 lockdown in England (before vs. after March 2020). Dependent variables were: prevalence SERO of smoking and high-risk drinking; past-year cessation and quit attempts (among past-year smokers); past-year attempts to reduce alcohol consumption (among high-risk drinkers); and use of evidence-based (e.g., prescription medication/face-to-face behavioural support) and remote support (telephone support/websites/apps) for smoking cessation and alcohol reduction (among smokers/high-risk drinkers who made a quit/reduction attempt). Covariates included age TRANS, sex, social grade, region, and level of nicotine and alcohol dependence MESHD (as relevant). Findings: The Covid-19 lockdown was not associated with a significant change in smoking prevalence SERO (17.0% (after) vs. 15.9% (before), OR=1.09[95%CI 0.95-1.24]), but was associated with increases in the rate of quit attempts (39.6% vs. 29.1%, ORadj=1.56[1.23-1.98]) and cessation (8.8% vs. 4.1%, ORadj=2.63[1.69-4.09]) among past-year smokers. Among smokers who tried to quit, there was no significant change in use of evidence-based support (50.0% vs. 51.5%, ORadj=1.10[0.72-1.68]) but use of remote support increased (10.9% vs. 2.7%, ORadj=3.59[1.56-8.23]). Lockdown was associated with increases in the prevalence SERO of high-risk drinking (38.3% vs. 25.1%, OR=1.85[1.67-2.06]) but also alcohol reduction attempts by high-risk drinkers (28.5% vs. 15.3%, ORadj=2.16[1.77-2.64]). Among high-risk drinkers who made a reduction attempt, use of evidence-based support decreased (1.2% vs. 4.0%, ORadj=0.23[0.05-0.97]) and there was no significant change in use of remote support (6.9% vs. 6.1%, ORadj=1.32[0.64-2.75]). Conclusions: In England, prevalence SERO of high-risk drinking but not smoking has increased since the Covid-19 lockdown. Smokers and high-risk drinkers are more likely than before lockdown to report trying to quit smoking or reduce their alcohol consumption, and rates of smoking cessation are higher. Smokers are no less likely than before lockdown to use cessation support, with increased uptake of remote support. However, use of evidence-based support for alcohol reduction by high-risk drinkers has decreased, with no compensatory increase in use of remote support.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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