Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (198)

Hypertension (127)

Fever (118)

Cough (100)

Respiratory distress (83)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1291 - 1300 records in total 2294
    records per page




    Age TRANS-adjusted associations between comorbidity and outcomes of COVID-19: a review of the evidence

    Authors: Kate E Mason; Philip McHale; Andy Pennington; Gillian Maudsley; Jennifer Day; Ben Barr

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.06.20093351 Date: 2020-05-10 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Current evidence suggests that older people and people with underlying comorbidities are at increased risk of severe disease MESHD and death MESHD following hospitalisation with COVID-19. As comorbidity increases with age TRANS, it is necessary to understand the age TRANS-adjusted relationship between comorbidity and COVID-19 outcomes, in order to enhance planning capabilities and our understanding of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a rapid, comprehensive review of the literature up to 10 April 2020, to assess the international empirical evidence on the association between comorbidities and severe or critical care outcomes of COVID-19, after accounting for age TRANS, among hospitalised patients with COVID-19. Results: After screening 579 studies, we identified seven studies eligible for inclusion and these were synthesised narratively. All were from China. The emerging evidence base mostly indicates that after adjustment for age TRANS (and in some cases other potential confounders), obesity MESHD obesity HP, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP, chronic obstructive airways disease MESHD (COPD), and cancer are all associated with worse outcomes. The largest study, using a large nationwide sample of COVID-19 patients in China, found that those with multiple comorbidities had more than twice the risk of a severe outcome or death MESHD compared with patients with no comorbidities, after adjusting for age TRANS and smoking (HR=2.59, 95% CI 1.61, 4.17). Conclusions: This review summarises for clinicians, policymakers, and academics the most robust evidence to date on this topic, to inform the management of patients and control measures for tackling the pandemic. Given the intersection of comorbidity with ethnicity and social disadvantage, these findings also have important implications for health inequalities. As the pandemic develops, further research should confirm these trends in other settings outside China and explore mechanisms by which various underlying health conditions increase risk of severe COVID-19.

    The Timeline of a Pandemic: Have We Learned Anything in 102 Years?

    Authors: Gemma Green; Irrum Afzal; Sarkhell Radha

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0179.v1 Date: 2020-05-10 Source: Preprints.org

    George Satayana stated that “those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it”. As our UK “good outcome” death MESHD toll of 20,000 from coronavirus (SARS CoV -2/ COVID -19) in 2020 has sadly been surpassed; never has a phrase been more pertinent. The last major pandemic on a similar scale to COVID-19 is “Spanish Flu” from 1918. We aim to delineate the timeline of events in response to the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic and compare this to the timeline of COVID 19 response, given that the NHS and WHO have since both been long established. In the last 102 years many changes have occurred. Health services across the world have significantly improved, with the advent of mechanical ventilation and antimicrobial treatments. Vaccination programmes against common pathogens have prevented many large-scale disease MESHD threats, however novel illnesses have also emerged. Worldwide communication through the Internet and many agencies including the World Health Organisation has improved, and the awareness and surveillance of disease MESHD is more prominent. Despite advances in healthcare and communication, the national and international timeline for public health intervention in the current COVID pandemic in comparison to the Spanish flu pandemic of more than 100 years ago is virtually identical. The World Health Organisation operates to promote global health and prevent spread of disease TRANS disease MESHD, with this in mind; should the WHO have intervened earlier?​ We need to learn quickly from this pandemic and improve planning for the future.

    Rapidly Measuring Spatial Accessibility of COVID-19 Healthcare Resources: A Case Study of Illinois, USA

    Authors: Jeon-Young Kang; Alexander C Michels; Fangzheng Lyu; Shaohua Wang; Nelson Agbodo; Vincent L Freeman; Shaowen Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.06.20093534 Date: 2020-05-10 Source: medRxiv

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has infected millions of people and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths MESHD. While COVID-19 has overwhelmed healthcare resources (e.g., healthcare personnel, testing resources, hospital beds, and ventilators) in a number of countries, limited research has been conducted to understand spatial accessibility of such resources. This study fills this gap by rapidly measuring the spatial accessibility of COVID-19 healthcare resources with a particular focus on Illinois, USA. Specifically, the rapid measurement is achieved by resolving computational intensity of an enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method through a parallel computing strategy based on cyberGIS (cyber geographic information science and systems). The study compared the spatial accessibility measures for COVID-19 patients to those of general population, identifying which geographic areas need additional healthcare resources to improve access. The results also help delineate the areas that may face a COVID-19-induced shortage of healthcare resources caused by COVID-19. The Chicagoland, particularly the southern Chicago, shows an additional need for resources. Our findings are relevant for policymakers and public health practitioners to allocate existing healthcare resources or distribute new resources for maximum access to health services.

