Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 46
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    Artificial intelligence-based patient positioning for faster, more accurate and efficient CT imaging for COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Yadong Gang; Xiongfeng Chen; Huan Li; Hanlun Wang; Jianying Li; Ying Guo; Junjie Zeng; Qiang Hu; Jinxiang Hu; Haibo Xu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57162/v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: To analyze and compare the imaging workflow, radiation dose and image quality for COVID-19 patients examined using either the conventional manual positioning method or an AI-based positioning method. Materials and Methods: 127 adult TRANS COVID-19 patients underwent chest CT scans on a CT scanner using the same scan protocol except with the manual positioning (MP group) for the initial scan and an AI-based positioning method (AP group) for the follow-up scan. Radiation dose, patient off-center distance, examination and positioning time of the two groups were recorded and compared. Image noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were assessed by three experienced radiologists and were compared between the two groups.Results: The AP group reduced the total positioning time and examination time by 28% and 8%, respectively compared with the MP group. Compared with the MP group, AP group had significantly less patient off-center distance (AP:1.56cm ± 0.83 vs. MP: 4.05cm ± 2.40, p<0.001) and higher proportion of positioning accuracy (AP: 99% vs. MP: 92%), resulted in 16% radiation dose reduction (AP: 6.1mSv ± 1.3 vs. MP: 7.3mSv ± 1.2, p<0.001) and 9% image noise reduction in erector spinae and lower noise and higher SNR for lesions in the pulmonary peripheral areas.Conclusion: The AI-based positioning and centering in CT imaging is a promising new technique for reducing radiation dose, optimizing imaging workflow and image quality in imaging the chest. This technique has important added clinical value in imaging COVID-19 patients to reduce the cross-infection MESHD infection risks TRANS infection risks TRANS.

    mRNA induced expression of human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in mice for the study of the adaptive immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2

    Authors: Mariah Hassert; Elizabeth Geerling; E. Taylor Stone; Tara L. Steffen; Alexandria Dickson; Madi S. Feldman; Jacob Class; Justin M. Richner; James D Brien; Amelia K Pinto

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.241877 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: bioRxiv

    The novel human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic resulting in nearly 20 million infections across MESHD the globe, as of August 2020. Critical to the rapid evaluation of vaccines and antivirals is the development of tractable animal models of infection MESHD. The use of common laboratory strains of mice to this end is hindered by significant divergence of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the receptor required for entry of SARS-CoV-2. In the current study, we designed and utilized an mRNA-based transfection system to induce expression of the hACE2 receptor in order to confer entry of SARS-CoV-2 in otherwise non-permissive cells. By employing this expression system in an in vivo setting, we were able to interrogate the adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in type 1 interferon receptor deficient mice. In doing so, we showed that the T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 is enhanced when hACE2 is expressed during infection MESHD. Moreover, we demonstrated that these responses are preserved in memory and are boosted upon secondary infection MESHD. Interestingly, we did not observe an enhancement of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody SERO responses with hACE2 induction. Importantly, using this system, we functionally identified the CD4+ and CD8+ peptide epitopes targeted during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in H2b restricted mice. Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in mice of this MHC haplotype primarily target peptides of the spike and membrane proteins, while the antigen-specific CD4+ T cells target peptides of the nucleocapsid, membrane, and spike proteins. The functional identification of these T cell epitopes will be critical for evaluation of vaccine efficacy in murine models of SARS-CoV-2. The use of this tractable expression system has the potential to be used in other instances of emerging infections MESHD in which the rapid development of an animal model is hindered by a lack of host susceptibility factors.

