Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (447)

Fever (328)

Cough (260)

Hypertension (198)

Respiratory distress (112)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 2061 - 2070 records in total 4391
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    Clinical predictors of COVID-19 mortality

    Authors: Arjun S. Yadaw; Yan-chak Li; Sonali Bose; Ravi Iyengar; Supinda Bunyavanich; Gaurav Pandey

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.20103036 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected over millions of individuals and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths MESHD worldwide. It can be difficult to accurately predict mortality among COVID-19 patients presenting with a spectrum of complications, hindering the prognostication and management of the disease MESHD. Methods: We applied machine learning techniques to clinical data from a large cohort of 5,051 COVID-19 patients treated at the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City, the global COVID-19 epicenter, to predict mortality. Predictors were designed to classify patients into Deceased or Alive mortality classes and were evaluated in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC score). Findings: Using a development cohort (n=3,841) and a systematic machine learning framework, we identified a COVID-19 mortality predictor that demonstrated high accuracy (AUC=0.91) when applied to test sets of retrospective (n= 961) and prospective (n=249) patients. This mortality predictor was based on five clinical features: age TRANS, minimum O2 saturation during encounter, type of patient encounter (inpatient vs. various types of outpatient and telehealth encounters), hydroxychloroquine use, and maximum body temperature. Interpretation: An accurate and parsimonious COVID-19 mortality predictor based on five features may have utility in clinical settings to guide the management and prognostication of patients affected by this disease MESHD.

    Co- infection MESHD of COVID-19 and Influenza A in A Hemodialysis Patient: A Case Report

    Authors: Ran Jing; Rama R Vunnam; Elizabeth Schnaubelt; Chad Vokoun; Allison Cushman-Vokoun; David Goldner; Srinivas R Vunnam

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-31135/v1 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus that was first discovered in Wuhan, China in December 2019. With the growing numbers of community spread cases worldwide, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic on March 11. Like influenza viruses, SARS-CoV-2 is thought to be transmitted by contact, droplets, and fomites, and COVID-19 has a similar disease MESHD presentation to influenza. Here we present a case of influenza A and COVID-19 co- infection MESHD in a 60-year-old man with end-stage renal disease MESHD (ESRD) on hemodialysis.Case presentation: A 60-year-old man with ESRD on hemodialysis (HD) presented for worsening cough MESHD cough HP, shortness of breath, and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP. The patient first developed a mild fever MESHD fever HP (100 °F) during hemodialysis three days prior to presentation and has been experiencing worsening flu-like symptoms, including fever MESHD fever HP of up to 101.6 °F, non- productive cough HP cough MESHD, generalized abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP, nausea MESHD nausea, vomiting HP, vomiting MESHD, and liquid green diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP. He lives alone at home with no known sick contacts and denies any recent travel TRANS or visits to healthcare facilities other than the local dialysis center. Rapid flu test was positive for influenza A. Procalcitonin was elevated at 5.21 ng/mL with a normal white blood SERO cell (WBC) count. Computed tomography (CT) chest demonstrated multifocal areas of consolidation and extensive mediastinal and hilar adenopathy concerning for pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. He was admitted to the biocontainment unit of Nebraska Medicine for concerns of possible COVID-19 and was started on oseltamivir for influenza and vancomycin/cefepime for the probable bacterial cause of his pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP. GI pathogen panel and C. diff toxin assay were negative. On the second day of admission, initial nasopharyngeal swab came back positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. The patient received supportive care and resumed bedside hemodialysis in strict isolation, and eventually fully recovered from COVID-19.Conclusions: Our case demonstrated that co- infection MESHD of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 can occur in patients with no known direct exposure to COVID-19. The possibility of SARS-CoV-2 co- infection MESHD should not be overlooked even when other viruses including influenza can explain the clinical symptoms.

    Going by the Numbers : Learning and Modeling COVID-19 Disease MESHD Dynamics

    Authors: Sayantani Basu; Roy H. Campbell

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20106112 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    The COrona VIrus Disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has resulted in a challenging number of infections MESHD and deaths MESHD worldwide. In order to combat the pandemic, several countries worldwide enforced mitigation measures in the forms of lockdowns, social distancing and disinfection measures. In an effort to understand the dynamics of this disease MESHD, we propose a Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) based model. We train our model on nearly four months of cumulative COVID-19 cases and deaths MESHD. Our model can be adjusted based on the parameters in order to provide predictions as needed. We provide results at both the country and county levels. We also perform a quantitative comparison of mitigation measures in various counties in the United States based on the rate of difference of a short and long window parameter of the proposed LSTM model. The analyses provided by our model can provide valuable insights based on the trends in the rate of infections MESHD and deaths MESHD. This can also be of help for countries and counties deciding on mitigation and reopening strategies. We believe that the results obtained from the proposed method will contribute to societal benefits for a current global concern.

