Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Blood SERO biomarkers for assessing headaches MESHD headaches HP in healthcare workers after wearing biological personal protective equipment in a COVID-19 field-hospital

    Authors: Francisco Martín-Rodríguez; Raquel M. Portillo Rubiales; Laura N. Fadrique Millán; Virginia Carbajosa Rodríguez; Ancor Sanz-García; Gabino Mozo Herrera; Guillermo J. Ortega; Esther Durá Ballester; Miguel Ángel Castro Villamor; Raúl López Izquierdo

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-55229/v1 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    The consequences of wearing biosafety equipment by healthcare professionals during their work and the prediction of such consequences need to be assessed. To analyze the role played by different blood SERO biomarkers in predicting the appearance of headaches MESHD headaches HP in healthcare workers wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) in a COVID-19 treatment unit, a Prospective cohort study of 38 healthcare workers from a convalescence MESHD unit of patients with COVID-19 in a field hospital was performed during April 2020. Blood SERO analysis was carried out before the start of the 4 hours shift of the volunteers equipped with PPE. After decontamination, there were asked if they had suffered from headache MESHD headache HP, obtaining the binary outcome. This study included 38 participants with a median age TRANS of 29 years (25th-75th percentile: 26-44 years old), 73.7% female TRANS (28 cases). 44.7% (17 cases) had a headache MESHD headache HP after wearing PPE for 4 hours. The baseline creatinine value reflected a specific odds ratio in the regression model of 241.36 (95% CI: 2.50-23,295.43; p=0.019), and an AUC of 0.737 (95%CI: 0.57-0.90; p<0.01). Blood SERO creatinine is a good candidate for predicting the appearance of a de novo headache MESHD headache HP in healthcare workers after wearing PPE for 4 hours in a COVID – 19 unit.

    Intranasal Exposure of African Green Monkeys to SARS-CoV-2 Results in Acute Phase Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP With Shedding and Lung Injury MESHD Still Present in the Early Convalescence MESHD Phase

    Authors: Tom Geisbert; Robert Cross; Krystle Agans; Abhishek Prasad; Viktoriya Borisevich; Courntey Woolsey; Daniel Deer; Natalie Dobias; Joan Geisbert; Karla Fenton

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50023/v1 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    We recently reported the development of the first African green monkey (AGM) model for COVID-19 based on a combined liquid intranasal (i.n.) and intratracheal (i.t.) exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we followed up on this work by assessing an i.n. particle only route of exposure using the LMA mucosal atomization device (MAD). Six AGMs were infected with SARS-CoV-2; three animals were euthanized near the peak stage of virus replication (day 5) and three animals were euthanized during the early convalescence MESHD period (day 34). All six AGMs supported robust SARS-CoV-2 replication and developed respiratory disease MESHD. Evidence of coagulation dysfunction as noted by a transient increases in aPTT and circulating levels of fibrinogen was observed in all AGMs. The level of SARS-CoV-2 replication and lung pathology was not quite as pronounced as previously reported with AGMs exposed by the combined i.n. and i.t. routes; however, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in nasal swabs of some animals as late as day 15 and rectal swabs as late as day 28 after virus challenge. Of particular importance to this study, all three AGMs that were followed until the early convalescence MESHD stage of COVID-19 showed substantial lung pathology at necropsy as evidenced by multifocal chronic interstitial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and increased collagen deposition in alveolar walls despite the absence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 in any of the lungs of these animals. These findings are consistent with human COVID-19 further demonstrating that the AGM faithfully reproduces the human condition.

