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MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Asthma MESHD Asthma HP and COVID-19 - A systematic review

    Authors: Natália F. Mendes; Carlos P. Jara; Eli Mansour; Eliana P. Araújo; Licio Velloso

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53998/v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundSevere coronavirus disease MESHD-19 (COVID-19) presents with progressive dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, which results from acute lung inflammatory edema MESHD edema HP leading to hypoxia MESHD. As with other infectious diseases MESHD that affect the respiratory tract, asthma MESHD asthma HP has been cited as a potential risk factor for severe COVID-19. However, conflicting results have been published over the last few months and the putative association between these two diseases MESHD is still unproven.MethodsHere, we systematically reviewed all reports on COVID-19 published since its emergence in December 2019 to May 18, 2020, looking into the description of asthma MESHD asthma HP as a premorbid condition, which could indicate its potential involvement in disease progression MESHD.ResultsWe found 169 articles describing the clinical characteristics of 36,072 patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Asthma MESHD Asthma HP was reported as a premorbid condition in only 655 patients accounting for 1.8% of all patients.ConclusionsAs the global prevalence SERO of asthma MESHD asthma HP is 4.4%, we conclude that either asthma MESHD asthma HP is not a premorbid condition that contributes to the development of COVID-19 or clinicians and researchers are not accurately describing the premorbidities in COVID-19 patients.

    Rationale for the Use of Radiation-Activated Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD

    Authors: Isabel Tovar Martín; Rosa Guerrero; Jesús Joaquín Lopez-Peñalver; José Expósito; José Mariano Ruiz de Almodóvar

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0035.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: Preprints.org

    Previously we have shown that the combination of radiotherapy with human-umbilical-cord-derived mesenchymal stem-cell therapy significantly reduces the size of the xenotumours in mice, both in the directly irradiated tumour and in the distant non-irradiated tumour or in its metastasis. We have also shown that exosomes secreted from mesenchymal stem-cells pre-irradiated with 2 Gy are quantitatively, functionally and qualitatively different from the exosomes secreted from non-irradiated mesenchymal cells and also that proteins, exosomes and microvesicles secreted by mesenchymal cells suffer a dramatic change when cells are activated or non-activated, with the amount of protein present in the exosomes of the pre-irradiated cells being 1.5-fold times greater compared to those from non-irradiated cells. This finding correlates with a dramatic increase in the anti-tumour activity of the exosomes secreted by pre-irradiated mesenchymal-cells. After the proteomic analysis of the load of the exosomes released from both irradiated and non-irradiated cells, we conclude that annexin A1 is the most important and significant difference between the exosomes released by the cells in either status. Knowing the role of annexin A1 in the control of hypoxia MESHD and inflammation MESHD which is characteristic of acute- distress-respiratory HP syndrome MESHD, we have designed a hypothetical therapeutic strategy, based on the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells stimulated with radiation, to alleviate the symptoms of patients who, due to pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP caused by COVID-19, require the care of an intensive care unit for patients with life-threatening conditions. With this hypothesis, we would seek to improve the patients’ respiratory capacity and increase the expectations of their cure.

    COVID-19 Clot: What Is It? Why in the Lungs? Extracellular Histone, “Auto-Activation” of Prothrombin, Emperipolesis, Megakaryocytes, “Self-Association” of Von Willebrand Factor and Beyond

    Authors: Nadarajah Varatharajah

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0516.v1 Date: 2020-07-22 Source: Preprints.org

