Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


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    Analysis the Dynamics of SIHR Model: Covid-19 Case in Djibouti

    Authors: Yahyeh Souleiman; Abdoulrazack Mohamed; Liban Ismail

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0210.v1 Date: 2020-06-17 Source:

    The COVID-19 epidemic is an emerging infectious disease MESHD of the viral zoonosis MESHD type caused by the corona-virus strain SARS-CoV-2, is classified as a human-to-human communicable disease MESHD and is currently a pandemic worldwide. In this paper, we propose conceptual mathematical models the epidemic dynamics of four compartments. We have collected data from the Djibouti health ministry. We define the positivity, boundedness of solutions and basic reproduction number TRANS. Then, we study local and global stability and bifurcation analysis of equilibrium to examine its epidemiological relevance. Finally, we analyze the fit of the data in comparison with the result of our mathematical results, to validate the model and estimating the important model parameters and prediction about the disease MESHD, we consider the real cases of Djibouti from 23th March to 10th June, 2020.

    Comparison of Citations Trends between the COVID-19 Pandemic and SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, Ebola, Zika, Avian and Swine Influenza Epidemics

    Authors: Artemis Chaleplioglou; Daphne Kyriaki-Manessi

    id:2006.05366v1 Date: 2020-06-09 Source: arXiv

    Objective: The novel coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak rapidly evolved into pandemic. Global research efforts focus on this topic and with the collaboration of the scientific journals publication industry produced more than 16,000 related published articles in PubMed within five months from the onset of the outbreak. Herein, a comparison of the COVID-19 citations in PubMed and Web of Science was performed with SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, Ebola, Zika, avian and swine influenza epidemics. Methods: The citations were searched and collected using the disease MESHD terms and the date of publication restriction. The total number of PubMed citations and the HIV associated papers during the same chronological periods were examined in parallel. The journal category and country information of the publications were gathered from Web of Science. The collected data were statistically analyzed and compared. Results: Significant correlations were found between COVID-19 and MERS (CC=0.988; p=0.003; q=0.006), Ebola (CC=0.987; p=0.003; q=0.011), and SARS (CC=0.964; p=0.015; q=0.028) epidemics five-month pick of novel citations in PubMed. However, COVID-19 publications were accumulated earlier and in larger numbers than any other 21st century major communicable disease MESHD outbreak. Conclusion: The acceleration and the total number of COVID-19 publications represent an unprecedented landmark event in the medical library history. The immediate adoption of the fast-track peer-reviewing and publishing as well as the open access publication policies by the journal publishers are significant contributors to this bibliographic phenomenon.

    Climate and Covid-19 - Upgrade and solar radiation influences based on Brazil cases

    Authors: Francisco Mendonça; Max Anjos; Erika Collischonn; Pedro Murara; Deise Ely F.; Leila Limberger; Lindberg Nascimento; Gilson C. F. da Cruz; Wilson Roseghini; Aparecido R. Andrade

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-06-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background COVID-19 has confirmed to be a pandemic with global and historical dimensions in the beginning of the 21st century. Climatic conditions are one of the environmental factors that influence communicable diseases MESHD, including viral diseases MESHD. Despite promising scientific advances into understanding the interaction between climate and COVID-19, a question remains: How can climate influence the pandemic of COVID-19?Methods It was updated the publications available on the climate and COVID-19 using Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed database from January 1 to May 20, 2020. Statistical analysis, such normality and multicollinearity tests were performed between number of COVID-19 cases and climato-meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, dew point temperature, atmosphere pressure, wind speed, wind gust, rainfall, and solar radiation, nebulosity and insolation ratio) in six Brazilian cities.Results This review reveals that temperature, relative humidity and absolute humidity alone do not able to explain the exponential number of COVID-19 cases. Most studies showed the SARS-CoV-2 satisfactorily can survive in a large range of temperature and humidity in temperature and tropical- humidity climates. Analyzing other meteorological parameter, insolation ratio that is related to the solar radiation and nebulosity, the results and in accordance with other studies suggest the transmission TRANS and contagion by SARS-CoV-2 seem to have been enhanced under from medium to low direct solar radiation and covered skies.Conclusions This study showed that the inclusion of other climatic variables, in addition to temperature and humidity, should guide future ecological models on the relationship between climate and COVID-19, especially the insolation ratio influences on the viral transmission TRANS in six Brazilian cities. Our findings may support public policies and coordinated actions to reduce and control of COVID-19.

