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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Incidence and outcome of delirium MESHD during Helmet CPAP HGNC treatment in COVID-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Federica Samartin; Emanuele Salvi; Anna Maria Brambilla; Stella Ingrassia; Alessandro Torre; Antonio Gidaro

    doi:10.1101/2021.05.01.21256071 Date: 2021-05-03 Source: medRxiv

    It is estimated that almost one-third of patients with COVID-19 MESHD develop delirium MESHD in the course of disease, actually it may be the only presenting symptom, especially in dementia MESHD patients. In COVID-19 MESHD patients delirium MESHD is associated with higher mortality rate, increased length of stay and a greater rate of admission in Intensive Care Unit and ventilator utilisation. We hypothesized a greater rate of delirium MESHD in Helmet CPAP HGNC COVID-19 MESHD ventilated patients because many known risk factors for delirium MESHD co-exist in these kind of patients (i.e. isolation, noise, dehydration MESHD). The first aim of our study is to investigate the incidence of delirium MESHD occurring during Helmet CPAP HGNC therapy in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Moreover, we wanted to verify if there are predictable risk factors for delirium MESHD and to determine if delirium increases MESHD the risk of adverse outcomes (need of endotracheal intubation and death MESHD). The cohort of CPAP HGNC ventilated COVID-19 MESHD patients were composed by 194 patients. Of them, 57 patients (29.3%) developed delirium MESHD during CPAP HGNC, more than two third in the first 48h. Age over 70 years, previous diagnosis of dementia or psychiatric MESHD condition, P/F < 150 after starting CPAP and Gr/Lys >8 resulted risk factors for delirium MESHD. Delirium group had a significantly higher mortality rate (47% vs 23%) and lower intubation rate (12% vs 26%) compared to non-delirious ones. Despite many potential predisposing factors are common in CPAP HGNC ventilated patients, delirium MESHD incidence in our population seems not to differ from what reported by other studies. Moreover, the occurrence of delirium MESHD seems not to be related to prolonged CPAP HGNC treatment, indeed no correlation between time spent in CPAP HGNC and delirium MESHD onset was found.

    COVID-19 MESHD Outcomes and Sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from Veterans in New England

    Authors: Megan Lee; Ya Haddy Sallah; Matthew Ringer; Mary Petrone; Nathan D Grubaugh; Shaili Gupta

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.27.21256222 Date: 2021-04-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Clinical outcomes of Veterans with COVID-19 MESHD in New England and respective genomic variants of SARS-CoV-2 have not been described. Factors impacting outcomes will inform triage and management algorithms. We proposed to conduct these clinical and genomic evaluations. Methods: We recorded demographics, comorbidities, and outcomes for 274 patients with COVID-19 MESHD in 6 states (CT, MA, ME, NH MESHD, RI, VT MESHD) from 4/8/20-9/16/20, and used STATA v16 for logistic regressions. Peak disease severity was defined from grade 1-5 as no O2 requirement, 1-3 liters (L) by nasal cannula (NC), 4-6 L NC, >6 L O2 or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, and mechanical ventilation. We generated 64 whole genomes from 3/31/20-5/11/20 using Illumina (238) and Nanopore (61) platforms and built a phylogenetic tree (Nextstrain). Results: Of 274 Veterans, 92.7% were male, 83.2% white, and mean age was 63 years (IQR: 51 to 74 years). Over a third resided in a long-term care facility, and most common comorbidities were coronary artery disease MESHD (27%), diabetes MESHD (25%), and tobacco use (23%). 11.7% of patients required O2 within 24 hours of admission, with 20.8% of all patients requiring O2 support above their baseline during the hospitalization. Overall, 28.8% were hospitalized, with the highest rates in people with COPD MESHD (50%), CAD (45.9%), and those over age 80 years (44.4%). The overall mortality rate was 10.6%, with the highest rates in people with dementia MESHD (33.3%), age >80 (28.9%), and those from LTC (23.9%). On multivariate regression, significant predictors of hospitalization were age (OR: 1.05) and Non-white race (OR: 2.39). Peak severity also varied by age (OR: 1.07) and O2 requirement on admission (OR: 45.7). Mortality was predicted by age (OR: 1.06), dementia MESHD (OR: 3.44), and O2 requirement on admission (OR: 6.74). Most of our samples were in the A (2.36%) and B (97.3%) lineages. One genome was part of the N.1 lineage. Notably, the majority of genomes (97%) are part of the B1 lineage, which is defined by a D614G substitution. Conclusions: Our study found that in an older cohort of Veterans from the six New England states with a high comorbidity burden, age was the single strongest predictor of hospitalization, peak severity, and mortality. Non-white Veterans were more likely to be hospitalized, and patients who required oxygen on admission were more likely to have severe disease and higher rates of mortality. Furthermore, patients with dementia MESHD were more likely to die. Multiple genomic variants of SARS-CoV-2 were distributed in patients in New England early in the COVID-19 MESHD era, mostly in the New York clade with a D614G mutation.