    COVID-19 thromboembolic disease MESHD has brought all of us back to the drawing board. In COVID-19, pre-existing activated endothelium with increased Von Willebrand factor (VWF), low density lipoprotein (LDL) promoting “self-association” and “sticking” of long VWF strings to the vascular endothelial wall, suppressed ADAMTS13 cleavage of VWF, hypoxia MESHD induced upregulation and activation of VWF, fibrous network from neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) with free DNA and histone, all appear to be initiating the thrombogenesis. Worsening complement activation, cytokine storm and resulting endothelial destruction, unregulated thrombogenesis leads to vascular occlusions and hypoxia MESHD. At this stage, the presence of abundant extracellular DNA, histone and -defensins appears worse than the SARS-CoV-2 itself. Previously observed in vitro mechanisms like histone “auto-activating” prothrombin, histone activated platelets generating thrombin without FXII, thrombin and plasmin cleaving complement C5 appears highly likely in COVID-19. Megakaryocytes are actively producing platelets in the lungs and appear to play a major role in thrombogenesis of COVID-19 raising suspicion of emperipolesis. This focused review is a compilation of my observations in relation to the pathophysiology of the intravascular environment, mainly in COVID-19 lungs. Pathophysiology based clinical trials are paramount in reducing morbidity and mortality in COVID-19.

    The Important Herbal Pair for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Its Possible Mechanisms

    Authors: Shujie Xia; Zhangfeng Zhong; Bizhen Gao; Chi Teng Vong; Jin Cai; Xuejuan Lin; Shujiao Chen; Ging Chan; CanDong Li

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-46828/v1 Date: 2020-07-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is an unprecedented disaster for people around the world. Many studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) are indeed effective in treating COVID-19. However, it is a hard work to find the most effective combination laws among numerous herbs as well as its potential mechanisms. The purpose of this article is to explore the combination laws of traditional Chinses medicine(TCM) prescriptions and pick out the most important herbal pair for treating COVID-19 and analyze the active components and potential mechanisms. Methods: We first systematically sorted out the TCM prescriptions recommended by leading experts for treating COVID-19 and the specific herbs they contained in different stages of disease MESHD. Next, the association rule approach was employed to examine the distribution and combination laws among these TCM prescription, and then picked out the most important herbal pair. On this basis, we further investigated the active ingredients and potential targets in the selected herbal pair by a network pharmacology approach. Result: We obtained 32 association rules for herb combinations in the process of TCM treatment for COVID-19. It was found that the combination of Amygdalus Communis Vas(ACV) and Ephedra sinica Stapf (ESS) had the highest confidence degree and lift value as well as high support degree, which can be used in almost all stages of COVID-19, so ACV and ESS (AE) was selected as the most important herbal pair. There were 26 active ingredients and 44 potential targets, which may be relate to the herbal pair of AE against COVID-19. The main active ingredients of AE against COVID-19 are quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and the potential important targets are Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 1 (MAPK)1, MAPK8, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) p65 subunit (RELA) and so on. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) cluster demonstrated that IL-6 was the seed in the cluster, which plays an important role in connecting other nodes in the PPI network. The significant pathways mainly involved in tumor necrosis MESHD factor (TNF), Toll-like receptor (TLR), hypoxia MESHD-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor(NLRs). Conclusion: Amygdalus Communis Vas and Ephedra sinica Stapf was the most important herbal pair in the treatment of COVID-19. The main active ingredients of AE against COVID-19 were quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and the important targets were IL-6,MAPK1, MAPK8, IL-1β, RELA and so on. AE may have therapeutic effects against COVID-19 by affecting the pathological processes such as inflammatory and immune responses, cell apoptosis, hypoxia MESHD damage and other pathological processes through multiple components, multiple targets and multiple pathways.

    Can Adenosine Fight COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD?

    Authors: Carmela Falcone; Massimo Caracciolo; Pierpaolo Correale; Sebastiano Macheda; Eugenio Giuseppe Vadalà; Stefano La Scala; Marco Tescione; Roberta Danieli; Anna Ferrarelli; Maria Grazia Tarsitano; Lorenzo Romano; Antonino De Lorenzo

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0426.v1 Date: 2020-07-19 Source: Preprints.org

