Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Network reinforcement driven drug repurposing for COVID-19 by exploiting disease MESHD-gene-drug associations

    Authors: Yonghyun Nam; Jae-Seung Yun; Seung Mi Lee; Ji Won Park; Ziqi Chen; Brian Lee; Anurag Verma; Xia Ning; Li Shen; Dokyoon Kim

    id:2008.05377v1 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: arXiv

    Currently, the number of patients with COVID-19 has significantly increased. Thus, there is an urgent need for developing treatments for COVID-19. Drug repurposing, which is the process of reusing already-approved drugs for new medical conditions, can be a good way to solve this problem quickly and broadly. Many clinical trials for COVID-19 patients using treatments for other diseases MESHD have already been in place or will be performed at clinical sites in the near future. Additionally, patients with comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP, obesity MESHD obesity HP, liver cirrhosis MESHD cirrhosis HP, kidney diseases MESHD, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, and asthma MESHD asthma HP are at higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19. Thus, the relationship of comorbidity disease MESHD with COVID-19 may help to find repurposable drugs. To reduce trial and error in finding treatments for COVID-19, we propose building a network-based drug repurposing framework to prioritize repurposable drugs. First, we utilized knowledge of COVID-19 to construct a disease MESHD-gene-drug network (DGDr-Net) representing a COVID-19-centric interactome with components for diseases MESHD, genes, and drugs. DGDr-Net consisted of 592 diseases MESHD, 26,681 human genes and 2,173 drugs, and medical information for 18 common comorbidities. The DGDr-Net recommended candidate repurposable drugs for COVID-19 through network reinforcement driven scoring algorithms. The scoring algorithms determined the priority of recommendations by utilizing graph-based semi-supervised learning. From the predicted scores, we recommended 30 drugs, including dexamethasone, resveratrol, methotrexate, indomethacin, quercetin, etc., as repurposable drugs for COVID-19, and the results were verified with drugs that have been under clinical trials. The list of drugs via a data-driven computational approach could help reduce trial-and-error in finding treatment for COVID-19.

    Factors associated with the poor outcomes in diabetic patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Hadith Rastad; Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed; Armita Mahdavi-Ghorabi; Anis Safari; Ehsan Shahrestanaki; Mohammad Rezaei; Mohammad Mahdi Niksima; Akram Zakani; Seyede Hanieh Dehghan Manshadi; Fatemeh Ochi; Shabnam saedi; Zeinab Khodaparast; Neda Shafiabadi Hassani; Mehdi Azimzadeh; Mostafa Qorbani

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-56358/v1 Date: 2020-08-09 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Diabetic’s patients are supposed to experience higher rates of COVID-19 related poor outcomes. We aimed to determined factors predicting poor outcomes in hospitalized diabetic patients with COVID-19.Methods This retrospective cohort study included all adult TRANS diabetic patients with radiological or laboratory confirmed COVID-19 who hospitalized between 20 February 2020 and 27 April 2020 in Alborz province, Iran. Data on demographic, medical history, and laboratory test at presentation were obtained from electronic medical records. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP was self-reported. Comorbidities including cancer, rheumatism, immunodeficiency HP, or chronic diseases MESHD of respiratory, liver, and blood SERO were classified as “other comorbidities” due to low frequency. The assessed poor outcomes were in-hospital mortality, need to ICU care, and receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. Self-reported. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to quantify the predictors of in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 in patients with DM.Results Of 455 included patients, 98(21.5%) received ICU care, 65(14.3%) required invasive mechanical ventilation, and 79 (17.4%) dead. In the multivariate model, significant predictors of “death of COVID-19” were age TRANS 65 years or older (OR (95% CI): 2.0 (1.16–3.44), chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD (CKD) (2.05 (1.16–3.62), presence of “other comorbidities” (2.20 (1.04–4.63)), neutrophil count ≥ 8.0 × 10⁹/L )6.62 (3.73–11.7 ((, Hb level < 12.5 g/dl (2.05 (1.13–3.72) (, and creatinine level ≥ 1.36 mg/dl (3.10 (1.38–6.98)). (All p –values < 0.05). Some of these factors were also associated with other assessed poor outcomes, e.g., need to ICU care or invasive mechanical ventilation.Conclusions Diabetic patients with age TRANS 65 years or older, comorbidity CKD, “other comorbidities”, as well as neutrophil count ≥ 8.0 × 10⁹/L, Hb level < 12.5 g/dl, and creatinine level ≥ 1.36 mg/dl, were more likely to dead after COVID-19. Presence of hypertension MESHD hypertension HP and cardiovascular disease MESHD were associated with none of the poor outcomes.

