Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (451)

Fever (331)

Cough (263)

Hypertension (200)

Respiratory distress (113)


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    A Framework for Assessing Social- and Location-Based Transmission Risk TRANS as a Heuristic for Individual Decision-Making

    Authors: Carrie Diaz Eaton

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0391.v1 Date: 2020-05-24 Source:

    This paper provides a framework for the assessment of household-level risk, incorporating both a individual social risk perspective and a location-based perspective. We use this framework as a heuristic to explore the effect of social reintegration choices individuals face, which are not be addressed by current policies. For example, we explore how integrating extended family households during COVID-19 without social distancing may affect household and community risk. The goal is to aid individual decision makers, who are seeking to maintain quality-of-life while navigating local policy, with nuance relating to location-specific behavior and disease MESHD prevalence SERO.

    Modelling the impact of Plasma SERO Therapy and Immunotherapy for Recovery of COVID-19 Infected Individuals

    Authors: Nita H Shah; Ankush H Suthar; Ekta N Jayswal; Nehal Shukla; Jagdish Shukla

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.23.20110973 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: medRxiv

    Since the first case of COVID-19 was detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019, COVID-19 has become a pandemic causing a global economic and public health emergency MESHD. There is no known treatment or vaccine available for COVID-19 to date. Immunotherapy and plasma SERO therapy has been used with satisfactory efficacy over the past two decades in many viral infections MESHD like SARS (Systemic Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD), MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome MESHD), and H1N1. Limited data from China show clinical benefit, radiological resolution, reduction in viral loads, and improved survival. Our aim is to create a mathematical model for COVID-19 transmission TRANS and then apply various control parameters to see their effects on recovery from COVID-19 disease MESHD. We have formulated a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations, calculated basic reproduction R0 TRANS, and applied five different controls (self-isolation, quarantine, herd immunity, immunotherapy, plasma SERO therapy) to test the effectiveness of control strategy. Control optimality was checked by Lagrangian functions. Numerical simulations and bifurcation analyses were carried out. The study concludes that the COVID-19 outbreak can be controlled up to a significant level three weeks after applying all the control strategies together. These strategies lead to a reduction in hospitalization and a rise in recovery from infection MESHD. Immunotherapy is highly effective initially in hospitalized infected individuals however better results were seen in the long term with plasma SERO therapy.

    Acute Pulmonary Embolism MESHD Pulmonary Embolism HP in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Madhura Manjunath; Julio Miranda; Liana Fraenkel; Paul Manje Johansen; Blessing Phinney; Georgianne Valli-Harwood; Cynthia Callahan; Hafez Alsmaan; David Oelberg

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.22.20110270 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: medRxiv

    Since the discovery of the novel coronavirus (SARS-Co-V-2) in December 2019, multiple characteristics have been reported, as our understanding of this new disease MESHD unfolds. One such association is its tendency to cause thromboembolic events, particularly venous thromboembolism MESHD thromboembolism HP (1,2). In a four-week period during the initial spread of COVID-19 at a 300 bed community hospital in western Massachusetts, 23 patients who were PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA required treatment in either the intensive care unit (ICU) or intermediate/step-down unit (SDU). All patients were treated with standard DVT prophylaxis from the time of admission, except for two patients who were on full anticoagulation for chronic atrial fibrillation MESHD atrial fibrillation HP. Of the 23 patients, 7 (30%) were diagnosed with acute, clinically significant, pulmonary embolism MESHD pulmonary embolism HP (PE). Four of the 7 manifested evidence of acute cor pulmonale HP, one of whom succumbed as a direct consequence of a massive PE. Other markers were reviewed in the 7 patients to identify trends that could allow for early suspicion of PE in COVID-19 patients. Although D-dimer tended to rise during the hospitalization relative to the control group, the results were inconsistent, and there were no other meaningful distinguishing features between the groups at the time of admission.