    Comparative Effectiveness of Standard and Contingency-based Cleaning in Acute and Long-Term Care Facilities amidst Staff Shortages and a COVID-19 MESHD Surge

    Authors: Emil Lesho; Donna Newhart; Lisa Reno; Scott Sleeper; Julia Nary; Jennifer Gutowski; Stephanie Yu; Edward Walsh; Roberto Vargas; Dawn Riedy; Robert Mayo

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.13.21255427 Date: 2021-04-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Cleanliness of hospital surfaces helps prevent healthcare-associated infections, but larger evaluations of the effectiveness of various cleaning strategies during SARS-CoV-2 surges and worker shortages are scarce. Methods: In an acute care hospital (ACH) and a long-term care facility (LTCF), 417 surfaces were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and adenosine triphosphate before and after various cleaning strategies, including ultraviolet light (UV-C), electrostatic spraying, and room fogging. Results: ACH surface contamination differed among outbreak and non-outbreak wards (p = 0.001). RNA was detected on 66% of surfaces before cleaning and on 23% of those surfaces immediately after terminal cleaning, for a 65% post-cleaning reduction (p = 0.001). UV-C resulted in an 87% reduction (p = 0.023), while spraying with electrostatic bleach resulted in a 47% reduction (p = 0.010). LTCF contamination rates differed between the dementia MESHD, rehabilitation, and the residential units (p = 0.005). 67% of surfaces had RNA after room fogging without terminal-style wiping. Fogging with wiping led to an 11% reduction in the proportion of positive surfaces. Discussion: Baseline contamination varied by type of unit and outbreak conditions, but not facility type. Removal of viral RNA varied according to strategy. Unlike previous reports, time spent cleaning was associated with cleaning thoroughness.

    Comorbidity Risk Factors Contributing to COVID-19 MESHD Related Deaths in Florida, March 1 HGNC, 2020-January 16, 2021

    Authors: Ursula K Weiss; Jason D Maynard; Katherine McDaniel; Alyssa Cohen; Marie Bailey; Scott A Rivkees

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.14.21255434 Date: 2021-04-16 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Objectives To assess the association of specific comorbid conditions to COVID-19 MESHD deaths MESHD in Florida among decedents 16 to 64 years of age. Methods This report uses Florida vital statistics death data over the period of March 1 HGNC, 2020 through January 16, 2021, to estimate the effects of comorbid conditions on COVID-19 MESHD mortality for decedents 16 to 64 years of age. All cases of COVID-19 MESHD death occurring in Florida, regardless of resident status, were evaluated. The comorbidities, or contributing causes of death MESHD, identified in this report include Down syndrome, asthma MESHD, diabetes MESHD, pulmonary fibrosis MESHD, obesity MESHD, dementia MESHD, immunodeficiency MESHD, kidney disease MESHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD, hypertension MESHD, heart disease MESHD, and chronic liver disease MESHD and cirrhosis MESHD. The study uses a binary logistic regression to examine the relationship between COVID-19 MESHD and non- COVID-19 MESHD death MESHD and contributing causes of death MESHD based on information in the death record. Odds ratios were calculated as a residual of the logistic regression. Results Among COVID-19 MESHD deaths MESHD, Down syndrome was 15.26 times more likely to be a contributing cause of death MESHD compared to non- COVID-19 MESHD deaths followed by asthma MESHD (OR 7.74), diabetes MESHD (OR 6.11), pulmonary fibrosis MESHD (OR 5.13), obesity MESHD (OR 4.66), dementia MESHD (OR 4.51), immunodeficiency MESHD (OR 2.49), and kidney disease MESHD (OR 2.13). Chronic liver disease MESHD and cirrhosis MESHD (OR 0.95) and cancer MESHD (OR 0.79) had lower odds of being a contributing cause of death MESHD. Conclusions Heart disease MESHD, chronic liver disease MESHD and cirrhosis MESHD, and cancer MESHD were not risk factors for death from COVID-19 MESHD among decedents. Additional studies are needed to elucidate associations between race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and behavioral factors.