    Immune interaction map of human SARS-CoV-2 target proteins: implications for therapeutic avenues

    Authors: Karthikeyan Subbarayan; Kamatchi Ulagappan; Claudia Wickenhauser; Barbara Seliger

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-54541/v1 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background There exists increasing evidence that people with preceding medical conditions, such as asthma MESHD asthma HP, diabetes, cancers and heart disease MESHD, have a higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 and are more vulnerable to severe disease MESHD.Methods To get insights into the role of the immune system upon COVID-19 infection MESHD, 2811 genes of the gene ontology term “immune system process GO: 0002376” were selected for analyses. The immune system genes potentially co-expressed with the human targets of SARS-CoV-2 (HT-SARS-CoV-2) ACE2, TMPRSS2 and FURIN were determined in tissue samples from patients with cancer and diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP. The network between HT-SARS-CoV-2 and immune system process genes was analyzed based on functional protein associations using STRING. In addition, STITCH was employed to determine druggable targets.Results DPP4 was the only immune system process gene, which was coexpressed with the three HT-SARS-CoV-2 genes, while eight other immune genes were at least co-expressed with two HT-SARS-CoV-2 genes. STRING analysis between immune and HT-SARS-CoV-2 genes plotted 19 associations of 8 commonly networking genes in mixed healthy (323) and cancer (11003) tissues in addition to normal (87), cancer (90) and diabetic (128) pancreatic tissues. Using this approach, three druggable connections between HT-SARS-CoV-2 and immune system process genes were identified. They include positive associations of ACE2 - DPP4 and TMPRSS2 – SRC as well as a negative association of FURIN with ADAM17. Furthermore, the 16 drugs were extracted from STITCH (score <0.8) with 32 target genes.Conclusions This bioinformatics pipeline identified for the first time an immunological network associated with COVID-19 infection MESHD thereby postulating novel therapeutic opportunities.

    Impact of comorbidity burden on mortality in patients with COVID-19: a retrospective analysis of the Korean health insurance database

    Authors: Soo Ick Cho; Susie Yoon; Ho-Jin Lee

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-54298/v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    We aimed to investigate the impact of comorbidity burden on mortality in patients with COVID-19. We analyzed the COVID-19 data from the nationwide health insurance claims of South Korea. Data on demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and mortality records of patients with COVID-19 were extracted from the database. The odds ratios of mortality according to comorbidities in patients with COVID-19 with and without adjustment for age TRANS and sex were calculated. The predictive value of the original Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and the age TRANS-adjusted CCI (ACCI) for mortality in patients with COVID-19 were investigated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Among 7,590 patients with COVID-19, 227 (3.0%) had died. After age TRANS and sex adjustment, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP, congestive heart failure HP heart failure MESHD, dementia MESHD dementia HP, chronic pulmonary disease, liver MESHD, renal, and cancer were significant risk factors for mortality. The ROC curve analysis showed that ACCI threshold ≥4 yielded the best cut-off point for predicting mortality (area under the ROC 0.92; 95% CI, 0.91–0.94). Our study revealed multiple risk factors that were associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19. The high predictive power of the ACCI for mortality in our results could support the importance of old age TRANS and comorbidities in the severity of COVID-19.

    Impact of tocilizumab administration on mortality in severe COVID-19

    Authors: Andrew Tsai; Oumou Diawara; Ronald G Nahass; Luigi Brunetti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20114959 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic has placed a significant burden on hospitals and healthcare providers. The immune response to this disease MESHD is thought to lead to a cytokine storm, which contributes to the severity of illness. There is an urgent need to confirm whether the use of tocilizumab provides a benefit in individuals with COVID-19. Methods A single-center propensity-score matched cohort study, including all consecutive COVID-19 patients, admitted to the medical center who were either discharged from the medical center or expired between March 1, 2020, and May 5, 2020, was performed. Patients were stratified according to the receipt of tocilizumab for cytokine storm and matched to controls using propensity scores. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 132 patients were included in the matched dataset (tocilizumab=66; standard of care=66). Approximately 73% of the patients were male TRANS. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP (55%), diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (31%), and chronic pulmonary disease MESHD (15%) were the most common comorbidities present. There were 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the tocilizumab group and 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the standard of care group (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.465 - 2.151; p=1.00). Advanced age TRANS, history of myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP, dementia MESHD dementia HP, chronic pulmonary disease, heart MESHD failure, and malignancy were significantly more common in patients who died. Interpretation The current analysis does not support the use of tocilizumab for the management of cytokine storm in patients with COVID-19. Use of this therapeutic agent should be limited to the context of a clinical trial until more evidence is available.