    Face masks prevent transmission TRANS of respiratory diseases MESHD: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Authors: Hanna M Ollila; Markku Partinen; Jukka Koskela; Riikka Savolainen; Anna Rotkirch; Liisa T Laine

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166116 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and spreads through droplet-mediated transmission TRANS on contaminated surfaces and in air. Mounting scientific evidence from observational studies suggests that face masks for the general public may reduce the spread of infections MESHD. However, results from randomized control trials (RCT) have been presented as inconclusive, and concerns related to the safety and efficacy of non-surgical face masks in non-clinical settings remain. This controversy calls for a meta-analysis which considers non-compliance in RCTs, the time-lag in benefits of universal masking, and possible adverse effects. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs of non-surgical face masks in preventing viral respiratory infections MESHD in non-hospital and non-household settings at cumulative and maximum follow-up as primary endpoints. The search for RCTs yielded five studies published before May 29th, 2020. We pooled estimates from the studies and performed random-effects meta-analysis and mixed-effects meta-regression across studies, accounting for covariates in compliance vs. non-compliance in treatment. Results: Face masks decreased infections across MESHD all studies at maximum follow-up (p=0.0318$, RR=0.608 [0.387 - 0.956]), and particularly in studies without non-compliance bias. We found significant between-study heterogeneity in studies with bias (I^2=71.2%, p=0.0077). We also used adjusted meta-regression to account for heterogeneity. The results support a significant protective effect of masking (p=0.0006, beta=0.0214, SE= 0.0062). No severe adverse effects were detected. Interpretation: The meta-analysis of existing randomized control studies found support for the efficacy of face masks among the general public. Our results show that face masks protect populations from infections MESHD and do not pose a significant risk to users. Recommendations and clear communication concerning the benefits of face masks should be provided to limit the number of COVID-19 and other respiratory infections MESHD.

    Bronchoscopist's Perception of the Quality of the Single-use Fiberoptic Bronchoscope (Ambu Ascope4 ™) in Conventional Bronchoscopies. A Multicenter Study in 21 Spanish Pulmonology Services.

    Authors: Javier Flandes Aldeyturriaga; Luis Giraldo; Javier Alfayate; Iker Fernández-Navamuel; Carlos Agustí; Carmen M. Lucena; Antoni Rosell; Felipe Andreo; Carmen Centeno; Carmen Montero; Iria Vidal Garcia; Lucia García Alfonso; Antonio Bango; Miguel Ariza; Rocio Gallego Dominguez; Marta Orta Caamaño; Salvador Bello; Elisa Mincholé; Alfons Torrego; Virginia Pajares; Hector González; Aurelio Luis Wangüemert Pérez; Julio Pérez-Izquierdo; Carlos Disdier; Blanca de Vega Sanchez; Rosa Cordovilla; Juan Cascón; Antonio Cruz; J. Javier García-López; Luis Puente; Paola Benedetti; Cristina L. García-Gallo; Gema Díaz Nuevo; Silvia Aguado; Concepcion Partida; Prudencio Díaz-Agero; Estefania Luque Crespo; Maria Pavón Masa; Francisco Paez; Enrique Cases; Raquel Martinez; Andres Briones; Cleofe Fernandez; Concepcion Martin Serrano; Ana Maria Uribe-Hernandez; Jose Robles

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48067/v1 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:The disposable bronchoscope is an excellent alternative to face the problem of SARS-CoV-2 and other cross infections MESHD, but the bronchoscopist's perception of its quality has not been evaluated. Methods: To evaluate the quality of the Ambu-aScope4 disposable bronchoscope, we carried out a cross-sectional study in 21 Spanish pulmonology services. We use a standardized questionnaire completed by the bronchoscopists at the end of each bronchoscopy. The variables were described with absolute and relative frequencies, measures of central tendency and dispersion depending on their nature. The existence of learning curves was evaluated by CUSUM analysis.Results:The most frequent indications in 300 included bronchoscopies was bronchial aspiration HP in 69.3% and the median duration of these was 9.1 minutes. The route of entry was nasal in 47.2% and oral in 34.1%. The average score for ease of use, image, and aspiration HP quality was 80/100. All the planned techniques were performed in 94.9% and the bronchoscopist was satisfied in 96.6% of the bronchoscopies. They highlighted the portability and immediacy of the aScope4TM to start the procedure in 99.3%, the possibility of taking and storing images in 99.3%. The CUSUM analysis showed average scores> 70/100 from the first procedure and from the 9th procedure more than 80% of the scores exceeded the 80/100 score.Conclusions:The aScope4 ™ scored well for ease of use, imaging, and aspiration HP. We found a learning curve with excellent scores from the 9th procedure. Bronchoscopists highlighted its portability, immediacy of use and the possibility of taking and storing images.