    COVID-19: Famotidine, Histamine, Mast Cells, and Mechanisms

    Authors: Robert W. Malone; Philip Tisdall; Philip Fremont-Smith; Yongfeng Liu; Xi-Ping Huang; Kris M. White; Lisa Miorin; Elena Moreno Del Olmo; Assaf Alon; Elise Delaforge; Christopher D. Hennecker; Guanyu Wang; Joshua Pottel; Robert Bona; Nora Smith; Julie M. Hall; Gideon Shapiro; Howard Clark; Anthony Mittermaier; Andrew C. Kruse; Adolfo García-Sastre; Bryan L. Roth; Jill Glasspool-Malone; Victor Francone; Norbert Hertzog; Maurice Fremont-Smith; Darrell O. Ricke

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30934/v2 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is required for COVID-19, but many signs and symptoms MESHD of COVID-19 differ from common acute viral diseases MESHD. Currently, there are no pre- or post-exposure prophylactic COVID-19 medical countermeasures. Clinical data suggest that famotidine may mitigate COVID-19 disease MESHD, but both mechanism of action and rationale for dose selection remain obscure. We explore several plausible avenues of activity including antiviral and host-mediated actions. We propose that the principal famotidine mechanism of action for COVID-19 involves on-target histamine receptor H2 activity, and that development of clinical COVID-19 involves dysfunctional mast cell activation and histamine release.

    GeoCoV19: A Dataset of Hundreds of Millions of Multilingual COVID-19 Tweets with Location Information

    Authors: Umair Qazi; Muhammad Imran; Ferda Ofli

    id:2005.11177v1 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: arXiv

    The past several years have witnessed a huge surge in the use of social media platforms during mass convergence events such as health emergencies MESHD, natural or human-induced disasters. These non-traditional data sources are becoming vital for disease MESHD forecasts and surveillance when preparing for epidemic and pandemic outbreaks. In this paper, we present GeoCoV19, a large-scale Twitter dataset containing more than 524 million multilingual tweets posted over a period of 90 days since February 1, 2020. Moreover, we employ a gazetteer-based approach to infer the geolocation of tweets. We postulate that this large-scale, multilingual, geolocated social media data can empower the research communities to evaluate how societies are collectively coping with this unprecedented global crisis as well as to develop computational methods to address challenges such as identifying fake news, understanding communities' knowledge gaps, building disease MESHD forecast and surveillance models, among others.

    Early antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Ruggero Dittadi; Haleh Afshar; Paolo Carraro

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.20099317 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background. The role and significance of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is not yet well known. Methods. We therefore conducted a study on 46 symptomatic subjects with disease MESHD ascertained by laboratory tests to evaluate the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies SERO in these subjects in relation to the time elapsed since the onset of symptoms TRANS. The analytical performance SERO of the method used in the study (Maglumi 800, SNIBE, China) and the effect of two different serum SERO and plasma SERO matrices were also assessed. Results. IgG positivity was demonstrated in 100% of cases 15 days after the onset of the disease MESHD. IgM show lower concentrations and do not exceed 77% of cases after 15 days. The analytical performance SERO of the method used was confirmed to be good in terms of imprecision, linearity, commutability in two blood SERO sample matrices. Conclusion. The serological study through the search for specific IgG for SARS-CoV-2 results in our case series is sensitive and suitable for population research and can also play a role in diagnosis. The diagnostic performance SERO of specific IgMs are lower.

    Prevalence SERO Threshold and Temporal Interpretation of Screening Tests: The Example of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic

    Authors: Jacques Balayla; Ariane Lasry; Yaron Gil; Alexander Volodarsky-Perel

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.17.20104927 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    The curvilinear relationship between a screening test's positive predictive value SERO (PPV) and its target disease MESHD prevalence SERO is proportional. In consequence, there is an inflection point of maximum curvature in the screening curve defined as a function of the sensitivity SERO and specificity beyond which the rate of change of a test's PPV declines sharply relative to disease MESHD prevalence SERO. Herein, we demonstrate a mathematical model exploring this phenomenon and define the prevalence SERO threshold point where this change occurs. Understanding where this prevalence SERO point lies in the curve has important implications for the interpretation of test results, the administration of healthcare systems, the implementation of public health measures, and in cases of pandemics like SARS-CoV-2, the functioning of society at large. To illustrate the methods herein described, we provide the example of the screening strategies used in the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, and calculate the prevalence SERO threshold statistic of different tests available today. This concept can help contextualize the validity of a screening test in real time, thereby enhancing our understanding of the dynamics of the current pandemic.

