Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (429)

Fever (319)

Cough (252)

Hypertension (191)

Respiratory distress (107)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 21 - 30 records in total 4215
    records per page




    Sustained Cellular Immune Dysregulation HP in Individuals Recovering from SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Jacob K Files; Sushma Boppana; Mildred D Perez; Sanghita Sarkar; Kelsey E Lowman; Kai Qin; Sarah Sterrett; Eric Carlin; Anju Bansal; Steffanie Sabbaj; Dustin M Long; Olaf Kutsch; James Kobie; Paul A Goepfert; Nathan Erdmann

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165175 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 causes a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and significant mortality. Studies investigating underlying immune characteristics are needed to understand disease MESHD pathogenesis and inform vaccine design. In this study, we examined immune cell subsets in hospitalized and non-hospitalized individuals. In hospitalized patients, many adaptive and innate immune cells were decreased in frequency compared to healthy and convalescent individuals, with the exception of B lymphocytes which increased. Our findings show increased frequencies of T-cell activation markers (CD69, Ox40, HLA-DR and CD154) in hospitalized patients, with other T-cell activation/exhaustion markers (CD25, PD-L1 and TIGIT) remaining elevated in hospitalized and non-hospitalized individuals. B cells had a similar pattern of activation/exhaustion, with increased frequency of CD69 and CD95 during hospitalization, followed by an increase in PD1 frequencies in non-hospitalized individuals. Interestingly, many of these changes were found to increase over time in non-hospitalized longitudinal samples, suggesting a prolonged period of immune dysregulation HP following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Changes in T-cell activation/exhaustion in non-hospitalized patients were found to positively correlate with age TRANS. Severely infected individuals had increased expression of activation and exhaustion markers. These data suggest a prolonged period of immune dysregulation HP following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD highlighting the need for additional studies investigating immune dysregulation HP in convalescent individuals.

    Optimal periodic closure for minimizing risk in emerging disease MESHD outbreaks

    Authors: Jason Hindes; Simone Bianco; Ira B. Schwartz

    id:2007.16151v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: arXiv

    Without vaccines and treatments, societies must rely on non-pharmaceutical intervention strategies to control the spread of emerging diseases MESHD such as COVID-19. Though complete lockdown is epidemiologically effective, because it eliminates infectious contacts, it comes with significant costs. Several recent studies have suggested that a plausible compromise strategy for minimizing epidemic risk is periodic closure, in which populations oscillate between wide-spread social restrictions and relaxation. However, no underlying theory has been proposed to predict and explain optimal closure periods as a function of epidemiological and social parameters. In this work we develop such an analytical theory for SEIR-like model diseases MESHD, showing how characteristic closure periods emerge that minimize the total outbreak, and increase predictably with the reproductive number TRANS and incubation periods TRANS of a disease MESHD, as long as both are within predictable limits. Using our approach we demonstrate a sweet-spot effect in which optimal periodic closure is maximally effective for diseases MESHD with similar incubation and recovery periods. Our results compare well to numerical simulations, including in COVID-19 models where infectivity and recovery show significant variability.

    Dynamics of epidemic diseases MESHD without guaranteed immunity

    Authors: Kurt Langfeld

    id:2007.15971v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: arXiv

    The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic suggests a novel type of disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread dynamics. WHO states that there is currently no evidence that people who have recovered from COVID-19 and have antibodies SERO are immune from a second infection MESHD [WHO]. Conventional mathematical models consider cases for which a recovered individual either becomes susceptible again or develops an immunity. Here, we study the case where infected agents recover and only develop immunity if they are continuously infected for some time. Otherwise, they become susceptible again. We show that field theory bounds the peak of the infectious rate. Consequently, the theory's phases characterise the disease MESHD dynamics: (i) a pandemic phase and (ii) a response regime. The model excellently describes the epidemic spread of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in the city of Wuhan, China. We find that only 30% of the recovered agents have developed an immunity. We anticipate our paper to influence the decision making upon balancing the economic impact and the pandemic impact on society. As long as disease MESHD controlling measures keep the disease MESHD dynamics in the "response regime", a pandemic escalation ('second wave') is ruled out.