    Scaling-Up Food Policies in the Pacific Islands: Protocol for Policy Engagement and Mixed Methods Evaluation of Intervention Implementation

    Authors: Jacqui Webster; Gade Waqa; Anne-Marie Thow; Steven Allender; Thomas Lung; Mark Woodward; Kris Rogers; Isimeli Tukana; Ateca Kama; Donald Wilson; Sarah Mounsey; Rebecca Dodd; Erica Reeve; Briar McKenzie; Claire Johnson; Colin Bell

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-26 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Non- communicable diseases MESHD (NCDs) have been declared a crisis in the Pacific Islands, and poor diets are a major contributor to this.  The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting economic crisis will likely increase the burden on food systems, exacerbating this situation. Pacific Island leaders have been proactive in adopting a range of food policies and regulations to improve diets. This includes taxes and regulations on compositional standards for salt and sugar in foods or school food policies. Whilst there is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of such policies globally, there is a lack of local context-specific evidence about how to implement them effectively in the Pacific. Methods Our 5-year collaborative research project will advance knowledge of how to scale up food policy interventions in the Pacific Islands. The overall aim of this implementation science research project is to test the feasibility and effectiveness of policy interventions to reduce salt and sugar consumption in Fiji and Samoa, and to examine factors that will support sustained implementation. We will engage, as partners, government agencies and civil society in Fiji and Samoa, and support the design, implementation and monitoring of a range of evidence-informed interventions aiming to reduce salt and sugar consumption, in the context of on-going health and environmental challenges, such as COVID-19 and climate change. Specific objectives are to: (1) conduct a policy landscape analysis to understand the potential opportunities and challenges to strengthen policies for prevention of diet-related NCDs  in Fiji and Samoa; (2) conduct repeat cross sectional surveys to measure dietary intake, food sources and diet-related biomarkers; (3) use Systems Thinking in Community Knowledge Exchange (STICKE) to strengthen implementation of policies to reduce salt and sugar consumption; (4) evaluate the impact, process and cost effectiveness of implementing these policies. Discussion The project will provide new evidence to support policy making, as well as developing a low-cost, high-tech, sustainable, scalable system for monitoring food consumption, the food supply and health-related outcomes.Contributions to the literature·        Poor diets are one of the main contributors to non- communicable diseases MESHD. There is increasing evidence to show that food policy interventions (fiscal or regulatory) are an effective way of improving diets, globally. ·        This project will produce local context-specific evidence for the impact and cost-effectiveness of food policy interventions to improve diets in the Pacific Islands (Fiji and Samoa). It will also produce new insights into what is feasible and which factors contribute most to effective implementation in different contexts.·        The findings will provide important insights into gaps in the implementation science literature on food policy implementation, particularly in Small Island Developing States. The project will also make an important contribution globally since the innovative methods of engaging policy makers and monitoring food and health developed through the project may be replicated elsewhere. 

    The clinical implication of secondary pulmonary bacterial infection MESHD for the outcome of critically ill patients with Covid-19

    Authors: Wei Xiong; Xiaojing Li; Yahua Wang; Zhihua Zhan; Jiaan Xia; Chaomin Wu; Fengfeng Han; M.D. Xuejun Guo; Mei Xu; Yunfeng Zhao

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Covid-19 is an emerging and evolving infectious and communicable diseases MESHD diseases which gravely HP endanger the lives of critically ill patients with it. It is crucial to determine the clinical implication of secondary pulmonary bacterial infection MESHD for the outcome of critically ill patients with severe Covid-19.Methods All critically ill patients with Covid-19(30 deceased and 35 discharged) between January 26, 2020 and March 15, 2020 in two ICUs of Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China, were retrospectively reviewed, to investigate the clinical implication of secondary pulmonary bacterial infection MESHD in the prognosis of critically ill patients with severe Covid-19.Results The fatality rate between patients with positive and negative sputum bacterial culture is 75.0%vs 33.3% (P = 0.003). The ROC analyses demonstrate that NLR[0.921(0.858–0.984)P༜0.001], CRP[0.908(0.837–0.978)P༜0.001],neutrophil[0.832(0.728–0.937)P༜0.001],lymphocyte[0.858(0.755–0.960)P༜0.001],leucocyte[0.753(0.626–0.879)P༜0.001] and PCT [0.733(0.605–0.860)P = 0.001] have the discrimination power for the fatality. The Kaplan-Meier analyses show that the patients with negative sputum bacterial culture(P༜0.001) have higher cumulative overall survival rates, in comparison with the opposite. The positive sputum bacterial culture is positively correlated with leukocyte(r = 0.706), CRP(r = 0.733), NLR(r = 0.554) and PCT(r = 0.549)(all P༜0.001). A multivariate Cox regression analysis shows that sputum bacterial culture[15.36(4.291–54.980) P༜0.001], CRP[2.022(2.013–2.030) P༜0.001] and NLR[2.012(2.000-2.024) P = 0.045] are positively correlated with the fatality of the patients.Conclusions The critically ill patients with severe Covid-19 who are complicated with secondary pulmonary bacterial infection MESHD may have an unfavorable outcome, in comparison with those who are not. Secondary pulmonary bacterial infection MESHD is an independent factor for the fatality of critically patients with Covid-19.