    Single-cell landscape of immunological responses in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Fu-Sheng Wang; Ji-Yuan Zhang; Xiangming Wang; Xudong Xing; Zhe Xu; Chao Zhang; Jin-Wen Song; Xing Fan; Peng Xia; Jun-Liang Fu; Si-Yu Wang; Ruo-Nan Xu; Xiao-Peng Dai; Lei Shi; Lei Huang; Tian-Jun Jiang; Ming Shi; Yuxia Zhang; Alimuddin Zumla; Markus Maeurer; Fan Bai

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.217703 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: bioRxiv

    In COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, the relationship between disease MESHD severity and the host immune response is not fully understood. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing in peripheral blood SERO samples of five healthy donors and 13 COVID-19 patients including moderate, severe and convalescent cases. Through determining the transcriptional profiles of immune cells, coupled with assembled T cell receptor and B cell receptor sequences, we analyzed the functional properties of immune cells. Most cell types in COVID-19 patients showed a strong interferon-alpha response, and an overall acute inflammatory response. Moreover, intensive expansion of highly cytotoxic effector T cell subsets, such as CD4+ Effector-GNLY (Granulysin), CD8+ Effector-GNLY and NKT CD160, was associated with convalescence MESHD in moderate patients. In severe patients, the immune landscape featured a deranged interferon response, profound immune exhaustion with skewed T cell receptor repertoire and broad T cell expansion. These findings illustrate the dynamic nature of immune responses during the disease progression MESHD.

    Selenium Deficiency is Associated with Mortality Risk from COVID-19

    Authors: Arash Moghaddam; Raban Arved Heller; Qian Sun; Julian Seelig; Asan Cherkezov; Linda Seibert; Julian Hackler; Petra Seemann; Joachim Diegmann; Maximilian Pilz; Manuel Bachmann; Waldemar B. Minich; Lutz Schomburg

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0113.v1 Date: 2020-07-07 Source: preprints.org

    SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD underlie the current Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic and are causative for a high death MESHD toll particularly among elderly TRANS subjects and those with comorbidities. Selenium (Se) is an essential trace TRANS element of high importance for human health and particularly for a well-balanced immune response. Mortality risk from severe disease MESHD like sepsis MESHD sepsis HP or polytrauma is inversely related to Se status. We hypothesized that this relation also applies to COVID-19. Serum samples SERO (n=166) from COVID-19 patients (n=33) were collected consecutively and analysed for total Se by X-ray fluorescence and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) by a validated ELISA SERO. Both biomarkers showed the expected strong correlation (r=0.7758, p<0.001), pointing to an insufficient Se status for optimal selenoprotein expression. In comparison to reference data from a European cross sectional analysis (EPIC, n=1915), the patients showed a pronounced deficit in total serum SERO Se (mean±SD, 50.8±15.7 vs. 84.4±23.4 µg/L) and SELENOP (3.0±1.4 vs. 4.3±1.0 mg/L). A Se status below the 2.5th percentile of the reference population, i.e., [Se] < 45.7 µg/L and [SELENOP] < 2.56 mg/L was present in 43.4% and 39.2% of COVID samples, respectively. The Se status was significantly higher in samples from surviving COVID patients as compared to non-survivors (Se; 53.3±16.2 vs. 40.8±8.1 µg/L, SELENOP; 3.3±1.3 vs. 2.1±0.9 mg/L). We conclude that Se status analysis in COVID patients provides diagnostic information. However, causality remains unknown due to the observational nature of this study. Nevertheless, the findings strengthen the notion on a relevant role of Se for COVID convalescence MESHD, and support the discussion on adjuvant Se supplementation in severely diseased MESHD and Se-deficient patients.

    In-depth phenotyping of human peripheral blood SERO mononuclear cells in convalescent COVID-19 patients following a mild versus severe disease MESHD course

    Authors: Chang-Feng Chu; Florian Sabath; Shan Sun; Ying-Yin Chao; Christina E. Zielinski