    Some COVID-19 patients develop interstitial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP that can evolve into Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD (ARDS). This is accompanied by an inflammatory cytokine storm. SarS-CoV has proteins capable of promoting cytokine storm, especially in patients with comorbidities, including obesity MESHD obesity HP. Since there is currently no resolutive therapy for ARDS and given the scientific literature regarding the use of adenosine, its application has been hypothesized. Adenosine through its receptors is able to inhibit the acute inflammatory process, increase the protection capacity of the epithelial barrier and reduce the damage due to an overactivation of the immune system, such as in cytokine storms. These features are known in ischemia MESHD / reperfusion models and could also be exploited in acute lung injury MESHD, with hypoxia MESHD. In light of these hypotheses, for compassionate use, a COVID-19 patient, with unresponsive respiratory failure HP, was treated with adenosine. The results showed a rapid and clear improvement in clinical conditions, with the negative effect of detection of SarS-CoV2.

    Early initiation of Extracorporeal Blood SERO Purification using the AN69ST (oXiris®) hemofilter as a treatment modality for COVID - 19 patients: a single-centre case series

    Authors: Petar Ugurov; Dijana Popevski; Tanja Gramosli; Dashurie Neziri; Dragica Vuckova; Emil Stoicovski; Lidija Veljanovska-Kiridjievska; Katerina Ignevska; Sanja Mehandziska; Elena Ambarkova; Rodney Alexander Rosalia; Zan Mitrev

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-44717/v1 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction: Our understanding of the COVID-19 disease MESHD has been steadily evolving since the original outbreak in December 2019. Advanced disease MESHD is characterised by a hyperinflammatory state, systemic coagulopathies and multiorgan involvement, in particular respiratory distress HP. We here describe our initial experience with treating of COVID-19 patients based on early initiation of extracorporeal blood SERO purification, systemic heparinisation and respiratory support.Methods: 15 patients were included; 2 were females TRANS. We monitored real-time several biochemical, immunological and coagulation biomarkers associated with disease MESHD severity following admission to our dedicated COVID-19 intensive care unit. To guide personalised treatment, we monitored among others levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte ratios, Thrombocyte counts, D-Dimers, Fibrinogen, and Activation Clotting time (ACT).Treatment consisted of individualised respiratory support supplemented with 1 - 4 cycles of 24-hour Extracorporeal Organ Support (ECOS) and Blood SERO Purification using the AN69ST (oXiris®) hemofilter. We administered heparin (300 U/kg) to counter suspected hypercoagulability HP (= elevated Fibrinogen or D-dimers) states to maintain ACT ≥ 180 seconds.Results: N = 10 presented with severe to critical disease MESHD (= dyspnoea, hypoxia MESHD, respiratory rate > 30/min, peripheral oxygen saturation < 90%, or > 50% lung involvement on X-ray imaging). A single case was admitted with a critical condition (= respiratory failure HP). One patient died after 5 days of hospitalisation after developing Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD. 8 Patients have been discharged - average ICU length-of-stay was 9.9 ± 2.4 days. Clinical improvement was associated with normalisation (increase) of thrombocytes, white blood SERO cells, stable levels of IL-6 (< 50 ng/mL) and a decrease of CRP and Fibrinogen. Conclusion: Means to monitor COVID-19 disease MESHD severity during hospitalisation are crucial to control disease progression MESHD and prevent hyperinflammation and irreversible multiorgan failure. We present here a real-time monitoring system accounting for biochemical, immunological, coagulation parameters and radiological imaging. The combination of systemic heparin anticoagulation regimens and blood SERO purification may prevent hyperinflammation, thromboembolism MESHD thromboembolism HP during hospitalisation and thus support clinical recovery. 