    Clinical manifestations of patients with Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID- 19) attending at hospitals in Bangladesh

    Authors: Md. Shahed Morshed; Abdullah Al Mosabbir; Prodipta Chowdhury; Sheikh Mohammad Ashadullah; Mohammad Sorowar Hossain

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165100 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Bangladesh is in the rising phase of the ongoing pandemic of the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The scientific literature on clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients from Bangladesh is scarce. This study aimed to report the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study at three dedicated COVID-19 hospitals. The severity of the COVID-19 cases was assessed based on the WHO interim guidance. Data were collected only from non-critical COVID-19 patients as critical patients required immediate intensive care admission making them unable to respond to the questions. A total of 103 RT-PCR confirmed non-critical COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Most of the patients (71.8%) were male TRANS. Mild, moderate and severe illness were assessed in 74.76%, 9.71% and 15.53% of patients respectively. Nearly 52.4% of patients had a co-morbidity, with hypertension MESHD hypertension HP being the most common (34%), followed by diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (21.4%) and ischemic heart disease MESHD (9.7%). Fever MESHD Fever HP (78.6%), weakness (68%) and cough MESHD cough HP (44.7%) were the most common clinical manifestations. Other common symptoms included loss of appetite (37.9%), difficulty in breathing (37.9%), altered sensation of taste or smell (35.0%), headache MESHD headache HP (32%) and body ache (32%). The median time from onset of symptom TRANS to attending hospitals was 7 days (IQR 4-10). This study will help both the clinicians and epidemiologists to understand the magnitude and clinical spectrum of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh.

    Development a quantitative segmentation model to assess the effect of comorbidity on patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Cui Zhang; Guangzhao Yang; Chunxian Cai; Zhihua Xu; Hai Wu; Youmin Guo; Zongyu Xie; Hengfeng Shi; Guohua Cheng; Jian Wang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52343/v1 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has brought a global disaster. Quantitative lesions may provide the radiological evidence of the severity of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and further to assess the effect of comorbidity on patients with COVID-19.Methods: 294 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled from February, 24, 2020 to June, 1, 2020 from six centers. Multi-task Unet network was used to segment the whole lung and lesions from chest CT images. This deep learning method was pre-trained in 650 CT images (550 in primary dataset and 100 in test dataset) with COVID-19 or community acquired pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and Dice coefficients in test dataset were calculated. 50 CT scans of 50 patients (15 with comorbidity and 35 without comorbidity) were random selected to mark lesions manually. The results will be compared with the automatic segmentation model. Eight quantitative parameters were calculated based on the segmentation results to evaluate the effect of comorbidity on patients with COVID-19.Results: Quantitative segmentation model was proved to be effective and accurate with all Dice coefficients more than 0.85 and all accuracies more than 0.95. Of the 294 patients, 52 (17.7%) patients were reported having at least one comorbidity, 14 (4.8%) having more than one comorbidity. Patients with any comorbidity were older (P<0.001), had longer incubation period TRANS (P<0.001), were more likely to have abnormal laboratory findings (P<0.05) and be in severity status (P<0.001). More lesions (including larger volume of lesion, consolidation and ground-glass opacity) were shown in patients with any comorbidity than patients without comorbidity (all P<0.001). The more comorbidities patients have, the poorer CT manifestation is. The median volume of lesion, consolidation and ground-glass opacity in diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP group was largest among the three prevalently single comorbidity groups.Conclusions: Multi-task Unet network can make quantitative CT analysis of lesions to assess the effect of comorbidity on patients with COVID-19, further to provide the radiological evidence of the severity of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. More lesions were found in CT images of cases with comorbidity. The more comorbidities patients have, the poorer CT manifestation is. 