    Prospective Systematic Data Collection in Early COVID-19 Patients: A Protocol for Individualized Treatment and Outcomes Research

    Authors: Flávio Dantas

    id:202007.0529/v2 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: Preprints.org

    Human infection MESHD caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) is a new pandemic disease MESHD with devastating effects worldwide. There is no scientifically proved effective prophylaxis or treatment in the early phase of the disease MESHD. To prevent harm, In parallel with the running of randomized controlled trials, there is room for developing prospective systematic data collection studies correlating therapeutic measures with safety and effectiveness outcomes, on the assumption that a medical practice is effective if it produces more good than harm. The protocol aims to provide doctors with information on reduction of harm in early COVID-19 patients by different and individualized strategies for treating them, including comparison with no treatment strategies. Besides laboratory confirmation of COVID-19, the evaluation of the clinical status is done with an individualized symptom score for each patient, self-perception of overall severity of disease MESHD, clinical improvement ordinal scale developed for WHO clinical studies on COVID-19 and doctors´ global impression on clinical prognosis at the first consultation and evolution at the closing. It respects the autonomy and preferences of doctors and patients to decide the best options for treatment in uncertain situations and allows the gathering of useful information for future more rigorous clinical trials, trying to link science, ethics, and personal clinical experience. A case report form was developed that could easily be built in free software platforms as well as dedicated platforms. All data are anonymized and could be analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics.

    Regional now- and forecasting for data reported with delay: A case study in COVID-19 infections MESHD

    Authors: Giacomo De Nicola; Marc Schneble; Göran Kauermann; Ursula Berger

    id:2007.16058v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: arXiv

    Governments around the world continue to act to contain and mitigate the spread of COVID-19. The rapidly evolving situation compels officials and executives to continuously adapt policies and social distancing measures depending on the current state of the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD. In this context, it is crucial for policymakers to have a firm grasp on what the current state of the pandemic is as well as to have an idea of how the infective situation is going to unfold in the next days. However, as in many other situations of compulsorily-notifiable diseases MESHD and beyond, cases are reported with delay to a central register, with this delay deferring an up-to-date view of the state of things. We provide a stable tool for monitoring current infection MESHD levels as well as predicting infection MESHD numbers in the immediate future at the regional level. We accomplish this through nowcasting of cases that have not yet been reported as well as through forecasting of future infections MESHD. The two steps are also combined in forenowcasting. We apply our model to German data, for which our focus lies in explaining and predicting infectious behaviour by district, age group TRANS and gender TRANS.

    Screening and evaluation of potential clinically significant HIV drug combinations against SARS-CoV-2 virus

    Authors: Draško Tomić; Karolj Skala; Attila Marcel Szasz; Melinda Rezeli; Vesna Bačić Vrca; Boris Pirkić; Jozsef Petrik; Vladimir Janđel; Marija Milković Periša; Branka Medved Rogina; Josip Mesarić; Davor Davidović; Tomislav Lipić

    id:2007.16177v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: arXiv

    In this study, we investigated the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein with HIV drugs and their combinations. This glycoprotein is essential for the reproduction of the SARS-COV-2 virus, so its inhibition opens new avenues for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 disease MESHD. In doing so, we used the VINI in silico model of cancer, whose high accuracy in finding effective drugs and their combinations was confirmed in vitro by comparison with existing results from NCI-60 bases, and in vivo by comparison with existing clinical trial results. In the first step, the VINI model calculated the inhibition efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein with 44 FDA-approved antiviral drugs. Of these drugs, HIV drugs have been shown to be effective, while others mainly have shown weak or no efficiency. Subsequently, the VINI model calculated the inhibition efficiency of all possible double and triple HIV drug combinations, and among them identified ten with the highest inhibition efficiency. These ten combinations were analyzed by Medscape drug-drug interaction software and LexiComp Drug Interactions. All combinations except the combination of cobicistat_abacavir_rilpivirine appear to have serious interactions (risk rating category D) when dosage adjustments/reductions are required for possible toxicity. Finally, the VINI model compared the inhibition efficiency of cobicistat_abacivir_rilpivirine combination with cocktails and individual drugs already used or planned to be tested against SARS-CoV-2. Combination cobicistat_abacivir_rilpivirine demonstrated the highest inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein over others. Thus, this combination seems to be a promising candidate for the further in vitro testing and clinical trials.