    Pathogenesis clue from early clinical presentation of 300 hospitalized COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Feng Yu; Xuemei Deng; Li Ni; Wei Li; Ping Yan; Mian Huang; Xiongbiao Wang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-44006/v1 Date: 2020-07-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    The global spread of COVID-19 has been lasted more than half a year. Except for the gene sequence and virus structure of SARS-CoV-2, its clinical characteristics, pathological mechanism and corresponding measures have not been fully revealed. Objective: To speculate the possible pathological mechanism from the early clinical manifestations of the patients with COVID-19. Methods: The onset symptoms TRANS, laboratory examination and CT findings on admission of 300 cases in two wards of Wuhan Third Hospital from January 28 to March 15 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: There was no difference in incidence between men and women, but women were hospitalized later after onset. Upper respiratory symptoms and sputum were seldom. The incidence of fever MESHD fever HP was 71%. Blood SERO lymphocytes count decreased significantly on admission, which was related to the severity of the disease MESHD. In the moderate type of patients, who without hypoxia MESHD, thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP occurred in 12.37%, CRP rose in 64.43 %, BUN elevated in 20.62 %, creatinine rose in 17.53 %, D-dimer elevated in 74.74%, creatine kinase and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase elevated in 45.36% and 54.12% patients respectively. The early CT showed a small amount of infiltration in the subpleural, the lateral zone of the lung and thickening of the interlobular septum. About 5 days later, infiltration had been worse in a part of the patients, and the affected lung was negatively correlated with the lymphocyte count. Conclusion: There was no gender TRANS difference in patients with SARS-CoV-2 invasion. Alveolar cells and T lymphocytes maybe main targets of the virus and apoptosis maybe primary pathogenesis. The virus entering the lung maybe transmitted through lymph or blood SERO channels, rather than direct diffused in the respiratory tract. Early damage of multiple organs maybe caused by immune response. 

    Increased expression of hypoxia MESHD-induced factor 1α mRNA and its related genes in myeloid blood SERO cells from critically ill COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Keiko Taniguchi-Ponciano; Eduardo Vadillo; Héctor Mayani; César Raúl Gonzales-Bonilla; Javier Torres; Abraham Majluf; Guillermo Flores-Padilla; Niels Wacher-Rodarte; Juan Carlos Galan; Eduardo Ferat-Osorio; Francisco Blanco-Favela; Constantino Lopez-Macias; Aldo Ferreira-Hermosillo; Claudia Ramirez-Renteria; Eduardo Peña-Martínez; Gloria Silva-Román; Sandra Vela-Patiño; Carlos Mata-Lozano; Roberto Carvente-Garcia; Lourdes Basurto-Acevedo; Renata Saucedo; Patricia Piña-Sanchez; María Antonieta Chavez-Gonzalez; Daniel Marrero-Rodríguez; Moisés Mercado

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-43390/v1 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Since its emergence, in December 2019, COVID-19 has resulted in more than 12 million people infected and has killed more than 570000. Hypoxemia HP has been identified as one of the main clinical manifestations of this disease MESHD, especially in severe cases. We have previously reported that in critically ill COVID-19 patients there is a shift towards an immature myeloid profile in peripheral blood SERO cells, including band neutrophils, immature monocytes, metamyelocytes, monocyte-macrophages, monocytoid precursors, and promyelocytes-myelocytes, which, together with mature monocytes and segmented neutrophils, comprise the vast majority of blood SERO cells in these patients. Such an immature myeloid profile may be the result of a physiological response known as emergency MESHD myelopoiesis. In the present study, we performed scRNAseq from leukocytes from five critically ill COVID-19 patients and characterized the expression of hypoxia MESHD-inducible factor1α (HIF1α) mRNA and its transcriptionally regulated genes. HIF1α is a master transcription factor involved in the cellular response to hypoxia MESHD. We herein report that these cellular subsets express high levels of HIF1α mRNA and several of their transcriptional targets, including those related to inflammation MESHD, such as CXCL8, CXCR1, CXCR2, and CXCR4; those potentially involved  in virus sensing, such as TLR2 and TLR4; and those related to metabolism, such as SLC2A3, PFKFB3, PGK1, GAPDH and SOD2. The up-regulation and participation of HIF1α in relevant events such as inflammation MESHD, immunometabolism, and TLR make it a potential molecular marker for COVID-19 severity and, interestingly, could represent a potential target for molecular therapy. 