    SARS-CoV-2 and the Possible Connection to ERs, ACE2 and RAGE: Focus on Susceptibility Factors

    Authors: Roberta Sessa Stilhano; Angelica Jardim Costa; Michelle Sayuri Nishino; Shahin Shams; Cynthia Silva Bartolomeo; Ana Cristina Breithaupt-Faloppa; Eduardo Alexandre Silva; Ana Lopez Ramirez; Carla Maximo Prado; Rodrigo Portes Ureshino

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0178.v1 Date: 2020-05-10 Source: Preprints.org

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has provoked major stresses on the health care systems of several countries, and caused the death MESHD of more than a quarter of a million people globally, mainly in the elderly TRANS population with pre-existing pathologies. Previous studies with coronavirus (SARS-CoV) point to gender TRANS differences in infection MESHD and disease progression MESHD with increased susceptibility in male TRANS patients, indicating that estrogens may be associated with physiological protection against the coronavirus. Therefore, the objectives of this work are threefold. First, we aim to summarize the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD pathway and the roles both the virus and patient play in COVID-19 ( Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019) progression, clinical symptomology, and mortality. Second, we detail the effect estrogen has on viral infection MESHD and host infection MESHD response, including its role in both the regulation of key viral receptor expression and the mediation of inflammatory activity. Finally, we describe how ERs (estrogen receptors) and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end-products) play a critical role in metabolic pathways, which we envisage could maintain a close interplay with SARS-CoV and COVID-19 mortality rates, despite a current lack of research directly determining how. Taken together, we present the current state of the field regarding SARS-CoV-2 research and illuminate where research is needed to better define the role both estrogen and metabolic comorbidities have in the COVID-19 disease MESHD state, which can be key in screening potential therapeutic options as the search for effective treatments continue.

    Mathematical Modeling & the Transmission TRANS Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in Cali, Colombia: Implications to a 2020 Outbreak & public health preparedness

    Authors: Jorge Humberto Rojas; Marlio Paredes; Malay Banerjee; Olcay Akman; Anuj Mubayi

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.06.20093526 Date: 2020-05-10 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: As SARS-COV-2 and the disease MESHD COVID-19 is sweeping through countries after countries around the globe, it is critical to understand potential burden of a future outbreak in cities of Colombia. This pandemic has affected most of the countries in the world because the high global movement of individuals and excessive cost in interventions. Objective: Using demographic data from city of Cali, disease MESHD epidemiological information from affected countries and mathematical models, we estimated the rate of initial exponential growth of new cases and the basic reproductive rate for a potential outbreak in city of Cali in Colombia. Materials and methods: We used dynamical models with different modeling assumptions such as use of various types of interventions and/or epidemiological characteristics to compare and contrast the differences between Colombian cities and between Latin American countries. Results: Under the assumption of homogeneously mixing population and limited resources, we predicted expected number of infected, hospitalized, in Intensive Care Units (ICU) and deaths MESHD during this potential COVID-19 outbreak. Our results suggest that on a given day in Cali there may be up to around 73000 cases who might need hospitalization under no intervention. However, this number drastically reduces if we carry out only-isolation intervention (with 16 days of symptomatic infection MESHD; [~]13,000 cases) versus both quarantining for 6 days and isolation within 16 days ([~]3500 cases). The peak in Cali will reach in 2-3 months. Conclusions: The estimates from these studies provides different scenarios of outbreaks and can help Cali to be better prepared during the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak.

    Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers and Outcome of COVID-19 : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Authors: Aref A. Bin Abdulhak; Tarek Kashour; Anas Noman; Haytham Tlayjeh; Ala Mohsen; Mouaz H. Al-Mallah; Imad M. Tleyjeh

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.06.20093260 Date: 2020-05-10 Source: medRxiv

    Importace: There is conflicting evidence about the role of angiotensin converting enzymes inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptors blockers (ARBs) in the pathogenesis and outcome of patients infected with acute severe respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SASR-CoV-2) virus and growing public concern. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis using inverse variance random effect models including all studies that evaluate the role of ACEIs/ARBs and reported adjusted odds ratio. Results: Nine studies met our eligibility criteria that enrolled a population of 58615 patients infected with SASR-CoV-2. Prior use of ACEIs/ARBs were associated with significant reduction of inpatient mortality among infected patients with SASR-CoV-2, adjusted odds ratio from 4 studies 0.33, 95% confidence interval ( 0.22,0.49) with zero in between studies heterogeneity and with significant reduction of critical or fatal outcome , pooled adjusted odds ratio from 5 studies 0.32,95% confidence interval ( 0.22,0.46) with no in between studies heterogeneity. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that prior use ACEIs /ARBs is associated with a decreased risk of death MESHD or critical outcome among SASR-CoV-2 infected patients.This findings is limited by the observational nature of included studies.However, it provides a reassurance to the public not to stop prescribed ACEIs /ARBs due to fear of severe COVID-19. It also calls upon investigators and ethics committee to reconsider the ongoing randomized trials of discontinuation of these drugs.