    A Newcastle disease MESHD virus (NDV) expressing membrane-anchored spike as a cost-effective inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine

    Authors: Weina Sun; Stephen McCroskery; Wen-Chun Liu; Sarah R. Leist; Yonghong Liu; Randy A. Albrecht; Stefan Slamanig; Justine Oliva; Fatima Amanat; Alexandra Schaefer; Kenneth H. Dinnon III; Bruce L. Innis; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Florian Krammer; Ralph S. Baric; Peter Palese

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.229120 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: bioRxiv

    A successful SARS-CoV-2 vaccine must be not only safe and protective but must also meet the demand on a global scale at low cost. Using the current influenza virus vaccine production capacity to manufacture an egg-based inactivated Newcastle disease MESHD virus (NDV)/SARS-CoV-2 vaccine would meet that challenge. Here, we report pre-clinical evaluations of an inactivated NDV chimera stably expressing the membrane-anchored form of the spike (NDV-S) as a potent COVID-19 vaccine in mice and hamsters. The inactivated NDV-S vaccine was immunogenic, inducing strong binding and/or neutralizing antibodies SERO in both animal models. More importantly, the inactivated NDV-S vaccine protected animals from SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD or significantly attenuated SARS-CoV-2 induced disease MESHD. In the presence of an adjuvant, antigen-sparing could be achieved, which would further reduce the cost while maintaining the protective efficacy of the vaccine.

    Disease MESHD severity dictates SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibody SERO responses in COVID-19

    Authors: Xiangyu Chen; Zhiwei Pan; Shuai Yue; Fei Yu; Junsong Zhang; Yang Yang; Ren Li; Bingfeng Liu; Xiaofan Yang; Leiqiong Gao; Zhirong Li; Yao Lin; Qizhao Huang; Lifan Xu; Jianfang Tang; Li Hu; Jing Zhao; Pinghuang Liu; Guozhong Zhang; Yaokai Chen; Kai Deng; Lilin Ye

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164285 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 patients exhibit differential disease MESHD severity after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. It is currently unknown as to the correlation between the magnitude of neutralizing antibody SERO (NAb) responses and the disease MESHD severity in COVID-19 patients. In a cohort of 59 recovered patients with disease MESHD severity including severe, moderate, mild and asymptomatic TRANS, we observed the positive correlation between serum SERO neutralizing capacity and disease MESHD severity, in particular, the highest NAb capacity in sera from the patients with severe disease MESHD, while a lack of ability of asymptomatic TRANS patients to mount competent NAbs. Furthermore, the compositions of NAb subtypes were also different between recovered patients with severe symptoms and with mild-to-moderate symptoms. These results reveal the tremendous heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2-specific NAb responses and their correlations to disease MESHD severity, highlighting the needs of future vaccination in COVID-19 patients recovered from asymptomatic TRANS or mild illness.

    Nicotine-replacement therapy, as a surrogate of smoking, and the risk of hospitalization with Covid-19 and all-cause mortality: a nationwide, observational cohort study in France

    Authors: Mahmoud Zureik; Berangere Baricault; Celementine Vabre; Laura SEMENZATO; Jerome Drouin; Francois cuenot; Laetitia penso; Philippe Herlemont; Emilie Sbidian; Alain Weill; Mathieu Molimard; Rosemary Dray-Spira; Jeremie Botton