    A severe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 patient with high-risk predisposing factors died from massive gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report

    Authors: Taojiang Chen; Qin Yang; Hongyu Duan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-45116/v1 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious and has been a significant public health threat. Despite typical manifestations of illness are dominated by respiratory symptom, some patients have concurrent gastrointestinal manifestations, including  nausea, diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP, and vomiting MESHD vomiting HP. Massive gastrointestinal bleeding, however, has rarely been reported. Case presentation: We herein describe a case of severe SARS-CoV-2 infected patient with several risk factors for poor prognosis, including male TRANS, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, old age TRANS, mixed bacterial infection MESHD and multilobular infiltration on radiological imaging. After improvement of respiratory status, the onset of gastrointestinal bleeding occurred, probably resulting from direct viral invasion as evidenced by the positive findings for SARS-CoV-2 in the repeat stool specimens. Although aggressive resuscitation was administered, hematochezia HP was uncontrolled. The patient rapidly deteriorated, suffered cardiac arrest HP, and expired. Conclusions: Digestive symptoms could be severe in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, especially for the high-risk individuals with predisposing conditions. A more thorough protocol for preventing cross-infection MESHD through faecal-oral transmission TRANS should be implemented in the process of patient care and infection MESHD control.

    Pericarditis MESHD Pericarditis HP and myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP long after SARS-CoV-2 infection: a cross MESHD-sectional descriptive study in health-care workers

    Authors: Rocio Eiros; Manuel Barreiro-Perez; Ana Martin-Garcia; Julia Almeida; Eduardo Villacorta; Alba Perez-Pons; Soraya Merchan; Alba Torres-Valle; Clara Sanchez-Pablo; David Gonzalez-Calle; Oihane Perez-Escurza; Ines Toranzo; Elena Diaz-Pelaez; Blanca Fuentes-Herrero; Laura Macias-Alvarez; Guillermo Oliva-Ariza; Quentin Lecrevisse; Rafael Fluxa; Jose L Bravo-Grandez; Alberto Orfao; Pedro L Sanchez

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.12.20151316 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Cardiac sequelae of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are still poorly documented. We conducted a cross-sectional study in health-care workers to report evidence of pericarditis MESHD pericarditis HP and myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Methods We studied 139 health-care workers with confirmed past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (103 diagnosed by RT-PCR and 36 by serology). Participants underwent clinical assessment, electrocardiography, laboratory tests including immune cell profiling and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Pericarditis MESHD Pericarditis HP was diagnosed when classical criteria were present, and the diagnosis of myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP was based on the updated CMR Lake-Louise-Criteria. Results: Median age TRANS was 52 years (IQR 41-57), 100 (72%) were women, and 23 (16%) were previously hospitalized for Covid-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. At examination (10.4 [9.3-11.0] weeks after infection MESHD-like symptoms), all participants presented hemodynamic stability. Chest pain MESHD Chest pain HP, dyspnoea or palpitations HP were observed in 58 (42%) participants; electrocardiographic abnormalities in 69 (50%); NT-pro-BNP was elevated in 11 (8%); troponin in 1 (1%); and CMR abnormalities in 104 (75%). Isolated pericarditis MESHD pericarditis HP was diagnosed in 4 (3%) participants, myopericarditis in 15 (11%) and isolated myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP in 36 (26%). Participants diagnosed by RT-PCR were more likely to still present symptoms than participants diagnosed by serology (73 [71%] vs 18 [50%]; p=0.027); nonetheless, the prevalence SERO of pericarditis MESHD pericarditis HP or myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP was high in both groups (44 [43%] vs 11 [31%]; p=0.238). Most participants (101 [73%]) showed altered immune cell counts in blood SERO, particularly decreased eosinophil (37 [27%]; p<0.001) and increased CD4-CD8-/loT alpha beta-cell numbers (24 [17%]; p<0.001). Pericarditis MESHD Pericarditis HP was associated with elevated CD4-CD8-/loT alpha beta-cell numbers (p=0.011), while participants diagnosed with myopericarditis or myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP had lower (p<0.05) plasmacytoid dendritic cell, NK-cell and plasma SERO cell counts and lower anti-SARS-CoV-2- IgG antibody SERO levels (p=0.027). Conclusions: Pericarditis MESHD Pericarditis HP and myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP with clinical stability are frequent long after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, even in presently asymptomatic TRANS subjects. These observations will probably apply to the general population infected and may indicate that cardiac sequelae might occur late in association with an altered (delayed) innate and adaptative immune response.

