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Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Cold-adapted live attenuated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine completely protects human ACE2 transgenic mice from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Sang Heui Seo; Yunyueng Jang

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.235689 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has infected more than 16,000,000 people and has caused the death MESHD of more than 650,000 individuals since December 2019. A safe and effective vaccine that can provide herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed to stop the spread of this virus among humans. Many human viral vaccines are live attenuated forms of viruses that elicit humoral and cellular immunity. Here, we describe the development of a cold-adapted live attenuated vaccine (SARS-CoV-2/human/Korea/CNUHV03-CA22{degrees}C/2020) by gradually adapting the growth of SARS-CoV-2 from 37{degrees}C to 22{degrees}C in Vero cells. This vaccine can be potentially administered to humans through nasal spray. Its single dose was observed to strongly induce the neutralising antibody SERO (>640), cellular immunity, and mucosal IgA antibody SERO in intranasally immunised K18-hACE2 mice, which are very susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection MESHD. The one-dose vaccinated mice were completely protected from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and did not show loss of body weight MESHD, death MESHD, and the presence of virus in tissues, such as the nasal turbinates, brain, lungs, and kidneys. Taken together, the cold-adapted live attenuated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine developed by us may contribute to saving of human lives from the threat of SARS-CoV-2.

    Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage After COVID-19 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Sajjad Muhammad; Soheil Naderi; Mostafa Ahmadi; Askar Ghorbani; Daniel Hänggi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48374/v1 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 virus infection MESHD leads to a severe and dysbalanced inflammatory response with hypercytokinemia and immunodepression. Systemic inflammation MESHD due to viral infections MESHD can potentially cause vascular damage including disruption of blood SERO-brain barrier (BBB) and alterations in coagulation system that may also lead to cardiovascular and neurovascular events. Here, we report the first case of COVID-19 infection MESHD leading to aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). Case DescriptionA 61-year-old woman presented with dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, cough MESHD cough HP and fever MESHD fever HP. She was over weight with Body MESHD mass-index of 34 and history of hypertension MESHD hypertension HP. No history of subarachnoid hemorrhage MESHD subarachnoid hemorrhage HP in the family. She was admitted in ICU due to low oxygen saturation (89%). A chest CT showed typical picture of COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Oropharyngeal swab with a PCR-based testing was COVID-19 positive. She was prescribed with favipiravir and hydroxychloroquine in Addition to oxygen support. On second day she experienced sudden headache MESHD headache HP and losst conciousness. A computer tomography (CT) with CT-angiography revealed subarachnoid haemorrhage in basal cisterns from a ruptured MESHD anterior communicating artery aneurysm MESHD. The aneurysm MESHD was clipped microsurgically through a standard pterional approach and the patient was admitted again to intensive care unit for further intensive medical treatment. Post-operative the patient showed slight motor dysphasia HP. No other neurological deficits.ConclusionAneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to COVID-19 infection MESHD might be triggered by systemic inflammation MESHD. COVID-19 infection MESHD could be one of the risk factors leading to instability and rupture MESHD of intracranial aneurysm MESHD.

    Impact of quarantine due to COVID-19 on female TRANS urinary incontinence MESHD urinary incontinence HP during exercise in CrossFit practitioners: an observational study

    Authors: Maíta Poli de Araujo; Luiz Gustavo Oliveira Brito; Benno Ejnisman; Marair Gracio Ferreira Sartori; Manoel B.C. Girão; Alberto de Castro Pochini; Cross Continence Brazil Group

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-43711/v2 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction and hypothesis: Urinary incontinence MESHD Urinary incontinence HP (UI) during exercise (athletic incontinence) affects about 30% of CrossFit practitioners. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, CrossFit academies were closed, impacting on several dimensions of the health of these athletes. We aimed to evaluate the effect of quarantine due to COVID19 pandemic on the training volume and UI during exercises for female TRANS crossfitters. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed among 197 female TRANS CrossFit practitioners. An online questionnaire was emailed containing questions about frequency, duration and intensity of training and data related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Whether UI stopped among participants, they were asked about the possible reasons why this happened. A 5% significance level was stablished.Results: Mean age TRANS of the participants was 32 years old, with an average frequency of training of 50 minutes per day, four times/ week. Most participants lived in an apartment (65.5%) and with another person (40.1%). Main CrossFit training location during quarantine was inside home (55%). There was a decrease in training intensity in 64% of the respondents. Exercises with their own body weight MESHD, such as air squat (98.2%) followed by push up (92.2%) were the most performed. UI was reported by 32% of participants before the COVID-19 pandemic, and only 14% of them during the pandemic (OR = 0.32[0.19-0.53],p <0.01; univariate analysis). Practitioners reported that the reason possibly related to UI improvement was the reduction of training intensity and not performing double under exercise. Conclusion: Quarantine by COVID-19 reduced in 18% of UI during exercises by CrossFit practitioners.  