    Covid-19 Related Reduction in Paediatric Emergency MESHD Healthcare Utilization – A Concerning Trend

    Authors: Christine Happle; Christian Dopfer; med Wetzke; Anna Zychlinsky Scharff; Frank Mueller; Frank Dressler; Ulrich Baumann; Michael Sasse; Gesine Hansen; Alexandra Jablonka

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare systems worldwide. Besides the direct impact of the virus on morbidity and mortality of patients, the effect of lockdown strategies on health and healthcare utilization become more and more apparent. Little is known on the effect of the pandemic on pediatric healthcare utilization. We examined the impact of the pandemic on pediatric emergency MESHD healthcare.Methods: We conducted a monocentric, retrospective analysis of n=5.424 pediatric emergency MESHD visits between January 1st and April 19th of 2019 and 2020, and compared healthcare utilization in the month post lockdown 2020 to the same period in 2019.Results: In the four weeks after lockdown in Germany began, we observed a massive drop of 63.8% in pediatric emergency MESHD healthcare utilization (mean daily visits 26.8 ±SEM 1.5 in 2019 vs. 9.7 ±SEM 1 in 2020, p<0.005). This drop in cases occurred for both communicable and non- communicable diseases MESHD. A larger proportion of patients under one year old (daily mean of 16.6% ±SEM 1.4 in 2019 vs 23.1% ±SEM 1.7, p<0.01 in 2020) and of cases requiring hospitalisation (mean of 13.9% ±SEM 1.6 in 2019 vs. 26.6% ±SEM 3.3 in 2020, p<0.001) occurred during the pandemic. During the analysed time periods, few intensive care admissions and no fatalities occurred.Conclusion: Our data illustrate a significant decrease in pediatric emergency MESHD room visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public outreach is needed to encourage parents TRANS to seek medical attention for pediatric emergencies MESHD in spite of the pandemic. 

    An Extensive Review of Health and Economy of Bangladesh Amid Covid-19 Pandemic

    Authors: Abdul Kader Mohiuddin

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0261.v1 Date: 2020-05-15 Source:

    COVID-19 has affected 212 countries around the world, killing nearly 300,000 and infecting more than 4.4 million by May 14, 2020. Bangladesh, a South Asian low-middle-income economy, has experienced a demographic and epidemiological transition with rapid urbanization and a gradual increase in life expectancy. It is the seventh most populous country in the world and population of the country is expected to be nearly double by 2050. The increasing burden of communicable diseases MESHD in Bangladesh can be attributable to rapid urbanization and nearly 50% of all slum dwellers of the country live in Dhaka division. In 2017, National Rapid Response Team of IEDCR investigated 26 incidents of disease MESHD outbreak. The joint survey of the Power and Participation Research Centre and BRAC Institute of Governance and Development reveals that per capita daily income of urban slum and rural poor drops by 80% due to present countrywide shutdown enforced by the government to halt the spread of Covid-19. 40%-50% of these population took loans to meet the daily expenses. However, the country has just 127,000 hospital beds, 91,000 of them in government-run hospitals. Researchers say, the country’s economy is economy is losing BDT 33 billion every day from its service and agriculture sectors during the nationwide shutdown.