    The Way a General Hospital Treated COVID-19 in Shenzhen, China & the Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of its Confirmed Patients

    Authors: Yang Zhou; Le Yang; Quanzhen Tang; Zhongrui Ruan; Minqiang Huang; Ming Han; Wei Han; Jian Lu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40540/v1 Date: 2020-07-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives: To discuss the prevention and containment of COVID-19 at a general hospital in Shenzhen China; to analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of its confirmed patients, which is intended to provide a model for other hospitals in COVID-19 management.Methods: The General Hospital of Shenzhen University sets up 4 medical zones relative to the COVID-19 prevention and containment. In so doing, the suspected patients classified into different kind of ward receive different treatment (Classified and Separated Treatment). The epidemiological distribution and clinical characteristics of 28 confirmed cases TRANS in the hospital were analyzed.Results: There are no medical personnel infected cases, no cross-infection MESHD among the patients in the hospital, and no misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis of COVID-19. The majority of cases in the group is from 15 to 60 years old, 25 cases had a definite travel TRANS history or close contact TRANS history in the epidemic area, and parents TRANS and spouses of the confirmed patients are the main contact groups. Fever MESHD Fever HP and respiratory symptoms have a high proportion, 4 diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP and 4 asymptomatic TRANS cases. Additionally, the decrease of lymphocyte is observed in 8 cases. Chest CT scan shows viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in 14 cases,All patients were confirmed by nucleic acid tests.Conclusions: Classified and Separated Treatment facilitates management of COVID-19 in the general hospital. Relative to suspected patients in the general hospital, diagnosis matters more than treatment. Epidemiological history, lymphocyte count, and chest CT scan play an important role as the indicator in early diagnosis of COVID-19.

    A Single-Center Retrospective and Descriptive Study of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgical Oncology during the COVID-19 Epidemic

    Authors: Zhi-Ming Zhao; Xiu-Ping Zhang; Shuai Xu; Xiang-Long Tan; Xuan Zhang; Ming-Gen Hu; Cheng-Gang Li; Yuan-Xing Gao; Guo-Dong Zhao; Rong Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40427/v1 Date: 2020-07-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: In the battle against COVID-19, most medical resources in China have been directed to infected patients in Wuhan. Thus, patients with hepatobiliary pancreatic tumors who are not suffering from COVID-19 are often not given timely and effective anti-cancer treatments. In this study, we aimed to describe clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic oncology from our department, which retained normal working during the COVID-19 epidemic. We also sought to formulate a set of standardized hospitalization and treatment processes.Methods: A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted involving patients hospitalized from February 1, 2020, to February 29, 2020 (Return to work after the Spring Festival), at our Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgical Oncology. Results: The study included 92 patients from 12 provinces in the north of China who underwent surgical resection at our Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgical Oncology during the COVID-19 epidemic. Robotic surgery was performed on 82% (75/92) of patients, while the rest underwent laparoscopic (2/92) and open surgery (15/92). Eighty-six patients had malignant tumor, and six had emergency MESHD benign diseases MESHD. Only five patients had severe pancreatic fistula MESHD pancreatic fistula HP, and three had biliary fistula MESHD after operation. Conclusions: The standardized hospitalization and treatment processes described in this study could prevent cross-infection MESHD of patients and still ensure timely treatment of patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancers. These study findings will guide the management of surgical oncology departments and treatment of patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic oncology during serious epidemics.