    Mapping of PubMed Literature on Early Trends of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)

    Authors: Kutty Kumar

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-28215/v1 Date: 2020-05-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    2019 novel corona virus infection MESHD (COVID-19) causes extreme viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in people, known to have a high death MESHD rate and a similitude in clinical indications with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD coronavirus. This investigation intended to study the attributes of distributions on early COVID-19 research through bibliometric analysis. PubMed database was looked on 07, February, 2020 for COVID-19 distributions published during 01st December 2019 to 06th February 2020. Investigation parameters incorporate year of production, distribution type, examples of universal coordinated effort, and research organizations. An aggregate of 62 COVID-19 research distributions were distributed during the examination time frame. The exploration works were distributed from 13 nations, demonstrating the global noteworthiness on coronavirus episode. USA was the biggest supporter, with 24 articles distributed over a range of 2months and 6 days, trailed by England (11 articles). Aftereffects of the investigation will bear some significance with understudies, specialists, curators and data science experts, and will fill in as a pattern for resulting examinations.

    Are Vapers More Susceptible to COVID-19 Infection MESHD?

    Authors: Dongmei Li; Daniel P. Croft; Deborah J. Ossip; Zidian Xie

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.05.20092379 Date: 2020-05-09 Source: medRxiv

    Background COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a global pandemic in March 2020. Electronic cigarette use (vaping) rapidly gained popularity in the US in recent years. Whether electronic cigarette users (vapers) are more susceptible to COVID-19 infection MESHD is unknown. Methods Using integrated data in each US state from the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), United States Census Bureau and the 1Point3Acres.com website, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models with negative binomial distribution assumption and log link functions were used to examine the association of weighted proportions of vapers with number of COVID-19 infections MESHD and deaths MESHD in the US. Results The weighted proportion of vapers who used e-cigarettes every day or some days ranged from 2.86% to 6.42% for US states. Statistically significant associations were observed between the weighted proportion of vapers and number of COVID-19 infected cases as well as COVID-19 deaths MESHD in the US after adjusting for the weighted proportion of smokers and other significant covariates in the GEE models. With every one percent increase in weighted proportion of vapers in each state, the number of COVID-19 infected cases increase by 0.3139 (95% CI: 0.0554 - 0.5723) and the number of COVID-19 deaths MESHD increase by 0.3705 (95% CI: 0.0623 - 0.6786) in log scale in each US state. Conclusions The positive associations between the proportion of vapers and the number of COVID-19 infected cases and deaths MESHD in each US state suggest an increased susceptibility of vapers to COVID-19 infections MESHD and deaths MESHD.

    A sub-national analysis of the rate of transmission TRANS of COVID-19 in Italy

    Authors: Michaela A. C. Vollmer; Swapnil Mishra; H Juliette T Unwin; Axel Gandy; Thomas A Mellan; Valerie Bradley; Harrison Zhu; Helen Coupland; Iwona Hawryluk; Michael Hutchinson; Oliver Ratmann; Melodie Monod; Patrick Walker; Charlie Whittaker; Lorenzo Cattarino; Constance Ciavarella; Lucia Cilloni; Kylie Ainslie; Marc Baguelin; Sangeeta Bhatia; Adhiratha Boonyasiri; Nicholas Brazeau; Giovanni Charles; Laura V Cooper; Zulma Cucunuba; Gina Cuomo-Dannenburg; Amy Dighe; Bimandra Djaafara; Jeff Eaton; Sabine L van Elsland; Richard FitzJohn; Keith Fraser; Katy Gaythorpe; Will Green; Sarah Hayes; Natsuko Imai; Ben Jeffrey; Edward Knock; Daniel Laydon; John Lees; Tara Mangal; Andria Mousa; Gemma Nedjati-Gilani; Pierre Nouvellet; Daniela Olivera; Kris V Parag; Michael Pickles; Hayley A Thompson; Robert Verity; Caroline Walters; Haowei Wang; Yuanrong Wang; Oliver J Watson; Lilith Whittles; Xiaoyue Xi; Azra A M Ghani; Steven Riley; Lucy C Okell; Christl A Donnelly; Neil M Ferguson; Ilaria Dorigatti; Seth Flaxman; Samir Bhatt