    Anti- SARS-CoV-2 main protease complex (Mpro) activity of Palmatine

    Authors: VYANKATESH JADHAV

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-38145/v1 Date: 2020-06-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    The Pandemic situation caused due to SARS-CoV-2 causing Coronavirus Disease MESHD (CoVID-19) around globe. Recent, COVID-19 main protease complex (Mpro), highly modulating enzyme in SARS-CoV-2 was reported for viral replication and transcription. This multifunctionality of Mpro attracts for identification of potential drug target. Considering impact, In silico analysis was performed for Palmatine alkaloid against Mpro. Naturally, present in Tinospora cordifolia, found effective against Cancer, HIV, viral infections MESHD, diabetics. In methods, physico-chemical analysis by ProtParam tool and Structure of Mpro was predicted by SWISS-MODEL Workspace homology modeling server. Superimposition Structure and significant equal QMQE, QSQE values were found for eight highly similar templates. Structural assessment validation by Ramachandran plot (97.67% favoured), Local Quality estimate ratio (>0.6) and higher QMEAN score (y-axis). Further, docking was performed with validated Mpro model by SwissDock server. Interaction with -8.281919 ΔG indicates reliable Interaction. Also, comparative docking reveals, most favoured Palmatine interaction. Thus, an attempt was made to find potent inhibitor for SARS-CoV-2, as there is no promising and specific anti-viral drug or vaccine available for prevention and treatment of infections MESHD. However, In Vitro studies are required. Toxicity studies reported against Palmatine for acute effect (135 mg/kg body weight MESHD) on mouse model LD 50.

    Clinical analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS

    Authors: Guilang Zheng; Chuxing Xie; Dongli Liu; Guojing Ye; Xiaoqian Chen; Pei Wang; Yang Zhou; Jiayi Liang; Dian Hong; Zhizhou Shen; Jinjin Yu; Yanhao Wang; Qiong Meng; Yuxin Zhang; Suhua Jiang; Guojun Liu; Yuxiong Guo

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-21625/v1 Date: 2020-04-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The number of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) cases caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD has significantly increased, and the disease MESHD is rapidly spreading to all parts of the country and around the world. A retrospective study of children TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 provides a reference for the diagnosis and treatment of children TRANS during this epidemic.Methods: We retrospectively studied 12 cases of children TRANS with viral infection MESHD caused by SARS-CoV-2 admitted to 6 hospitals in Guangdong Province between January 25, 2020, and February 12, 2020, and analyzed the clinical features and outcomes of the patients.Results: A total of 12 children TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD from 6 hospitals were enrolled in the study; 6 were boys. The mean age TRANS was 9.8 ± 4.7 years, with a minimum age TRANS of 2 years and 10 months. The mean body weight MESHD was 37.3 ± 23.6 kg, with a minimum body weight MESHD of 13.0 kg. There were no severe cases or critical severe cases. There were 2 cases of mild pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (16.7%), 7 cases of acute upper respiratory tract infection MESHD respiratory tract infection HP (58.3%), and 3 cases of latent infection MESHD (25.0%). In terms of symptoms, there were 7 cases of fever MESHD fever HP (58.3%), 5 cases of cough MESHD cough HP (41.7%), 3 cases of runny nose (25.0%), 2 cases of systemic fatigue MESHD fatigue HP and soreness (16.7%), and 4 cases of no symptoms (33.3%). Three patients (75.0%) showed decreased white blood SERO cell (WBC) counts for their first complete blood SERO count (CBC) after admission, and one patient (8.3%) had a low lymphocyte count. There were no obvious abnormalities in C-reactive protein (CRP, 1.53 ± 2.28 mg/l), procalcitonin (PCT, 0.21 ± 0.13 ng/ml), or coagulation function. No abnormalities were detected for creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CKMB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood SERO urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum SERO creatinine (Scr). Six cases (50.0%) were positive for Mycoplasma pneumoniae MESHD pneumoniae HP antibodies SERO. 2 cases showed pulmonary exudative lesions on chest X-ray or computed tomography (CT). All children TRANS tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse-transcription–polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assays of throat swabs. 9 patients received antiviral treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir. All patients received symptomatic supportive treatment and were quarantined, and their conditions improved. There was no respiratory failure HP, acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD, shock MESHD shock HP complications, or death MESHD observed for any case. All patients recovered and were discharged, with an average length of hospital stay of 14 days.Conclusions: This study with a small sample size suggests that all SARS-CoV-2-infected children TRANS had normal or reduced WBCs; however, fever MESHD fever HP was not as common as expected, and a decrease in lymphocyte count was rare. The clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS are mild, COVID⁃19 is rare, and the prognosis is good. But the presence of latent SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS presents new challenges for effective clinical prevention and control.