    SARS-CoV-2 lethality decreased over time in two Italian Provinces

    Authors: Maria Elena Flacco; Cecilia Acuti Martellucci; Francesca Bravi; Giustino Parruti; Alfonso Mascitelli; Lorenzo Mantovani; Stefania Boccia; Lamberto Manzoli

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.23.20110882 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background Some experts recently reported that SARS-CoV-2 lethality decreased considerably, but no evidence is yet available. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate whether SARS-CoV-2 case-fatality rate decreased with time, adjusting for several potential confounders. Methods We included all subjects diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Ferrara and Pescara provinces, Italy. Information were collected from local registries, clinical charts, and electronic health records. We compared the case-fatality rate (after >=28 days of follow-up) of the subjects diagnosed during April and March, 2020. We used Cox proportional hazards analysis and random-effect logistic regression, adjusting for age TRANS, gender TRANS, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, type II diabetes, major cardiovascular diseases MESHD (CVD), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases HP (COPD), cancer and renal disease MESHD. Results The sample included 2493 subjects (mean age TRANS 58.6y; 47.7% males TRANS). 258 persons deceased, after a mean of 16.1 days of follow-up. The mean age TRANS of those who died substantially increased from March (78.1+/-11.0y) to April (84.3+/-10.2y). From March to April, the case-fatality rate did not decrease in the total sample (9.5% versus 12.1%; adjusted hazard ratio 0.93; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.71-1.21; p=0.6), and in any age TRANS-class. Conclusions In this sample, SARS-CoV-2 case-fatality rate did not decrease over time, in contrast with recent claims of a substantial improvement of SARS-CoV-2 clinical management. The findings require confirmation from larger datasets.

    An Integrated In-Silico Approach to Develop Epitope-Based Peptide Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Prekshi Garg; Neha Srivastava; Prachi Srivastava

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0401.v1 Date: 2020-05-24 Source:

    SARS-CoV-2 has been the talk of the town ever since the beginning of 2020. The pandemic has brought the complete world on a halt. Every country is trying all possible steps to combat the disease MESHD ranging from shutting the complete economy of the country to repurposing of drugs and vaccine development. The rapid data analysis and widespread tools, software and databases have made bioinformatics capable of giving new insights to the researchers to deal with the current scenario more efficiently. Vaccinomics, the new emerging field of bioinformatics uses concepts of immunogenetics and immunogenomics with in silico tools to give promising results for wet lab experiments. This approach is highly validated for the designing and development of potent vaccines. The present in-silico study was attempted to identify peptide fragments from spike surface glycoprotein that can be efficiently used for the designing and development of epitope-based vaccine designing approach. Both B-cell and T-cell epitopes are predicted using integrated computational tools. VaxiJen server was used for prediction of protective antigenicity of the protein. NetCTL was studied for analyzing most potent T cell epitopes and its subsequent MHC-I interaction through tools provided by IEDB. 3D structure prediction of peptides and MHC-I alleles (HLA-C*03:03) was further done to carry out docking studies using AutoDock4.0. Various tools from IEDB were used to predict B-cell epitopes on the basis of different essential parameters like surface accessibility, beta turns and many more. Based on results interpretation, the peptide sequence from 1138-1145 amino acid and sequence WTAGAAAYY and YDPLQPEL were obtained as a potential B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope respectively. This in-silico study will help us to identify novel epitope-based peptide vaccine target in spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Further, in-vitro and in-vivo study needed to validate the findings.

    Predictors of severe or lethal COVID-19, including Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers, in a sample of infected Italian citizens

    Authors: Francesca Bravi; Maria Elena Flacco; Tiziano Carradori; Carlo Alberto Volta; Giuseppe Cosenza; Aldo De Togni; Cecilia Acuti Martellucci; Giustino Parruti; Lorenzo Mantovani; Lamberto Manzoli

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.20109082 Date: 2020-05-23 Source: medRxiv