    The Outcome of COVID-19 Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction MESHD Myocardial Infarction HP

    Authors: Hassan Altamimi; Yasser Alahmad; Fadi Khazal; Mowahib Elhassan; Hajar AlBinali; Abdulrahman Arabi; Awad AlQahtani; Nidal Asaad; Mohammed Al-Hijji; Tahir Hamid; Ihsan Rafie; Ali S. Omrani; Saad AlKaabi; Abdullatif Alkhal; Muna AlMalslmani; Mohammed Ali; Murad Alkhani; Mariam AlNesf; Salem Abu Jalala; Salaheddine Arafa; Reem ElSousy; Omar AlTamimi; Ezzeldine Soaly; Charbel Abi khalil; Jassim Al Suwaidi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20156349 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly expanding global pandemic resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 patients may present with acute myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP (AMI). The aim of this study is to conduct detailed analysis on patients with AMI and COVID-19. Methods We included all patients admitted with AMI and actively known or found to be COVID-19 positive by PCR between the 4th February 2020 and the 11th June 2020 in the State of Qatar. Patients were divided into ST-elevation myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP (STEMI) and Non-STE (NSTEMI). Results There were 68 patients (67 men and 1 woman) admitted between the 4th of February 2020 and the 11th of June 2020 with AMI and COVID-19. The mean age TRANS was 49.1, 46 patients had STEMI and 22 had NSTEMI. 38% had diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP, 31% had hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, 16% were smokers, 13% had dyslipidemia, and 14.7% had prior cardiovascular disease MESHD. Chest pain MESHD Chest pain HP and dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP were the presenting symptoms in 90% and 12% of patients respectively. Fever MESHD Fever HP (15%) and cough MESHD cough HP (15%) were the most common COVID-19 symptoms, while the majority had no viral symptoms. Thirty-nine (33 STEMI and 6 NSTEMI) patients underwent coronary angiography, 38 of them had significant coronary disease MESHD. Overall in-hospital MACE was low; 1 patient developed stroke MESHD stroke HP and 2 died. Conclusion Contrary to previous small reports, overall in-hospital adverse events were low in this largest cohort of COVID-19 patients presenting with AMI. We hypothesize patient profile including younger age TRANS contributed to these findings. Further studies are required to confirm this observation.

    COVID-19 and Guillain-Barre Syndrome MESHD - a Case report

    Authors: Amira Sidig; Khabab Abbasher; Mutaz F. Digna; Mohamed Elsayed; Hussien Abbasher; Mohammed Abbasher; Abbasher Hussien

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48327/v1 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Coronaviruses are a family of related viruses that cause diseases MESHD in mammals and avians. Guillain-Barre syndrome MESHD is a rare disorder in which the body's immune system attacks peripheral nerves.The case:A 65 years old Sudanese male TRANS with no diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP or hypertension MESHD hypertension HP present to the clinic; On examination, he has upper and lower limb weakness ( quadriplegia MESHD). The condition was preceded by upper respiratory tract infection MESHD respiratory tract infection HP. Chest X-ray showed features of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP Chest CT scan showed multiple bilateral ground-glass opacities and consolidation typical of COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Brain MRI was normal. The COVID-19 nasal swab test was positive. Nerve conduction study showed evidence of polyradiculopathies MESHD with dominant demyelination supporting the diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome MESHD. The patients died after seven days; because of progressive respiratory failure HP.

    Awareness of Coronavirus Disease MESHD From Conception to Delivery: Antenatal Mental Journey Breaking Anxiety HP During Outbreak

    Authors: Rabia Merve Erbiyik Palalioglu; Ozan Karadeniz; Gokce Ipek Aytok; Batuhan Palalioglu; Gizem Nur Koyan; Halil Ibrahim Erbiyik; Murat Muhcu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48034/v1 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychological impact of the coronavirus disease MESHD on women sensitized by pregnancy after the first case was confirmed TRANS in Turkey, which has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. This study also intends to help developing preventive measures for pregnants, reducing infection MESHD incidence, developing solutions to protect public health, and establishing whether pregnants have sufficient knowledge and awareness to manage this situation.Methods This prospective study was conducted at two centers. A total of 529 pregnant women from all three trimesters were given questionnaires that consisted of 51 original questions.Results The period when anxiety HP was highest was the 2nd trimester, whereas women in the 1st trimester had the lowest level of anxiety HP. High levels of awareness were observed in patients with heart disease MESHD, but patients with diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP had a high level of anxiety HP. There was a statistically significant correlation between anxiety HP and awareness scores of the coronavirus disease MESHD.Conclusion The treatment and the long-term effects of the coronavirus disease MESHD remain unknown. It is important to maintain the mental and physical health of pregnants, who are in a more delicate condition in the society.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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