    Age TRANS Matters: COVID-19 Prevalence SERO in a Vaping Adolescent Population - An Observational Study

    Authors: Nitin Tandan; Manjari Rani Regmi; Ruby Maini; Abdisamad M. Ibrahim; Cameron Koester; Odalys Estefania Lara Garcia; Priyanka Parajuli; Mohammad Al-Akchar; Abhishek Kulkarni; Robert Robinson

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.03.20146035 Date: 2020-07-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Currently, there is limited or no data demonstrating that vaping is associated with increased transmission TRANS or prevalence SERO of coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19). Our study aims to investigate the relationship of vaping with the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 infection across MESHD the United States and in the District of Columbia. Methods: COVID-19 case counts by state and the District of Columbia were obtained via the Worldometers website on 04/30/2020. Prevalence SERO of COVID-19 cases per 100,000 residents were calculated using estimated 2019 population data from the US Census Department. Age TRANS ranges analyzed were: high school age TRANS children TRANS, Ages TRANS 18-24, Ages TRANS 25-44, and Ages TRANS 45-65. Spearman correlation analysis was conducted to determine if the rate of vaping was correlated with a higher prevalence SERO of COVID-19 cases per 100,000 population. Findings: The Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated that persons vaping between 18 years and 24 years of age TRANS had a correlation coefficient of 0.278 with prevalence SERO of COVID-19 infection MESHD (p=0.048). Vaping high school students had a correlation coefficient of 0.153 with prevalence SERO of COVID-19 (p=0.328). Persons vaping in the age group TRANS 25-45 years had a correlation coefficient of 0.101 in association to COVID-19 prevalence SERO (p=0.478). And finally, persons vaping between the age TRANS 45-65 years old had a correlation coefficient 0.130 with respect to COVID-19 prevalence SERO (p=0.364). Interpretation: Increased COVID-19 prevalence SERO is associated with vaping in the adolescent population between ages TRANS 18 and 24. Further prospective studies need to be performed in order investigate the severity of outcomes of vaping in association with COVID-19 infection MESHD. Funding: Nothing to disclose.

    Data From the COVID-19 Epidemic in Florida Suggest That Younger Cohorts Have Been Transmitting Their Infections MESHD to Less Socially Mobile Older Adults TRANS

    Authors: Jeffrey E Harris

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.30.20143842 Date: 2020-07-02 Source: medRxiv

    We analyzed the daily incidence of newly reported COVID-19 cases among adults TRANS aged TRANS 20-39 years, 40-59 years, and 60 or more years in the sixteen most populous counties of the state of Florida from March 1 through June 27, 2020. In all 16 counties, an increase in reported COVID-19 case incidence was observed in all three age groups TRANS soon after the governor-ordered Full Phase 1 reopening went into effect. Trends in social mobility, but not trends in testing, correlate with case incidence. Data on hospitalization and mortality do not support the hypothesis that the observed increase in case incidence was merely the result of liberalization of testing criteria. Parameter estimates from a parsimonious two-group heterogeneous SIR model strongly support the hypothesis that younger persons, having first acquired their infections MESHD through increasing social contact with their peers, then transmitted their infections MESHD to older, less socially mobile individuals. Without such cross-infection MESHD, an isolated epidemic among older people in Florida would be unsustainable.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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