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.05.20089359 Date: 2020-05-09 Source: medRxiv

    Italy was the first European country to experience sustained local transmission TRANS of COVID-19. As of 1st May 2020, the Italian health authorities reported 28,238 deaths MESHD nationally. To control the epidemic, the Italian government implemented a suite of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including school and university closures, social distancing and full lockdown involving banning of public gatherings and non essential movement. In this report, we model the effect of NPIs on transmission TRANS using data on average mobility. We estimate that the average reproduction number TRANS (a measure of transmission TRANS intensity) is currently below one for all Italian regions, and significantly so for the majority of the regions. Despite the large number of deaths MESHD, the proportion of population that has been infected by SARS-CoV-2 (the attack rate TRANS) is far from the herd immunity threshold in all Italian regions, with the highest attack rate TRANS observed in Lombardy (13.18% [10.66%-16.70%]). Italy is set to relax the currently implemented NPIs from 4th May 2020. Given the control achieved by NPIs, we consider three scenarios for the next 8 weeks: a scenario in which mobility remains the same as during the lockdown, a scenario in which mobility returns to pre-lockdown levels by 20%, and a scenario in which mobility returns to pre-lockdown levels by 40%. The scenarios explored assume that mobility is scaled evenly across all dimensions, that behaviour stays the same as before NPIs were implemented, that no pharmaceutical interventions are introduced, and it does not include transmission TRANS reduction from contact tracing TRANS, testing and the isolation of confirmed or suspected cases. New interventions, such as enhanced testing and contact tracing TRANS are going to be introduced and will likely contribute to reductions in transmission TRANS; therefore our estimates should be viewed as pessimistic projections. We find that, in the absence of additional interventions, even a 20% return to pre-lockdown mobility could lead to a resurgence in the number of deaths MESHD far greater than experienced in the current wave in several regions. Future increases in the number of deaths MESHD will lag behind the increase in transmission TRANS intensity and so a second wave will not be immediately apparent from just monitoring of the daily number of deaths MESHD. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS as well as mobility should be closely monitored in the next weeks and months. To compensate for the increase in mobility that will occur due to the relaxation of the currently implemented NPIs, adherence to the recommended social distancing measures alongside enhanced community surveillance including swab testing, contact tracing TRANS and the early isolation of infections MESHD are of paramount importance to reduce the risk of resurgence in transmission TRANS.

    Ethnicity and risk of death MESHD in patients hospitalised for COVID-19 infection MESHD: an observational cohort study in an urban catchment area

    Authors: Elizabeth Sapey; Suzy Gallier; Chris Mainey; Peter Nightingale; David McNulty; Hannah Crothers; Felicity Evison; Katharine Reeves; Domenico Pagano; Alastair K Denniston; Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar; Peter Diggle; Simon Ball

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.05.20092296 Date: 2020-05-09 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives. To determine if specific ethnic groups are at higher risk of mortality from COVID19 infection MESHD. Design. Retrospective cohort study Setting. University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust (UHB) in Birmingham, UK Participants. Patients with confirmed SARS CoV 2 infection MESHD requiring admission to UHB between 10th March 2020 and 17th April 2020 Exposure. Ethnicity Main outcome measures. Standardised Admission Ratio ( SAR TRANS) and Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) for each ethnicity was calculated using observed sex specific age TRANS distributions of COVID19 admissions/ deaths MESHD and 2011 census data for Birmingham/Solihull. Hazard Ratio (aHR) for mortality was estimated for each ethnic group with white population as reference group, using Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for age TRANS, sex, social deprivation and co-morbidities, and propensity score matching. Results. 2217 patients admitted to UHB with a proven diagnosis of COVID19 were included. 58.2% were male TRANS, 69.5% White and the majority (80.2%) had co morbidities. 18.5% were of South Asian ethnicity, and these patients were more likely to be younger (median age TRANS 61 years vs.77 years), have no co morbidities (27.8% vs. 16.6%) but a higher prevalence SERO of diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (48.0% vs 28.2%) than White patients. SAR TRANS and SMR suggested more admissions and deaths MESHD in South Asian patients than would be predicted. South Asian patients were also more likely to present with severe disease MESHD despite no delay in presentation since symptom onset TRANS. South Asian ethnicity was associated with an increased risk of death MESHD; both by Cox regression (Hazard Ratio 1.66 (95%CI 1.32 to 2.10)) after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, deprivation and comorbidities and by propensity score matching, (Hazard ratio 1.68 (1.33 to 2.13), using the same factors but categorising ethnicity into South Asian or not. Conclusions. Current evidence suggests those of South Asian ethnicity may be at risk of worse COVID19 outcomes, further studies need to establish the underlying mechanistic pathways.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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