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.25.20112763 Date: 2020-05-25 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Covid-19, the disease MESHD caused by infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2, has developed to a pandemic causing more than 239, 000 deaths MESHD worldwide as of 6th May according to the World Health Organization (WHO). It presents with a highly variable disease MESHD course ranging from a large proportion of asymptomatic TRANS cases to severe respiratory failure HP in 17-29% of cases even in the absence of apparent comorbidities 1, 2. This implies a diverse host immune response to SARS-CoV-2. The immunological characteristics underlying these divergent disease MESHD courses, however, still remain elusive. While insights into abrogations of innate immunity begin to emerge, adaptive immune responses towards SARS-CoV-2 are poorly investigated, although they serve as immune signatures of protection and vaccine responses. We therefore set out to characterize immune signatures of convalescent COVID-19 patients stratified according to their disease MESHD severity. Methods: We performed high-dimensional flow cytometric profiling of peripheral blood SERO mononuclear cells of convalescent COVID-19 patients who we stratified according to their disease MESHD severity by a physician-assisted questionnaire based assessment of COVID-19 symptoms. Results: Surprisingly, we did not observe any difference in the relative proportions of any major immune cell type in convalescent patients presenting with different severity of COVID-19 disease MESHD except for a reduction in monocytes. The frequency of Tnaive T cells was significantly reduced in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, whereas other T cell differentiations states (TCM, TEM, TEMRA) remained relatively unaffected by COVID-19 severity as assessed approximately two weeks after infection MESHD. Conclusions In our COVID-19 patient cohort, which is characterized by absence of comorbidities and therapeutic interventions other than symptomatic antipyretics, the immunophenotype is similar irrespective of a highly variable disease MESHD severity. Convalescence MESHD is therefore associated with a rather uniform immune signature. Abrogations, which were previously identified in the innate and adaptive immune compartment of COVID-19 patients should be scrutinized for direct associations with a preconditioned immune system shaped and made vulnerable for SARS-CoV-2 by preexisting comorbidities.

    Reappearance of Effector T Cells Predicts Successful Recovery from COVID-19

    Authors: Ivan Odak; Joana Barros-Martins; Berislav Bosnjak; Klaus Stahl; Sascha David; Olaf Wiesner; Markus Busch; Marius M Hoeper; Isabell Pink; Tobias Welte; Markus Cornberg; Matthias Stoll; Lilia Goudeva; Rainer Blasczyk; Arnold Ganser; Immo Prinz; Reinhold Foerster; Christian Koenecke; Christian R Schultze-Florey

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.11.20096263 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Elucidating the role of T cell responses in COVID-19 is of utmost importance to understand the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Methods: 90 individuals were enrolled in this study, 30 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 60 age TRANS- and gender TRANS-matched healthy controls (HC). Using two comprehensive 11-color flow cytometric panels conforming to Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) and approved for clinical diagnostics, we longitudinally examined cell count differences in lymphocyte populations and T cell activation in COVID-19 patients. Findings: Absolute numbers of lymphocyte subsets were differentially decreased in COVID-19 patients according to clinical severity. In severe disease MESHD (SD) patients, all lymphocyte subsets were reduced, whilst in mild disease MESHD (MD) NK, NKT and {gamma}{delta} T cells were at the level of HC. Additionally, we provide evidence of T cell activation in MD but not SD, when compared to HC. Interestingly, follow up samples revealed a marked increase in effector T cells and memory subsets in convalescing but not in non-convalescing patients. Interpretation: Our data suggest that activation and expansion of innate and adaptive lymphocytes play a major role in COVID-19. Additionally, recovery is associated with formation of T cell memory as suggested by the missing formation of effector and central memory T cells in SD but not in MD. Our data imply that the presence of SARS-CoV-2 responsive T cells contributes to convalescence MESHD in MD. Thus, understanding the T cell-response in the context of clinical severity might serve as foundation to overcome the lack of effective anti-viral immune response in severely affected COVID-19 patients and can offer prognostic value as biomarker for disease MESHD outcome and control.