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20160630 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Introduction Several studies have reported an unexpectedly low prevalence SERO of current smoking among hospitalized patients with Covid-19. However, these studies mostly compared observed to expected rates of smoking without direct comparison with individual controls. Objective To examine the association of nicotine-replacement therapy, as a surrogate of smoking, with hospitalization and all-cause mortality during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in France. Methods We conducted a nationwide matched exposed/unexposed cohort study using information from the French national health data system which covers the entire French population. We conducted two separate analyses, the first in individuals exposed to nicotine-replacement therapy without major smoking-related diseases MESHD (cancer, cardiovascular and/or respiratory diseases MESHD) and the second in those presenting these conditions. We included all individuals, aged TRANS between 18 and 75 years, who had been reimbursed at least one nicotine-replacement therapy between November 15, 2019, and February 15, 2020. For each exposed individual, we randomly selected, from the entire Metropolitan French population, up to two non-exposed individuals (1:2) matched for the following variables: age TRANS (same year of birth), sex, department of residence (n=96 in Metropolitan France), and complementary universal health insurance (CMU-C). The three end points were a hospitalization with Covid-19, a death MESHD or an intubation in hospitalized patients with Covid-19, and all-cause mortality. We compared outcomes in individuals who were exposed to nicotine-replacement therapy with those in individuals who were not, using a multivariable Cox model with inverse probability weighting according to the propensity score. Results In the first analysis, 297,070 individuals without major smoking-related diseases MESHD exposed to nicotine-replacement therapy were matched with 558,228 unexposed individuals without major smoking-related diseases MESHD. Individuals were aged TRANS on average 45.6 years (standard deviation: 12.7) and 48.8% were male TRANS. From February 15, 2020 to June 7, 2020, hospitalization with Covid-19 occurred in 647 patients (151 patients in the nicotine-replacement therapy group and 496 patients in the unexposed group). In the main multivariable analysis, nicotine-replacement therapy was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization with Covid-19 compared with unexposed individuals (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.61). Nicotine-replacement therapy exposure was also associated with a decreased risk of intubation or death MESHD in hospitalized individuals with Covid-19 (13 vs. 73 patients, hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.57) but with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (251 vs. 231 deaths MESHD, hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.80). In the second analysis, 128,768 individuals with major smoking-related diseases MESHD exposed to nicotine-replacement therapy were matched with 243,793 unexposed individuals. Individuals were aged TRANS on average 55.3 years (standard deviation: 11.4) and 53.3% were male TRANS. In the main multivariable analysis, nicotine-replacement therapy exposure was neither associated with risk of hospitalization with Covid-19 (240 patients in the nicotine-replacement therapy group and 398 patients in the unexposed group, hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.38) nor with risk of death MESHD or an intubation in hospitalized individuals with Covid-19 (48 vs. 61 patients, hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.54). All-cause mortality was higher in the nicotine-replacement therapy group (1040 vs. 366 deaths MESHD, hazard ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 3.41 to 4.31). Conclusions This large-scale observational study suggests that smoking, measured by exposure to nicotine-replacement therapy, was associated with an increased risk of overall mortality during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in France, although it was associated with a lower risk of severe Covid-19 in individuals without major related-smoking diseases MESHD. Experimental and clinical studies are needed to disentangle the potential mechanisms of nicotine and/or smoking in Covid-19 risk. Whatever the nature of these associations, the global impact of smoking is harmful for health even over a short epidemic period.

    Early Clinical Factors Predicting the Development of Critical Disease MESHD in Japanese Patients with COVID-19: A Single-Center Retrospective, Observational Study

    Authors: Takatoshi Higuchi; Tsutomu Nishida; Hiromi Iwahashi; Osamu Morimura; Yasushi Otani; Yukiyoshi Okauchi; Masaru Yokoe; Norihiro Suzuki; Masami Inada; Kinya Abe

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20159442 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Insufficient evidence of factors predicting the COVID-19 progression from mild to moderate to critical has been established. We retrospectively evaluated risk factors for critical progression in Japanese COVID-19 patients. Method: Seventy-four laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were hospitalized in our hospital between February 20, 2020, and June 10, 2020. We excluded asymptomatic TRANS, non-Japanese, and child TRANS patients. We divided patients into the stable group (SG) and the progression group (PG) (patients requiring mechanical ventilation). We compared the clinical factors in both groups. We established the cutoff values (COVs) for significantly different factors via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and evaluated risk factors by univariate regression. Results: We enrolled 57 COVID-19 patients (median age TRANS 52 years, 56.1% male TRANS). The median progression time from symptom onset TRANS was eight days. Seven patients developed critical disease MESHD (PG: 12.2%), two (3.5%) of whom died; 50 had stable disease MESHD. Univariate logistic analysis identified elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (COV: 309 U/l), decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (COV: 68 ml/min), lymphocytopenia (COV: 980/l), and statin use as significantly associated with disease progression MESHD. However, in Cox proportional hazards analysis, lymphocytopenia at symptom onset TRANS was not significant. Conclusions: We identified three candidate risk factors for adult TRANS Japanese patients with mild to moderate COVID-19: statin use, elevated LDH level, and decreased eGFR.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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