    COVID-19 MESHD and mortality risk in patients with psychiatric disorders MESHD

    Authors: George Kirov; Emily Baker

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.08.21255046 Date: 2021-04-13 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 MESHD has already caused the deaths of over 2.5 million people worldwide. Patients with certain medical conditions and severe psychiatric disorders MESHD are at increased risk of dying from it. However, such people have a reduced life expectancy anyway, raising the question whether COVID-19 MESHD incurs a specific risk for such patients for dying, over and above the risk of dying from other causes. We analysed the UK Biobank data of half a million middle-aged participants from the UK. From the start of 2020 up to 24th January 2021, 894 participants had died from COVID-19 MESHD and another 4,562 had died from other causes. We demonstrate that the risk of dying from COVID-19 MESHD among patients with mental health problems, especially those with dementia MESHD, schizophrenia MESHD, or bipolar disorder MESHD, is increased compared to the risk of dying from other causes. This increase among patients with severe psychiatric disorders MESHD cannot be explained solely by the higher rate of diabetes or cardiovascular disorders MESHD.

    Automatic identification of risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 positivity and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 MESHD using Data Mining and Natural Language Processing

    Authors: Verena Schoening; Evangelia Liakoni; Juergen Drewe; Felix Hammann

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.25.21254314 Date: 2021-03-26 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: Several risk factors have been identified for severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 MESHD caused by SARS-CoV-2. Some can be found in structured data of patients' Electronic Health Records. Others are included as unstructured free-text, and thus cannot be easily detected automatically. We propose an automated real-time detection of risk factors using a combination of data mining and Natural Language Processing ( NLP HGNC). Material and methods: Patients were categorized as negative or positive for SARS-CoV-2, and according to disease severity (severe or non-severe COVID-19 MESHD). Comorbidities were identified in the unstructured free-text using NLP HGNC. Further risk factors were taken from the structured data. Results: 6250 patients were analysed (5664 negative and 586 positive; 461 non-severe and 125 severe). Using NLP HGNC, comorbidities, i.e. cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions, diabetes MESHD, dementia MESHD and cancer MESHD, were automatically detected (error rate [≤]2%). Old age, male sex, higher BMI, arterial hypertension MESHD, chronic heart failure MESHD, coronary heart disease MESHD, COPD MESHD, diabetes MESHD, insulin HGNC only treatment of diabetic MESHD patients, reduced kidney and liver function were risk factors for severe COVID-19 MESHD. Interestingly, the proportion of diabetic MESHD patients using metformin but not insulin HGNC was significantly higher in the non-severe COVID-19 MESHD cohort (p<0.05). Discussion and conclusion: Our findings were in line with previously reported risk factors for severe COVID-19 MESHD. NLP HGNC in combination with other data mining approaches appears to be a suitable tool for the automated real-time detection of risk factors, which can be a time saving support for risk assessment and triage, especially in patients with long medical histories and multiple comorbidities.

    VIRAL AND ANTIBODY TESTING FOR CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD): FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH POSITIVITY IN ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS FROM THE UNITED STATES

    Authors: Lisa Lindsay; Matthew H Secrest; Shemra Rizzo; Daniel Keebler; Fei Yang; Larry W Tsai

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.19.21253924 Date: 2021-03-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Insufficient information on SARS-CoV-2 testing results exists in clinical practice from the United States. Methods. We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study using Optum(R) de-identified COVID-19 MESHD electronic health records from the United States to characterize patients who received a SARS-CoV-2 viral or antibody test between February 20, 2020 and July 10, 2020. We assessed temporal trends in testing and positivity by demographic and clinical characteristics; evaluated concordance between viral and antibody tests; and identified factors associated with positivity via multivariable logistic regression. Results. Our study population included 891,754 patients. Overall positivity rate for SARS-CoV-2 was 9% and 12% for viral and antibody tests, respectively. Positivity rate was inversely associated with the number of individuals tested and decreased over time across regions and race/ethnicities. Among patients who received a viral test followed by an antibody test, concordance ranged from 90%-93% depending on the duration between the two tests which is notable given uncertainties related to specific viral and antibody test characteristics. The following factors increased the odds of viral and antibody positivity in multivariable models: male, Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black and Asian, uninsured or Medicaid insurance, Northeast residence, dementia MESHD, diabetes MESHD, and obesity MESHD. Charlson Comorbidity Index was negatively associated with test positivity. We identified symptoms that were positively associated with test positivity, as well as, commonly co-occurring symptoms / conditions. Pediatric patients had reduced odds of a positive viral test, but conversely had increased odds of a positive antibody test. Conclusions. This study identified sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 testing and positivity within routine clinical practice from the United States.

    The effect of Covid-19 MESHD isolation measures on the cognition and mental health of people living with dementia MESHD: a rapid systematic review of one year of evidence.