    Pathogenesis Clues from the Early Clinical Presentation of 300 Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Feng Yu; Xuemei Deng; Li Ni; Wei Li; Ping Yan; Mian Huang; xiongbiao wang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-42484/v1 Date: 2020-07-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The global spread of the 2019 coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) has lasted more than half a year. Except for the gene sequence and viral structure of SARS-CoV-2, its clinical characteristics, pathological mechanisms and corresponding measures have not been fully revealed. We aimed to speculate about the possible pathological mechanism from the early clinical manifestations of patients with COVID-19. Methods: The onset symptoms TRANS, laboratory examinations and CT findings on admission of 300 patients in two wards of Wuhan Third Hospital from January 28 to March 15 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: There was no difference in incidence between men and women, but women were hospitalized later after onset. Upper respiratory symptoms and sputum were rare. The incidence of fever MESHD fever HP was 71%. Blood SERO lymphocyte counts were decreased significantly on admission and were related to the severity of the disease MESHD. In moderate patients without hypoxia MESHD, thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP occurred in 12.37%, CRP rose in 64.43%, BUN was elevated in 20.62%, creatinine rose in 17.53%, D-dimer was elevated in 74.74%, and creatine kinase and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase were elevated in 45.36% and 54.12% of patients, respectively. Early CT showed a small amount of infiltration in the subpleural and lateral zones of the lung and thickening of the interlobular septum. Approximately 5 days later, infiltration was worse in some of the patients, and the proportion of involvement of the affected lung was negatively correlated with the lymphocyte count. Conclusions: There was no sex difference in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Alveolar cells and T lymphocytes may be the main targets of the virus, and apoptosis may be the primary mechanism of pathogenesis. The virus entering the lung may be transmitted through lymph or blood SERO vessels rather than directly dispersing through the respiratory tract. Early damage to multiple organs may be caused by the immune response. 

    Risk and impact of using mask on COPD patients with acute exacerbation during the COVID-19 outbreak: a retrospective study

    Authors: You Mo; DunCan Wei; Qi Mai; Chongyue Chen; Hanguang Yu; Chaowen Jiang; Xuerui Tan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39747/v1 Date: 2020-07-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD) is an inflammatory airway disease MESHD characterized by the presence of expiratory flow limitation. Exacerbations of COPD are common acute events. During epidemic of COVID-19, concerns have been raised with regard to mask- using because of increasing respiratory resistance. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between the vital signs , inflammation MESHD index, hypercapnia MESHD hypercapnia HP, hypoxia MESHD and mask-using in AECOPD patients.Methods:This retrospective study was performed at a tertiary hospital, and enrolled 23 patients with AECOPD who were hospitalized three or more times in the respiratory department. Patients in Group C were hospitalized and used masks during the epidemic period of COVID-19. Patient’s data of the previous two hospitalizations from the medical record system divided into group A and group B according to the time sequence. Vital signs, inflammation MESHD index, artery blood SERO gas from medical record system and questionnaires of three hospitalizations in the same patient were collected to perform paired test.Results: Surgical mask using increased the levels of PaCO2 (8.98mm Hg; p = 0.004), HCO3-act (4.1mmol/L; p =0.006), BE (3.01mmol/L; p =0.019) and systolic blood SERO pressure (11.39mm Hg; p = 0.01) in patients with AECOPD compared to last hospitalization. Surgical mask using for 30 to 120 minutes is associated with hypercapnia MESHD hypercapnia HP. There were no significant differences observed between group B and group A without using mask in vital signs, inflammation MESHD index, and artery blood SERO gas.Conclusions: In this study, we found that systolic blood SERO pressures and PaCO2, HCO3-act, BE were significantly elevated in AECOPD patients using masks compared to the other groups without masks. In addition,the changes in PaCO2,HCO3-act,BE is closely related to serum SERO chloride concentration. Therefore, it is need to increase awareness and understanding of the use of masks in patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
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