    Impact of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 on Pulmonary Function in Early Convalescence MESHD Phase

    Authors: Yiying Huang; Cui yan Tan; Jian Wu; Mei zhu Chen; Zhen guo Wang; Li yun Luo; Xiao rong Zhou; Xin ran Liu; Xiao ling Huang; Chi can Yuan; Chao lin Chen; Fen Gao; Jin Huang; Hong Shan; Jing Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-26415/v2 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: This study investigated the influence of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) on lung function in early convalescence MESHD phase.Methods: A prospective retrospective study of COVID-19 patients at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were conducted, with serial assessments including lung volumes (TLC), spirometry (FVC, FEV1), lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO),respiratory muscle strength, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) and high resolution CT being collected at 30 days after discharged.Results: 57 patients completed the serial assessments. There were 40 non-severe cases and 17 severe cases. Thirty-one patients (54.3%) had abnormal CT findings. Abnormalities were detected in the pulmonary function tests in 43 (75.4%) of the patients. Six (10.5%), 5(8.7%), 25(43.8%) 7(12.3%), and 30 (52.6%) patients had FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, TLC, and DLCO values less than 80% of predicted values, respectively. 28 (49.1%) and 13 (22.8%) patients had PImax and PEmax values less than 80% of the corresponding predicted values. Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients showed higher incidence of DLCO impairment (75.6%vs42.5%, p=0.019), higher lung total severity score(TSS)and R20, and significantly lower percentage of predicted TLC and 6MWD. No significant correlation between TSS and pulmonary function parameters was found during follow-up visit.Conclusion: Impaired diffusing-capacityDeclining DLCO, lower respiratory muscle strength, and lung imaging abnormalities were detected in more than half of the COVID-19 patients in early convalescence MESHD phase. Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients had a higher incidence of DLCO impairment and encountered more TLC decrease and 6MWD decline.

    Test performance SERO evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 serological assays SERO

    Authors: Jeffrey D. Whitman; Joseph Hiatt; Cody T. Mowery; Brian R. Shy; Ruby Yu; Tori N. Yamamoto; Ujjwal Rathore; Gregory M. Goldgof; Caroline Whitty; Jonathan M Woo; Antonia E. Gallman; Tyler E. Miller; Andrew G. Levine; David N. Nguyen; Sagar P. Bapat; Joanna Balcerek; Sophia Bylsma; Ana M. Lyons; Stacy Li; Allison Wai-yi Wong; Eva Mae Gillis-Buck; Zachary B. Steinhart; Youjin Lee; Ryan Apathy; Mitchell J. Lipke; Jennifer A. Smith; Tina Zheng; Ian C. Boothby; Erin Isaza; Jackie Chan; Dante D Acenas II; Jinwoo Lee; Trisha A. Macrae; Than S. Kyaw; David Wu; Dianna L. Ng; Wei Gu; Vanessa A. York; Haig A. Eskandarian; Perri C. Callaway; Lakshmi Warrier; Mary E. Moreno; Justine Levan; Leonel Torres; Lila Farrington; Rita Loudermilk; Kanishka Koshal; Kelsey C. Zorn; Wilfredo F. Garcia-Beltran; Diane Yang; Michael G. Astudillo; Bradley E. Bernstein; Jeffrey A. Gelfand; Edward T. Ryan; Richelle C. Charles; A. John Iafrate; Jochen K. Lennerz; Steve Miller; Charles Y Chiu; Susan L. Stramer; Michael R. Wilson; Aashish Manglik; Chun Jimmie Ye; Nevan J. Krogan; Mark S. Anderson; Jason G. Cyster; Joel D. Ernst; Alan H.B. Wu; Kara L. Lynch; Caryn Bern; Patrick D. Hsu; Alexander Marson