    Authors: Aida Suarez-Gonzalez; Jayeeta Rajagopalan; Gill Livingston; Suvarna Alladi

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.17.21253805 Date: 2021-03-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Covid-19 MESHD control policies have entailed lockdowns and confinement. Although these isolation measures are thought to be particularly hard and possibly harmful to people with dementia MESHD, their specific impact during the pandemic has not yet been synthesised. We aimed to examine and summarise the global research evidence describing the effect of Covid-19 MESHD isolation measures on the health of people living with dementia MESHD. Method: We searched Pubmed, PsycINFO and CINAHL up to February 2021 for peer-reviewed quantitative studies of the effects of isolation measures during Covid-19 MESHD on cognitive, psychological MESHD and functional symptoms of people with any kind of dementia MESHD or mild cognitive impairment MESHD. We summarised the findings of included papers following current guidelines for rapid reviews. Results: We identified 15 eligible papers, examining a total of 6,442 people with dementia MESHD. 13/15 were conducted in people living in the community and 2 in care homes. 60% (9/15) studies reported changes in cognition with 77% (7/9) of them describing declined cognition by >50% of respondents. 93% (14/15) of studies reported worsening or new onset of behavioural and psychological symptoms MESHD. 46% (7/15) studies reported changes in daily function, 6 of them reporting a functional decline in a variable proportion of the population studied. Conclusion: Lockdowns and confinement measures brought about by the pandemic have damaged the cognitive and psychological health and functional abilities of people with dementia MESHD across the world. It is urgent that infection control measures applied to people with dementia MESHD are balanced against the principles of non-maleficence. This systematic review makes 4 specific calls for action.

    Start-Online: Acceptability And Feasibility Of An Online Intervention For Carers Of People Living With Dementia MESHD

    Authors: Samantha M Loi; Joanne Tropea; Ellen Gaffy; Anita Panayiotou; Hannah Capon; Jodi Chiang; Christina Bryant; Colleen Doyle; Michelle Kelly; Gill Livingston; Briony Dow

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-246921/v1 Date: 2021-02-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: With increasing numbers of people living with dementia MESHD relying on family to care for them at home, there is an urgent need for practical and evidence-based programs to support carers in maintaining their mental health and well-being. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a modified STrAtegies for RelaTives (START) program delivered online (START-online). Method: A mixed methods non-blinded evaluation of START-online (using Zoom as videoconferencing platform) for acceptability and feasibility (completion rates and qualitative feedback through surveys and focus groups) and quantitative evaluation. This occurred at the National Ageing Research Institute, in metropolitan Victoria, Australia.Results: Twenty-nine eligible carers were referred, 20 (70%) consented to the study. Of these 16 (80%) completed all eight sessions, two completed only three sessions, and two withdrew. Carers’ qualitative feedback indicated that the therapist interaction was valued, content and online delivery of the program was acceptable. Feedback was mixed on the appropriate stage of caring.  Conclusion: START-online was feasible and acceptable for carers, including those living outside of metropolitan areas who might otherwise be unable to access face-to-face programs. With the recent COVID-19 pandemic MESHD necessitating social distancing to avoid infection, interventions such as this one have increasing relevance in the provision of flexible services.

    Metabolomics and Computational Analysis of the Role of Monoamine Oxidase Activity in Delirium and SARS-COV-2 Infection MESHD SARS-COV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Miroslava Cuperlovic-Culf; Emma L. Cunningham; Hossen Teimoorinia; Anu Surendra; Xiaobei Pan; Steffany A.L. Bennett; Mijin Jung; Bernadette McGuiness; Anthony Peter Passmore; David Beverland; Brian D. Green

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-242758/v1 Date: 2021-02-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Delirium is an acute change in attention and cognition occurring in ~65% of severe SARS-CoV-2 cases. It is also common following surgery and an indicator of brain vulnerability and risk for the development of dementia MESHD. In this work we analyzed the underlying role of metabolism in delirium MESHD-susceptibility in the postoperative setting using metabolomic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid and blood taken from the same patients prior to planned orthopaedic surgery. Distance correlation analysis and Random Forest (RF) feature selection were used to determine changes in metabolic networks. We found significant concentration 2 differences in several amino acids, acylcarnitines MESHD and polyamines linking delirium MESHD-prone patients to known factors in Alzheimer’s disease MESHD such as monoamine oxidase B HGNC ( MAOB HGNC) protein. Subsequent computational structural comparison between MAOB HGNC and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 HGNC as well as protein-protein docking analysis showed that there potentially is strong binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein to MAOB HGNC. The possibility that SARS-CoV-2 influences MAOB HGNC activity leading to the observed neurological and platelet-based complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD requires further investigation.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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