    Aims: This retrospective case-control study was aimed at identifying potential independent predictors of severe/lethal COVID-19, including the treatment with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and/or Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs). Methods and Results: All adults TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in two Italian provinces were followed for a median of 24 days. ARBs and/or ACEi treatments, and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes, cancer, COPD, renal and major cardiovascular diseases MESHD (CVD) were extracted from clinical charts and electronic health records, up to two years before infection MESHD. The sample consisted of 1603 subjects (mean age TRANS 58.0y; 47.3% males TRANS): 454 (28.3%) had severe symptoms, 192 (12.0%) very severe or lethal disease MESHD (154 deaths MESHD; mean age TRANS 79.3 years; 70.8% hypertensive, 42.2% with CVD). The youngest deceased person aged TRANS 44 years. Among hypertensive subjects (n=543), the proportion of those treated with ARBs or ACEi were 88.4%, 78.7% and 80.6% among patients with mild, severe and very severe/lethal disease MESHD, respectively. At multivariate analysis, no association was observed between therapy and disease MESHD severity (Adjusted OR for very severe/lethal COVID-19: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.50-1.49). Significant predictors of severe disease MESHD were older age TRANS (with AORs largely increasing after 70 years of age TRANS), male TRANS gender TRANS (AOR: 1.76; 1.40-2.23), diabetes (AOR: 1.52; 1.05-2.18), CVD (AOR: 1.88; 1.32-2.70) and COPD (1.88; 1.11-3.20). Only gender TRANS, age TRANS and diabetes also predicted very severe/lethal disease MESHD. Conclusion: No association was found between COVID-19 severity and treatment with ARBs and/or ACEi, supporting the recommendation to continue medication for all patients unless otherwise advised by their physicians.

    The Challenge of Using Epidemiological Case Count Data: The Example of Confirmed COVID-19 Cases and the Weather

    Authors: Francois Cohen; Moritz Schwarz; Sihan Li; Yangsiyu Lu; Anant Jani

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.20108803 Date: 2020-05-23 Source: medRxiv

    The publicly available data on COVID-19 cases provides an opportunity to better understand this new disease MESHD. However, strong attention needs to be paid to the limitations of the data to avoid making inaccurate conclusions. This article, which focuses on the relationship between the weather and COVID-19, raises the concern that the same factors influencing the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD might also affect the number of tests performed and who gets tested. For example, weather conditions impact the prevalence SERO of respiratory diseases MESHD with symptoms similar to COVID-19, and this will likely influence the number of tests performed. This general limitation could severely undermine any similar analysis using existing COVID-19 data or similar epidemiological data, which could, therefore, mislead decision-makers on questions of great policy relevance.

    Hospital admissions in inflammatory rheumatic diseases MESHD during the COVID-19 pandemic: incidence and role of disease MESHD modifying agents

    Authors: Benjamin Fernandez-Gutierrez; Leticia Leon; Alfredo Madrid; Luis Rodriguez-Rodriguez; Dalifer Freites; Judit Font; Arkaitz Mucientes; Jose Ignacio Colomer; Juan Angel Jover; Lydia Abasolo

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.20108696 Date: 2020-05-23 Source: medRxiv

    Background: In this pandemia, it is essential for rheumatologist and patients to know the relationship between COVID-19 and inflammatory rheumatic diseases MESHD (IRD). We want to assess the role of targeted synthetic or biologic disease MESHD modifying antirheumatic drugs (ts/bDMARDs) and other variables in the development of moderate-severe COVID-19 disease MESHD in IRD. Methods: An observational longitudinal study was conducted (1stMar to 15thApr 2020). All patients from the rheumatology outpatient clinic from a hospital in Madrid with a medical diagnosis of IRD were included. Main outcome: hospital admission related to COVID-19. Independent variable: ts/bDMARDs. Covariates: sociodemographic, comorbidities, type of IRD diagnosis, glucocorticoids, NSAIDs and conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs). Incidence rate (IR) of hospital admission related to COVID-19, was expressed per 1,000 patients-month. Cox multivariate regression analysis was run to examine the influence of ts/bDMARDs and other covariates on IR. Results: 3,591 IRD patients were included (5,896 patients-month). Concerning csDMARDs, methotrexate was the most used followed by antimalarials. 802 patients were on ts/bDMARDs, mainly anti-TNF agents, and rituximab. Hospital admissions related to COVID-19 occurred in 54 patients (1.36%) with an IR of 9.15 [95%CI: 7-11.9]. In the multivariate analysis, older, male TRANS gender TRANS, presence of comorbidities and specific systemic autoimmune conditions (Sjoegren, polychondritis, Raynaud and mixed connective tissue disease MESHD) had more risk of hospital admissions regardless other factors. Exposition to ts/bDMARDs did not achieve statistical signification. Use of glucocorticoids, NSAIDs, and csDMARDs dropped from the final model. Conclusion: This study provides additional evidence in IRD patients regarding susceptibility to moderate- severe infection HP infection MESHD related to COVID-19.