    Impacts of remdesivir on dynamics and efficacy stratified by the severity of COVID-19: a simulated two-arm controlled study

    Authors: Ting-Yu Lin; Wei-Jung Chang; Chen-Yang Hsu; Chao-Chih Lai; Amy Ming-Fang Yen; Sam Li-Sheng Chen; Hsiu-Hsi Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.17.20104711 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The impact of remdesivir on length of stay of hospitalization, high-risk state, and death MESHD stratified by the severity of COVID-19 at enrollment is controversial. Methods: We applied a simulated two-arm controlled study design to the data on compassionate use of remdesivir as a secondary analysis. Dynamics of risk states and death MESHD from COVID-19 patients defined by the six-point disease MESHD severity recommended by the WHO R&D and the time to discharge from hospital were used to evaluate the efficacy of remdesivir treatment compared with standard care. Results: Stratified by the risk state at enrollment, low-risk patients exhibited the highest efficacy of remdesivir in reducing subsequent progression to high-risk state by 67% (relative risk (RR)=0.33,95% CI: 0.30-0.35) and further to death MESHD by 55% (RR=0.45, 95%CI: 0.39-0.50). For the medium-risk patients, less but still statistically significant efficacy results were noted in reducing progression to high-risk state by 52% (RR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.45-0.51) and further to death MESHD by 40% (RR=0.60, 95% CI:0.54-0.66). High-risk state patients treated with remdesivir led to a 25% statistically significant reduction in death MESHD (RR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.69-0.82). Regarding the outcome of discharge, remdesivir treatment was most effective for medium-risk patients at enrollment (RR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.35-1.47) followed by high- (RR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.27-1.42) and low-risk patients (RR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.25-1.31). Conclusion: Our results with a simulated two-arm controlled study have provided a new insight into the precision treatment of remdesivir for COVID-19 patients based on risk-stratified efficacy.

    High seroreactivity against SARS-CoV-2 Spike epitopes in a pre SARS-CoV-2 cohort: implications for antibody testing SERO and vaccine design

    Authors: Kaia Palm; Mariliis Jaago; Annika Rahni; Nadezhda Pupina; Arno Pihlak; Helle Sadam; Annela Avarlaid; Anu Planken; Margus Planken; Liina Haring; Eero Vasar; Miljana Bacevic; France Lambert; Eija Kalso; Pirkko Pussinen; Pentti Tienari; Antti Vaheri; Dan Lindholm; Tonis Timmusk; Amir M Ghaemmaghami

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105189 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    Little is known about the quality of polyclonal antibody SERO responses in COVID-19 patients, and how it correlates with disease MESHD severity or patients' prior exposure to other pathogens. The whole polyclonal antibody SERO repertoire in a retrospective cohort of 538 individuals was mapped against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein, the main target of antibody SERO immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Bioinformatic predictions identified 15 major B cell epitopes for S of SARS-CoV-2. Several epitopes localised in RBD of S including those spanning the ACE2-binding site, the highly conserved cryptic epitope of the neutralizing antibody SERO of SARS-CoV, and fusion/entry domains of HR1 and HR2 of S protein of SARS-CoV-2. Intriguingly, some of these epitopes have cross-reactivity to antigens of common pathogens, potentially affecting SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD outcome. High level of anti-Spike SARS-CoV-2 seroreactivity in populations with no history of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 is of clinical relevance and could underpin better understanding of COVID-19 pathophysiology in different populations and provide a blueprint for design of effective vaccines and developing better strategies for antibody testing SERO.

    Knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) towards COVID-19 among Nepalese residents during the COVID-19 outbreak: An online cross-sectional study

    Authors: Sachina Paudel; Prabin Shrestha; Isha Karmacharya; Om Krishna Pathak

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-31044/v1 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of COVID-19 among Nepalese population, as containment of the disease MESHD is only possible with the change in behaviours as preventive measures.Methodology. A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted for a period of two month among Nepalese residents aged ≥ 18 years using a previously validated tool. Unrestricted self-selected, convenient sampling method was adopted to generate a heterogeneous sample. Data were analysed in SPSS version 22 using chi-square/Fisher-exact test, independent t-test, multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression.Results. Out of 766 participants, 78.3% were aged TRANS 20–39 years and 58.2% were residents of province 3. One-third of the respondents were students followed by health workers. The rates for correct answer for COVID-19 knowledge questionnaire ranged from 30–99% with health workers and participants with bachelor’s degree having significantly better knowledge. Of the total participants, 71.5% agreed that COVID-19 will be effectively controlled and 80% were assured that Nepal could win the fight against COVID-19. The majority of the participants had not visited any crowded place (93.1%) which was significantly associated with age TRANS, marital status, gender TRANS, education, occupation, province of residence, and knowledge score of COVID-19 and 92.4% participants wore masks while going out which significantly differed across gender TRANS.Conclusion. There is a need to provide education and awareness about COVID-19 to Nepalese people focusing on the areas of knowledge gap so that Nepal can have victory against COVID-19.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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