    Pathogenesis and transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 virus in golden Syrian hamsters

    Authors: Sin Fun Sia; Li-Meng Yan; Alex WH Chin; Kevin Fung; Leo LM Poon; John M Nicholls; Malik Peiris; Hui-Ling Yen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-20774/v1 Date: 2020-04-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    A pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus with high nucleotide identity to SARS-CoV and SARS-related coronaviruses detected in horseshoe bats is spreading across the world and impacting the healthcare systems and global economy1,2. A suitable small animal model is urgently needed to support the development of vaccines and antiviral treatments against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We report the pathogenesis and transmissibility TRANS of the SARS-CoV-2 in the golden Syrian hamster model. The SARS-CoV-2 virus replicated in the epithelial cells of respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated viral antigens in the areas of lung consolidation on day 2 and 5 post- inoculation, followed by rapid viral clearance and tissue repairing on day 7. Viral antigen was also detected in the epithelial cells of duodenum without apparent inflammatory response on day 2. Notably, we observed that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can be transmitted efficiently from the inoculated hamsters to co-housed naïve contact hamsters. The inoculated hamsters and naturally-infected hamsters lost greater than 10% of the body weight MESHD, and all animals recovered with the detection of neutralizing antibodies SERO within 14 days. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in golden Syrian hamsters resemble features found in human patients with mild infections MESHD.Authors Sin Fun Sia, Li-Meng Yan, and Alex WH Chin contributed equally to this work.

    The preliminary comparative results between Covid-19 and non-Covid-19 patients in Western China

    Authors: Li Yanzi; Li Hongxia; Han Jianfeng; Yang Lin

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-20178/v1 Date: 2020-03-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: This study aims to investigate the comparative clinical characteristics of Covid-19 and non-Covid-19 patients.Methods: Fifteen Covid-19 and 93 non-Covid-19 patients were included in RNA testing. All epidemiological and clinical data were collected and analyzed, and then comparative results were carried out.Results: Covid-19 patients were older (46.40±18.21 years vs 34.43±18.80 years) and hada higher body weight MESHD (70.27±10.67 kg vs 60.54±12.33 kg, P<0.05). The main symptoms that were similar between Covid-19 and non-Covid-19 patients, and Covid-19 patients showed a lower incidence of sputum production (6.67% vs 45.16%, P<0.01) and a lower white-cell count (4.83×109/L vs 7.43×109/L) and lymphocyte count (0.90×109/L vs 1.57×109/L) (P<0.01). Although there were no differences, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were elevated in Covid-19 patients. The sensitivity SERO and negative predictive value SERO of CT images were 0.87 and 0.97, respectively. Covid-19 patients showed a higher contact history of Wuhan residents (80% vs 30.11%) and higher familial clustering (53.33% vs 8.60%, P<0.001). Covid-19 patients showed a higher major adverse events (ARDS, 13.33%; death MESHD, 6.67%; P<0.05).Conclusion: Our results suggested that Covid-19 patients had a significant history of exposure and familial clustering and a higher rate of severe status; biochemical indicators showed lymphocyte depletion.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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