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.25.20074856 Date: 2020-04-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background Serological tests SERO are crucial tools for assessments of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, infection MESHD and potential immunity. Their appropriate use and interpretation require accurate assay performance SERO data. Method We conducted an evaluation of 10 lateral flow assays (LFAs) and two ELISAs SERO to detect anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. The specimen set comprised 128 plasma SERO or serum samples SERO from 79 symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-positive individuals; 108 pre-COVID-19 negative controls; and 52 recent samples from individuals who underwent respiratory viral testing but were not diagnosed with Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Samples were blinded and LFA results were interpreted by two independent readers, using a standardized intensity scoring system. Results Among specimens from SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-positive individuals, the percent seropositive increased with time interval, peaking at 81.8-100.0% in samples taken >20 days after symptom onset TRANS. Test specificity ranged from 84.3-100.0% in pre-COVID-19 specimens. Specificity was higher when weak LFA bands were considered negative, but this decreased sensitivity SERO. IgM detection was more variable than IgG, and detection was highest when IgM and IgG results were combined. Agreement between ELISAs SERO and LFAs ranged from 75.7-94.8%. No consistent cross-reactivity was observed. Conclusion Our evaluation showed heterogeneous assay performance SERO. Reader training is key to reliable LFA performance SERO, and can be tailored for survey goals. Informed use of serology will require evaluations covering the full spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infections, from asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS and mild infection MESHD infection to severe HP to severe disease MESHD, and later convalescence MESHD. Well-designed studies to elucidate the mechanisms and serological correlates of protective immunity will be crucial to guide rational clinical and public health policies.

    Long period dynamics of viral load and antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 SERO infection MESHD: an observational cohort study

    Authors: Jianping Huang; Tingting Mao; Shufei Li; Lianpeng Wu; Xueqin Xu; Huanzheng Li; Chenyang xu; Feifei Su; Jianyi Dai; Jichan Shi; Jing Cai; Chongquan Huang; Xuan Lin; Dong Chen; Xiaoling Lin; Baochang Sun; Shaohua Tang

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.22.20071258 Date: 2020-04-27 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the dynamics of viral RNA, IgM, and IgG and their relationships in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP over an 8-week period. DESIGN Retrospective, observational case series. SETTING Wenzhou Sixth Peoples Hospital PARTICIPANTS Thirty-three patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP admitted to hospital. Data were collected from January 27 to April 10, 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Throat swabs, sputum, stool, and blood SERO samples were collected, and viral load was measured by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Specific IgM and IgG against spike protein (S), spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD), and nucleocapsid (N) were analyzed. RESULTS At the early stages of symptom onset TRANS, SARS-CoV-2 viral load is higher in throat swabs and sputum, but lower in stool. The median (IQR) time of undetectable viral RNA in throat swab, sputum, and stool was 18.5 (13.25-22) days, 22 (18.5-27.5) days, and 17 (11.5-32) days, respectively. In sputum, 17 patients (51.5%) had undetectable viral RNA within 22 days (short persistence), and 16 (48.5%) had persistent viral RNA more than 22 days (long persistence). Three patients (9.1%) had a detectable relapse of viral RNA in sputum within two weeks of their discharge from the hospital. One patient had persistent viral RNA for 59 days or longer. The median (IQR) seroconversion time of anti-S IgM, anti-RBD IgM, and anti-N IgM was 10.5 (7.75-15.5) days, 14 (9-24) days, and 10 (7-14) days, respectively. The median (IQR) seroconversion time of anti-S IgG, anti-RBD IgG, and anti-N IgG was 10 (7.25-16.5) days, 13 (9-17) days, and 10 (7-14) days, respectively. By week 8 after symptom onset TRANS, IgM were negative in many of the previously positive patients, and IgG levels remained less than 50% of the peak levels in more than 20% of the patients. In about 40% of the patients, anti-RBD IgG levels were 4-times higher in convalescence MESHD than in acute phase. SARS-CoV-2 RNA coexisted with antibodies SERO for more than 50 days. Anti-RBD IgM and IgG levels, including anti-RBD IgM levels at presentation and peak time, were significantly higher in viral RNA short persistence patients than in long persistence patients. CONCLUSION This study adds important new information about the features of viral load and antibody SERO dynamics of SARS-CoV-2. It is clear from these results that the viral RNA persists in sputum and stool specimens for a relatively long time in many patients. Anti-RBD may also serve as a potential protective antibody SERO against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, as viral persistence appears to be related to anti-RBD levels. Earlier treatment intervention also appears to be a factor in viral persistence.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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