    A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Therapeutic options against SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Viveksandeep Thoguluva Chandrasekar; Bhanuprasad Venkatesalu; Harsh K Patel; Marco Spadaccini; Jacob Manteuffel; Mayur S Ramesh

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.20.20108365 Date: 2020-05-23 Source: medRxiv

    Importance Treatment options for Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are limited with no clarity on the efficacy and safety profiles. Objective To assess if the effect estimate of any intervention improves the outcomes and safety profile. Data sources PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central were searched from December 1, 2019 to May 11, 2020. Study selection Any prospective/retrospective clinical study on SARS-CoV-2 patients above 18 years of age TRANS with report on therapeutic interventions. Data synthesis and extraction Data was screened and extracted by two independent investigators. Main outcomes and measures The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes were rates of mechanical ventilation, viral clearance, adverse events, discharge, progression to severe disease MESHD, median time for clinical recovery and anti-viral clearance. Pooled rates and odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Results A total of 29 studies with 5207 participants were included in the analysis. The pooled all-cause in-hospital mortality rate was 12.8% (95%CI: 8.1%-17.4%) in intervention arm. There was no significant difference in mortality between both arms overall (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.97-1.89). The mortality was significantly higher in the Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) group compared to control: (1.86, 95% CI: 1.38-2.50). The need for mechanical ventilation in patients with mild-moderate disease MESHD was 13.5% vs 9.8% in intervention and control groups, with no significant difference (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.60-4.15).The median duration for viral clearance in the intervention arm was 6.1 (IQR: 4.3-8.8) days and control arm was 9 (IQR: 4.5-14) days, with no significant difference between the groups (p = 0.37). There was no significant difference between pooled adverse event rates in intervention and control groups: 34% vs 29.5% (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 0.70-2.94), respectively. However, incidence of adverse events was significantly higher in HCQ sub-group (OR: 3.88, 95% CI: 1.60-9.45, I2 = 0%). There was no significant difference in other secondary outcomes. Conclusion and relevance The use of hydroxychloroquine was associated with increased mortality and adverse event rates. No other therapeutic intervention including Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Remdesivir or Tocilizumab seem to alter the natural course of the disease MESHD. There is a further need for well-designed randomized clinical trials.

    The short-term seasonal analyses between atmospheric environment and COVID-19 in epidemic areas of Cities in Australia, South Korea, and Italy

    Authors: Yuxi Liu; Xin Lin; Shaowen Qin

    id:2005.12264v1 Date: 2020-05-23 Source: arXiv

    The impact of the outbreak of COVID-19 on health has been widely concerned. Disease MESHD risk assessment, prediction, and early warning have become a significant research field. Previous research suggests that there is a relationship between air quality and the disease MESHD. This paper investigated the impact of the atmospheric environment on the basic reproduction number TRANS (R$_0$) in Australia, South Korea, and Italy by using atmospheric environment data, confirmed case TRANS data, and the distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) model based on Quasi-Poisson regression. The results show that the air temperature and humidity have lag and persistence on short-term R$_0$, and seasonal factors have an apparent decorating effect on R$_0$. PM$_{10}$ is the primary pollutant that affects the excess morbidity rate. Moreover, O$_3$, PM$_{2.5}$, and SO$_2$ as perturbation factors have an apparent cumulative effect. These results present beneficial knowledge for correlation between environment and COVID-19, which guiding prospective analyses of disease MESHD data.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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