    Covid-19 mortality is associated with test number and government effectiveness

    Authors: Li-Lin Liang; Ching-Hung Tseng; Hsiu J. Ho; Chun-Ying Wu

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives: A question central to the Covid-19 pandemic is why the Covid-19 mortality rate varies so greatly across countries. This study aims to investigate factors associated with cross-country variation in Covid-19 mortality.Methods: Covid-19 mortality rate was calculated as number of deaths MESHD per 100 Covid-19 cases. To identify factors associated with Covid-19 mortality rate, a multivariable linear regression model was applied to a cross-sectional dataset comprising 78 countries and 1,790,550 patients infected by Covid-19. We retrieved data from the Worldometer website and the Worldwide Governance Indicators and World Development Indicators databases.Results: Covid-19 mortality rate was negatively associated with Covid-19 test number per 1,000 population (RR=0.97; 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99, P=0.013) and government effectiveness indicator (RR=0.96; 95% CI 0.93 to 0.98, P=0.001). Covid-19 mortality rate was positively associated with number of critical cases per 100 Covid-19 cases, Covid-19 case number per 10,000 population, proportion of population aged TRANS 65 or older and proportion of deaths MESHD attributable to communicable diseases MESHD in previous years (all with P<0.05). Predicted mortality rates were highly associated with observed mortality rates (r = 0.74; P<0.001).Conclusions: Multiple factors were associated with Covid-19 mortality rates. Increasing Covid-19 testing and improving government effectiveness may have the potential to attenuate Covid-19 mortality.Authors Li-Lin Liang and Chun-Ying Wu contributed equally to this work.

    Development of high affinity monobodies recognizing SARS-CoV-2 antigen

    Authors: Yushen Du; Tian-hao Zhang; Xiangzhi Meng; Yuan Shi; Menglong Hu; Shuofeng Yuan; Chit Ying La; Shu-xing Li; Siwei Liu; Jiayan Li; Haigen Huang; Hong Jian; Dongdong Chen; Li Sheng; Mengying Hong; Anders Olson; Hsiang-I Liao; Xiaojiang Chen; Xinmin Li; Gexin Zhao; Richard W. Roberts; Jasper F W Chan; Dong-Yan Jin; Irvin SY Chen; Honglin Chen; Kwok-Yung Yuen; Quan Hao; Ren Sun

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-04-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been a threat to global public health. Prompt patient identification and quarantine is the most effective way to control its rapid transmission TRANS, which can be facilitated by early detection of viral antigens. Here we present a platform to develop and optimize the fibronectin-based affinity-enhanced antibody SERO mimetics (monobodies) for recognizing viral antigens. Specifically, we developed monobodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein. We showed that two monobodies, NN2 and NC2, bind to N protein’s N- and C-terminal domains respectively with a Kd in nM range.The specificity of the recognition was confirmed with co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays. Furthermore, we demonstrated that one round of in vitro maturation using mRNA display can improve the binding affinity of monobodies. Machine learning algorithms were integrated with deep sequencing data for selecting candidates that improve the detection sensitivity SERO of N. Using this pair of monobodies, we have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) for viral detection. We were able to detect recombinant N at 4 pg/ml and detect N in viral culture supernatant, with no cross-reactivity with other CoV. Integrating high-dense mutagenesis, mRNA display, deep sequencing and machine learning, this platform can be applied through iterations to identify and optimize monobodies against emerging viral antigens, potentiating point-of-care detection of communicable diseases MESHD in a cost-and time-sensitive manner.Authors Yushen Du, Tian-hao Zhang, Xiangzhi Meng, Yuan Shi, and Menglong Hu contributed equally to this work.

    Fever MESHD Fever HP and mobility data indicate social distancing has reduced incidence of communicable disease MESHD in the United States

    Authors: Parker Liautaud; Peter Huybers; Mauricio Santillana

    id:2004.09911v1 Date: 2020-04-21 Source: arXiv

    In March of 2020, many U.S. state governments encouraged or mandated restrictions on social interactions HP social interactions TRANS to slow the spread of COVID-19, the disease MESHD caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that has spread to nearly 180 countries. Estimating the effectiveness of these social-distancing strategies is challenging because surveillance of COVID-19 has been limited, with tests generally being prioritized for high-risk or hospitalized cases according to temporally and regionally varying criteria. Here we show that reductions in mobility across U.S. counties with at least 100 confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 led to reductions in fever MESHD fever HP incidences, as captured by smart thermometers, after a mean lag of 6.5 days ($90\%$ within 3--10 days) that is consistent with the incubation period TRANS of COVID-19. Furthermore, counties with larger decreases in mobility subsequently achieved greater reductions in fevers MESHD fevers HP ($p<0.01$), with the notable exception of New York City and its immediate vicinity. These results indicate that social distancing has reduced the transmission TRANS of influenza like illnesses, including COVID 19, and support social distancing as an effective strategy for slowing the spread of COVID-19.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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